What is mullein and how to cook it
This article provides brief information on the use of organic fertilizers such as cattle manure or mullein. Questions on the use of fertilizers at home and in the field will be revealed, the value of the mullein, its composition and properties, how to properly prepare the solution.
The composition and purpose of the mullein
The mullein contains all the macronutrients that are necessary for the normal development and growth of plants and soil. These elements include potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. In this case, nitrogen is in organic form. Apart from these three elements, fertilization will completely depend on what the cows were fed with and how many vitamins they received from food.
Designed to fertilize the soil, enriching it with important elements. All this is necessary for the normal growth of plants and various fruit and field crops.
Anyone needs food that contains vitamins and various elements. For normal development and growth. Plants also need their vitamins to function well and benefit humans.
There is also a synthetic mullein, that is, in packages, in case there is no cattle. This fertilizer is called cattle compost.
Mechanism of action
This fertilizer is produced in three consistencies:
Litter means a mixture of straw, hay, peat with cattle manure. It is used as bedding. Peat, in turn, serves as a source of ammonium nitrogen, assimilated by plants.
The best and most important elements in soil fertilization are:
It is the content of these elements that will contribute to good soil nutrition. The straw mixture contains potassium and phosphorus, but peat, unfortunately, does not.
Litter-free consistency is a kind of suspension that contains a sufficient amount of ammonium nitrogen. It is this consistency that will enrich the soil many times more than the litter one, since it contains about 60% nitrogen.
Liquid manure also contains large amounts of potassium and nitrogen, necessary to improve the quality of the soil before planting. This consistency should be diluted.
The mechanism of action of fertilizer is the multiplication of microorganisms, because those elements nourish and give energy to the soil. There is an improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The structure of the earth is created, which encourages the formation of lumps. The clumps are resistant and the plant will grow harmoniously.
Before making it, it must be kept for at least six months. Then add according to technology:
- Direct-flow (farm-field)
- Transshipment (farm-pile-field)
Depending on the area to which top dressing will be applied, its amount will be different. Solid fertilizer for the field for sowing field plants should be 1 ton. As for liquid manure, it is applied using two technologies:
- Direct-flow (with a transportation distance of up to 3 km)
- Transshipment (with a transportation distance of more than 3 km)
The condition for the preservation of the nutrients of the liquid mullein is their quick incorporation into the soil by tillage implements.
Advantages and disadvantages
Disadvantage the only thing is that not everyone has the opportunity to have cattle, the excrement of which is useful for crop production, but there are even purchased fertilizers for this.
Benefits - obtaining milk + fertilizing the garden for sowing various plants and field crops, high efficiency, low cost, protection from diseases and harmful organisms.
Instructions for use
Correct preparation of working solution
Top dressing of a liquid consistency is prepared in a ratio of 1:10. 1 bucket of cow dung and 5 buckets of water are poured into the container. Stir and leave for about 3 days. Also add about 500 grams of wood ash, 100 grams of phosphate.
Before applying, you need to water the soil with water.
Terms and method of treatment of plants with the drug
Fertilizer of a liquid consistency is desirable to apply in the grooves. For fruit crops, they are made wider and deeper. The mullein is added about 4 g per square meter. Mineral is used at a dosage of 9/20/4 ammonium nitrate, ammonium and potassium sulfate, respectively. These minerals are the basis for fertilization, and the mullein is a top dressing. Their use is necessary in an integrated manner.
Thus, feeding is done in advance before adding mineral water, depending on the variety and variety of culture.
Safety measures when working with fertilizer
This section will concern the purchased mullein, as it contains substances that will burn the plants.
Top dressing with a synthetic mullein should be carried out in the fall, because the root system with seedlings is weak and can be destroyed.
Compatibility with other products
As mentioned above, after fertilizing the soil, mineral water is added. When it comes to synthetic products, the mullein can interact with:
- Wood ash
Since ash is a source of potassium and phosphorus, it is simultaneously added with mullein.
The shell is crushed and soaked in warm water, infusing the mixture in the dark for about three days. After that, the soil with seedlings is watered.
First aid for poisoning
In case of poisoning with mullein like steam, you should take the victim to clean air and warm. If itching is felt, wash the skin with laundry soap. If there is pain in the eyes, then it is necessary to rinse the eye with tea. You should consult a doctor for any poisoning.
Storage conditions and shelf life
The storage of the mullein should take place in some kind of pits or separate heaps. The most important factor is preventing the mullein from warming up to 60 degrees.
As for the shelf life of both mineral water and organics, it does not exceed 3 years. Dry synthetic fertilizers are stored for several years, and raw fertilizers for about 9 months.
In conclusion, it can be noted that mullein is used for almost all vegetables, fruit crops, root crops, tubers and fruit trees. If you use a fertilizer or agent correctly, without missing the nuances, following the system of use, then no shortcomings and bad outcomes can be expected.
Botanical characteristics of the common mullein
The common mullein is a useful biennial plant. The height of its erect stem can reach one and a half meters. The large pubescent leaves of the mullein have an oblong shape. Delicate yellow flowers are collected in a solid spike-shaped inflorescence. The graceful tubular-funnel-shaped corolla has a drooping appearance. Five stamens adhered to it give the plant a unique image. The common mullein blooms often in late summer - in July and August. This grass can be found in central Russia on forest edges and glades, in ravines and glades, as well as along river banks.
Useful properties of mullein
Mullein is rich in carotene, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, sugars, tannins and essential oils. This herb is known to be an excellent expectorant with anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects. Along with this, mullein boasts unique wound healing capabilities.
The infusion of flowers of the common mullein is often used for severe cough, whooping cough, bronchitis, as well as for pneumonia and hemoptysis. It perfectly removes thick phlegm from the bronchi and lungs due to the mucus included in its composition. Traditional medicine recommends using this herb for severe rhinitis, asthma and shortness of breath. In addition, this wonderful plant perfectly copes with diseases of the spleen and liver, inflammation of the stomach and intestines. To achieve a noticeable healing effect, mullein is almost always used in combination with other herbs.
Mullein for hemorrhoids
The common mullein can be called one of the best remedies in the treatment of hemorrhoids. This medicinal plant helps to normalize the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, and most importantly, it is able to quickly stop bleeding by removing the inflammatory process from the hemorrhoids. A decoction of mullein roots for sitz baths is used. You can also poultice the anus with pre-crushed leaves and flowers of this medicinal herb.
Mullein tincture is made from 100 grams of freshly picked flowers and 250 grams of alcohol. It is necessary to insist the remedy for at least 20 days and only then strain. This medicine is indispensable as rubbing in rheumatic, nervous and arthric pains.
Mullein leaves should be stored with flowers on sunny days. Well-dried leaves retain their gray-green color for a long time. They taste slightly bitter and odorless. For medicinal purposes, it is recommended to boil the leaves in milk to relieve pain from burns or hemorrhoids.
The medicinal mullein flowers are used as a soothing for coughs and shortness of breath, and they are also included in the famous chest collection. The collected flowers must be dried well in the fresh air, stirring gently. If the drying technology is not violated, then they will not lose their yellow tint and will have a pleasant honey aroma.
So that the common mullein does not lose its healing qualities and light golden color during the collection and drying process, it is necessary to collect it in a dry time of the day. Good raw materials should not have flower cups. Drying can be done indoors, but then it should be well ventilated. Immediately after harvesting, it is recommended that the flowers be placed in a hermetically sealed container or used as a necessary component in various collections. Folk medicine mainly uses leaves and flowers, which are harvested in late summer.
It is no secret how widely the scepter mullein is used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. In addition, this particular species is included in various medicinal tinctures. This plant has medicinal properties such as expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic and anti-inflammatory. It is the scepter mullein that cures pulmonary diseases, even in its advanced form.
Mullein "royal scepter"
This plant is indeed very similar in shape to the majestic royal scepter. Such a grass can be impressive in size, growing up to 2 m. This species blooms almost round the summer. The blossoming flowers are collected, dried and made into unique tinctures that heal many of the internal organs of a person. And most importantly, the "royal scepter" mullein perfectly relieves pains of various kinds.
Mullein "bear ear"
The bear's ear mullein differs from other species of a similar plant in its small corolla size and two lower stamens. This herb, indispensable for traditional medicine, grows on sandy slopes and forest glades. Flowering lasts from July to August.
The purple mullein is a graceful perennial with delicate purple flowers. The erect stem is both multileaf and leafless. Flowers are collected in sparse simple brushes. The fruit is presented in the form of an ovoid capsule, most of which is naked. This herb blooms in June and early July. Infusion of violet mullein perfectly stimulates cardiac activity and motor activity of the human intestine.
The hybrid mullein is an unpretentious biennial plant with erect stems and petiolate basal leaves collected in an outlet. Yellow inflorescences are presented in the form of a panicle or spike. This herb is drought-resistant and frost-resistant, and also loves light. The hybrid mullein gives abundant self-seeding, often clogging up the adjoining plots of land.
The panicle mullein is a special type of mullein, which differs in the height of the erect stem up to 130 cm and the presence of serrated leaves. The flowers of the plant are collected in a kind of brush, and the fruit is in a box. The panicle mullein is found both in the Urals and in the Volga region, mainly on the slopes of hills and dry meadows. This herb blooms from June to August. It has been found that infusions from it are capable of lowering blood pressure.
The black mullein is characterized by a fusiform root and an erect stem, not exceeding 1 m in height. This plant has regular leaves, and the mullein flowers are collected in unusual bunches. This herb blooms all summer, from June to the end of August. As a rule, in medicine, only black mullein flowers are used to treat the upper respiratory tract, which have a sweetish odor even when dried.
A two-year-old dense-flowered mullein in the second year of life has a flowering stem, the average height of which is about 70–80 cm. This plant is covered with tomentose pubescence, and the basal leaves are striking in their oblong shape. Dense apical brushes form inflorescences. The fruit is an elliptical box, the size of which does not exceed 1 cm. This plant blooms all summer, and the seeds ripen in early autumn.
The Olympic mullein is a large perennial plant that reaches 2 m in height. This herb has large, elongated grayish leaves. The flowers do not exceed 3 cm in diameter and are collected in an unpretentious paniculate inflorescence. The flowering of the Olympic mullein occurs in July.
Contraindications to the use of mullein
There are no serious contraindications to the use of mullein in medicine. But it is worth considering the individual intolerance of each specific person.
The author of the article: Sokolova Nina Vladimirovna | Phytotherapist
Education: Diploma in the specialty "General Medicine" and "Therapy" received at the University named after NI Pirogov (2005 and 2006). Advanced training at the Department of Phytotherapy at the Peoples' Friendship University of Moscow (2008).
Chestnut has many useful substances, which is why it is so widely used in folk medicine. Its beneficial properties are used for venous blood stasis. Chestnut fruits contain biologically active substances, tannins, pectins, flavonoids and oils.
Clefthoof can be used as a medicine when you have pneumonia, colds, bronchitis, asthma, or tuberculosis because clefthoof has anti-inflammatory, expectorant and bronchodilator effects. To cure these diseases, you need to use the clefthoof in the form of a decoction or tincture of alcohol.
Nettle is a very useful medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of activity. Nettle contains a lot of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). In addition, this plant contains carotene, potassium, iron salts, sulfur, sugar, protein, chlorophyll and calcium.
Burnet helps relieve headaches, promotes the treatment of tuberculosis, has a bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effect. Burnet roots contain approximately 13 percent tannins, gallic and ellagic acid, starch, sterol, essential oil, gallotannins, saponins, pigments, vitamin C, and calcium.
What is mullein: difference from fresh manure
Mullein is nothing more than a fermented organic infusion with small bubbles on the surface. For its preparation, fresh cow dung is taken. To distinguish the contents, one must look at the surface of the solution. If a fermentation process (bubbles) is noticed, then this is a mullein. Unlike manure and slurry, it is safer, since during the fermentation process methane is released, which kills pathogenic bacteria.
The concentrated solution contains a complex of mineral substances that is quickly absorbed by plants. In addition to the basic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), it contains iron, zinc, boron, copper and other trace elements. The chemical composition is determined by the diet of the animal, but nitrogen always predominates in it.
Advantages and disadvantages
The nutrients contained in the concentrate can significantly improve the structure of the soil. Under their influence, the upper fertile layer is formed - humus. The most useful slurry for sandy and sandy loam soils. Fertilization allows such structures to better retain moisture. A positive effect is also noted when organic matter is introduced into heavy clay soils. They become looser, the flow of moisture and air to the root system improves.
Benefits for the crop and soil:
- raw materials are very cheap
- no chemistry in the slurry
The main disadvantage is that with unlimited application of top dressing, the crops are oversaturated with nitrogen and grow massive to the detriment of yield. In this case, dolomite flour is used as a deoxidizer, it is brought in for digging or scattered over the surface of the garden.
Fertilizer - mullein
Every amateur gardener, especially a beginner, wants to see his plot in lush bloom, with pleasing to the eye, weeded beds, on which crunchy cabbage heads ripen, rows of juicy sweet carrots, bulk apples, currant and raspberry bushes with branches bending from the weight.
For desire to become a reality, you need to give the plants the necessary nutrition. And they, like people, prefer natural food, of which mullein is the number one fertilizer in popularity and effectiveness.
No matter how much you want to get a gigantic harvest, you should still know that surplus in nutrition is not welcome not only in humans, but also in plants. If you overfeed your vegetables and fruits with mullein, then the nitrate content in them will increase, which is very harmful for the human digestive system. Also, the plant will begin to "fatten", that is, instead of the formation of fruits, grow green mass. We will teach you how to fertilize with mullein correctly.
Why mullein feeding is so successful:
- it is a natural and very effective fertilizer
- relatively inexpensive, sometimes even free
- perfectly absorbed by plants
- not only nourishes, but also helps in protecting against plant diseases.
Fertilizer mullein - application
Mullein contains a whole complex of elements necessary for plants: nitrogen, potassium, copper, iron, sulfur and others.
Mullein can be fresh and rotted.
Fresh mullein can be used:
- by introducing directly into the soil before the autumn digging
- in the form of a prepared infusion, for watering and spraying plants.
Overripe mullein can be used:
- under the autumn digging of soil
- for spring digging of soil
- for mulching plants
- for preparation of infusion for watering and spraying plants.
If you got a fresh mullein, then you should remember that oxidative processes are actively going on in it. If you water the plants with a solution of fresh mullein, you can burn both the leaves and the roots. Spreading a non-rotted mullein over the area will also not bring any benefit. Unless it sows your garden with weed seeds in abundance in the manure.
How to cook mullein?
First, select a container in which a nutritious cocktail for your plants will be prepared. The container is filled with fresh manure and water. For one bucket of mullein, you should take five buckets of water. If you add wood ash at the rate of 50 g of ash per 1 bucket of infusion, then your fertilizer will also be enriched with potassium. The contents must be mixed daily. Cooking a mullein takes about two weeks. During this time, the fermentation process will end in the container.
How to breed a mullein?
So, you have prepared the mullein infusion. Now you can start feeding. Usually, as experienced gardeners say, for the vast majority of plants, mullein should be diluted in a ratio of 1:10. But we remember that when we were preparing the infusion, we already added five buckets of water to a bucket of mullein. So now, to obtain a working solution, we just need to take half of the infusion watering can from the barrel and top up with water.
Watering with mullein
Now let's figure out which plants need to be watered with a mullein, and how best to do it.
Very responsive to mullein:
Feeding is stopped 25 days before the start of harvesting.
It is not advisable to feed the mullein:
It is better to water the mullein solution along the furrows and grooves, and not pour on the plants from above.
Pay attention to the appearance of the plants. If they are pale, have thin stems, then they need mullein feeding. Do not doubt one thing - the care shown on your part, the plants will always respond with a bountiful harvest.
Most of the fresh manure (70–99%) is water. This variation depends on both the conditions of detention and the method of cleaning. Where the barns are equipped with urine drainage and scraper manure systems, the moisture content of excrement is minimal at 70–80%. If the flushing method is used to clean the barn, then the proportion of water is 85–99%.
Beyond water chemical composition of excrement includes:
- Nitrogen and its compounds (0.5–2%), and its proportion depends on nutrition and urine drainage. If the barn is not equipped with a urine drainage system, the proportion of nitrogen in the feces will increase. Also, the amount of nitrogen is increased by pelleted feed.
- Potassium oxide K2O (0.5-0.7%), this indicator depends on the diet of the animal - its amount is increased by some pelleted feed and food additives.
- Calcium in the form of CaO oxide (0.25-0.5%), its amount depends on the presence and amount of bone meal and other calcium-containing foods in the animal's diet. In addition, an increase in the amount of calcium in manure can indicate serious metabolic problems in cattle.
- Phosphorus in the form of oxide P2O5 (0.25–0.5%). Its amount depends on the proportion of pelleted feed - the more there are, the higher the phosphorus level.
In the volume of hundredths and thousandths of a percent in cow dung there is almost the entire periodic table.
Sometimes, even salts of heavy metals are found in cattle excrement, but their amount does not exceed the same parameter in the surrounding grass.
How to use mullein according to the season
The way the mullein is used differs depending on the season.
How to apply in spring
In the spring, manure is brought in to prepare the beds for future plantings. Moreover, this can be done in March-April during the melting of the snow. Manure is simply scattered over the surface so that it gets into the ground along with the melt water.
The second way to use fertilizer in the spring is to add organic matter to the soil during plowing. Thus, the deficiency of microelements, formed from the last summer cottage season, is replenished.
In the last weeks of spring, mullein is applied under the plants in the form of a liquid root dressing.
In summer, cow dung is used as fertilizer for plant nutrition. A liquid working solution is being prepared, with which the plantings are replenished.
How to use in the fall
In the fall, the mullein is scattered around the garden, and then embedded in the soil. This is one of the points when preparing the site for the new season.
How to use
The infusion is used for watering plants, which significantly improves the quality of the fruit. Plants that have pale, thin, weak stems need feeding first.
It is impossible to store the finished fertilizer, as it quickly loses all its beneficial properties. Settled - diluted and watered.
When feeding the soil, certain rules must be followed:
- Watering with mullein infusion should be carried out along grooves and furrows, which must be dug near each plant sprout.
- After it is absorbed into the soil, the dug groove must be immediately covered with earth.
- Avoid watering plants from above, on leaves and stems.
- Watering the beds at the rate of 10 liters per 1 sq. M.
- Do not feed and fertilize the soil very often.
Cucumbers need to be fed every 10 days, tomatoes need watering during development, i.e. when:
- greenery begins to grow,
- color appears,
- an ovary is formed.
One seedling will require about half a liter of solution.
Top dressing of onions should be carried out around May-June, with a weak growth of leaves.
For zucchini: the first dressing should be done before and the second during flowering.
When using mullein infusion for watering bushes and trees, watering should be carried out around the trunk, approximately along the perimeter of the tree crown. You can pour the slurry into the grooves around the tree.
Top dressing of old perennial trees should be carried out until mid-summer.
Remember that fresh manure must not be thrown into the planted beds! This is fraught with a burn of the root system of plants and the development of a number of diseases due to the content of a large number of microorganisms in the feeding.