The rosemary plant (Rosmarinus) is part of the Lamiaceae family. This genus is represented by evergreen shrubs and semi-shrubs. Under natural conditions, this plant can be found on the territory of such European countries as Portugal, Italy, Spain, Greece, in the southern part of France and in the countries of the former Yugoslavia, as well as in North Africa: Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algeria, as well as in Turkey and in Cyprus.
From Latin "rosemary" is translated as "sea freshness", this is due to the fact that the ancient Greeks associated rosemary with the sea Aphrodite, which appeared from sea foam. However, the smell of this plant does not at all resemble the iodine sea scent. It looks more like a combination of camphor and pine scent, therefore the Greek name of the plant, translated as "balsamic shrub", is closest to the truth. Previously, people believed that rosemary helps to improve memory, and in this regard, in ancient Greece, students often wore wreaths on their heads, which were woven from the branches of rosemary. In culture, this plant has become popular due to its special aroma. This plant is included in the "bouquet of garni" and collection of Provencal herbs, and it is also put in drinks, marinades, and vinegar is infused with rosemary. Such an evergreen shrub is distinguished by its thermophilicity, therefore, it can be grown outdoors only in those regions where winters are warm. And in those countries where the climate is cool, rosemary is grown as a container and room culture.
Brief description of cultivation
- Landing... Sowing rosemary seeds for seedlings is carried out in the last days of February or the first - in March, and seedlings are transplanted into open ground - from mid to late May.
- Illumination... A lot of bright sunlight is needed.
- Priming... Lime, water and air permeable.
- Watering... Should be moderate. Water is poured carefully under the root to avoid droplets falling on the surface of the leaf plates.
- Fertilizer... In spring, a nitrogen-containing fertilizer is applied to the soil at the site, for example, urea or ammonium nitrate. After that, once every 30 days, rosemary is fed with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer. In autumn, those fertilizers are used that contain only phosphorus and potassium.
- Reproduction... By cuttings, dividing the bush, seeds and layering.
- Harmful insects... Indoors - whiteflies and aphids, in the open field - aphids.
- Diseases... In winter, in indoor conditions, the plant can get sick with peronosporosis.
Features of rosemary
Rosemary is a shrub that can vary in height from 0.5 to 2 meters. Its root system is very powerful and developed, it penetrates into the soil to a depth of 3-4 meters. On the surface of grayish obtuse-tetrahedral young shoots there is pubescence. Perennial woody stems with peeling bark are colored dark gray. Seated linear leaf plates, leathery to the touch, have downward curved edges. The leaves reach about 0.4 cm in width, and up to 3.5 cm in length, their front surface is glossy, and pubescence is on the back. Lush panicle inflorescences consist of pale purple, dark purple or white flowers. This plant is a relative of the following crops: hyssop, basil, lavender, mint, motherwort, thyme (thyme), oregano and lemon balm. The tops of annual shoots, along with foliage and flowers, are used fresh, adding to dishes from legumes, cabbage, eggplant and meat.
Rosemary. Reproduction and cultivation.
Planting rosemary seedlings
What time to sow for seedlings
For propagation of rosemary, the seed method, cuttings, dividing the bush and layering are used. In regions where winters are cold, this plant is recommended to be grown from seed through seedlings. Sowing seeds is carried out in the last days of February or the first in March.
Before starting sowing, the seed is kept in water for several hours. When the seeds swell, they are sown in moistened sand or vermiculite, and they only need to be buried in the substrate by 0.3–0.4 cm, and the container must be covered with a film on top. If you want the seedlings to appear as soon as possible, the crops are kept warm at all times (25 to 30 degrees). Remember to systematically remove the cover and moisten the substrate with a spray bottle to keep it a little damp at all times. If done correctly, the first seedlings should appear after 6-8 weeks. Immediately after this, the shelter is removed, and the crops are rearranged in a well-lit place. Remember that the substrate in the container must be watered regularly; for this, use warm, well-settled water. After the height of the seedlings is 70–80 mm, they are planted in open ground.
An easy way to plant rosemary.
Growing rosemary at home
First of all, rosemary seedlings are grown from seeds, how to do this is described in detail above. After the height of the seedlings is 70–80 mm, they are dived into separate pots (it is better to take clay pots), which should reach 9–11 centimeters in diameter; there must be holes for drainage at the bottom. The container should be filled with a substrate that allows air and water to pass through well; to create it, a universal soil mixture is combined with vermiculite or sand. You can make a soil mixture from humus, sand, sod and deciduous soil (2: 1: 2: 2). In a wet soil mixture, a small hole is made, the depth of which should be equal to the height of the seedling root. Gently pull the plant out of the container, taking it together with an earthen clod, and plant it in a pot in a previously prepared hole. Lightly tamp the substrate around the plant.
Illumination and temperature conditions
The planted bush is recommended to be placed on a south-facing window. In order for the rosemary crown to be beautiful, and not one-sided, the container with the plant is regularly rotated 180 degrees around its axis once every 7 days. In the spring and summer, it is recommended to move the bush to fresh air (terrace, garden or balcony) if possible. With the onset of autumn, after the air temperature begins to drop to minus 1 degrees, the plant is transferred to the house. It is undesirable to ventilate the room where the rosemary is located, as the cold air from the window can harm it. However, if there is no air circulation in the room, then mold can appear on the shrub. To avoid this, a fan should be running in the room for 3-4 hours every day. In winter, the air temperature in the room should be below 16 degrees, and the humidity level at this time the bush needs to be low.
When grown indoors, aphids and arachnids can settle on the plant. If you notice pests on the bush, then treat with a solution of an acaricidal or insecticidal agent. At the same time, remember that several treatments may be required to completely destroy the pests.
Make sure that the potting soil is always slightly damp (not soggy). You can understand that the shrub lacks moisture by the lower foliage: it turns yellow. If there is too much moisture in the soil mixture, then foliage begins to fly around the bush.
It is recommended to moisten the potting medium with a long and narrow nozzle, because water should not get on the surface of the leaves, as this can cause mold. Before watering, the water should stand for at least a day, and its temperature should be close to room temperature.
During the growing season from March to September, the plant needs fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, which must include calcium. Top dressing is carried out regularly twice a month. In winter, the plant is not fed at all, or it is done much less frequently (once every 4–6 weeks).
Rosemary. Planting and leaving.
Growing rosemary outdoors
You can also grow rosemary outdoors. To do this, choose a well-lit place that has reliable protection against gusts of wind. The soil needs light, loose, well-permeable water and air, and it is desirable that it be limed.
Seedlings are planted in open ground from the middle to the end of May after the establishment of warm weather, and by this time the plants should reach a height of 70 to 80 mm. If you plan to grow large bushes, then when planting seedlings, keep a distance of half a meter between them. And if you do not plan this, then it is enough to maintain a distance of 10 centimeters between the plants. The planted bushes need to be watered.
Growing rosemary in your garden is not as difficult as it might seem. You need to take care of it in almost the same way as for other horticultural crops, or rather, it should be systematically watered, fed, weeded, cut, and do not forget to loosen the soil surface in a timely manner.
7 days after planting, the bushes need to pinch the tops of the stems, in this case they will grow more lush and spectacular. Remember that the first flowering of such a plant can be seen not earlier than the second year after planting in open ground.
Bushes of upright rosemary, starting from the age of two, are pruned at a height of 3-4 internodes in the last year's growth, and they do this in April. Spread rosemary does not need pruning.
Pruning in order to rejuvenate the shrub is carried out 1 time in 7 years, for this, all the stems are cut off at the level of the soil surface. In spring, formative pruning is also carried out. You can form a plant in the form of a cube, a ball or a miniature tree (for example, in the form of a cypress). Rosemary broom bonsai are very popular among gardeners.
This shrub is thermophilic, so it can die in mid-latitudes in winter. In order to preserve the plant until spring, it is dug up and planted in a container, which is transferred to a well-lit and cool (not higher than 16 degrees) room. If it is impossible to dig up the rosemary, then it is cut off at the level of the surface of the site and covered with a layer of dry foliage or sawdust, then a tent is made around the plant from spruce branches.
Rosemary is notable for its drought tolerance, but it still needs timely and proper watering. If the plant feels a lack of moisture, then because of this, its lower leaf plates will begin to turn yellow. And due to the regular stagnation of the liquid in the soil, part of the root system of the shrub dies off, and its foliage is also observed flying around.
Watering should be moderate. Water is poured gently under the root, because if its droplets fall on the foliage, then mold may develop because of this.
In spring, it is recommended to apply nitrogen-containing fertilizer to the soil on the site, this will be an excellent start for the growth of rosemary. And then, throughout the entire growing season, a complex mineral fertilizer is systematically introduced into the soil once every 30 days. In autumn, fertilizers are used for dressing, which do not contain nitrogen, but there should be a lot of phosphorus in it.
What to grow on the site after rosemary?
This plant is a perennial, however, if you decide to remove it from the site, then you should dig a bush and clean the soil of plant debris. Dig up the soil, while adding compost or humus to it. Onions, carrots and garlic will grow well in such an area.
How to grow rosemary from seeds is detailed above. However, this is not the only way to reproduce such a shrub. So, it can also be propagated by layering, cuttings and dividing the bush.
Cuttings are harvested in September-October using annual stems. The length of the cuttings should be from 8 to 10 centimeters, and they should also have 3 or 4 internodes. Tear off all leaf plates from the lower part and treat the lower cut with a preparation that stimulates root growth. Planting cuttings for rooting is carried out in a container filled with a loose and light substrate that allows water and air to pass through well, and sterilized in advance (for example, you can take a mixture of vermiculite and peat). Move the cuttings to a warm place out of direct sunlight.
Make sure that the soil mixture in the container is constantly slightly damp, and the cuttings themselves must be moistened with water from a spray bottle every day. When new leaf plates grow on the cuttings, they are transplanted into individual pots in diameter reaching from 70 to 90 mm. 7 days after transplanting, the tops of the cuttings are pinched, thanks to which they will grow more lush and spectacular.
Rosemary from cuttings How to grow rosemary
To propagate rosemary by layering, it is necessary to select shoots on the bush that grow very close to the soil surface. The shoots are bent to the ground, then they are fixed and added with soil in such a way that the top of the stem remains above the surface. Provide regular watering to the layers so that the ground around them is always slightly damp. After the tip begins to grow, the cut is cut from the parent plant and planted in open ground or a pot.
Dividing the bush
The propagation of rosemary by dividing the bush is most often resorted to when growing it at home. After the bush is pulled out of the container, its root is divided into parts. Please note that each cut must have stems and roots. Sprinkle the cuts with charcoal powder and plant the cuttings in individual pots.
Diseases and pests
When grown outdoors, rosemary is very resistant to pests and diseases. However, a bush growing at home is sometimes affected by downy mildew in winter, and whitefly and aphids can also settle on it. To get rid of pests, gently lather the bush, and then rinse it under a warm shower. Moreover, the surface of the substrate in the container must be covered with a film so that soapy water does not get into it. To prevent the appearance of downy mildew, do not excessively increase the level of humidity in the room and the soil mixture in the pot. Also, experts advise using a fan in winter to create air circulation in the room.
Types and varieties of rosemary with photos
In nature, there are only 3-4 types of rosemary, but only medicinal rosemary is cultivated by gardeners and flower growers. Description common rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), or the medicinal one can be found at the beginning of this article. The following varieties of upright medicinal rosemary are most popular in culture:
- Benenden Blue - the stems of a compact bush have an arched shape;
- Albiflorus - the color of the flowers is white;
- Roseus - flowers are colored pink;
- Seven See and Tusken Blue - the height of the bushes in such varieties is no more than half a meter.
This species also has a variety - prostratus, or prostrate rosemary: such an evergreen dwarf shrub reaches 0.5 m in height, and in width it can grow up to one and a half meters. The foliage of this variety resembles spruce needles, namely, it is leathery, dense, bright green, and has a white vein in the center. During flowering, small flowers of lilac or blue color are formed.This rosemary is often used by gardeners as a ground cover plant. This variety has several common varieties:
- Corsica Prostratus;
- Venzano Prostratus;
- lavender - such a shrub is characterized by slow growth, and is decorated with small rich green leaves and blue flowers.
Rosemary properties: benefits and harms
The healing properties of rosemary
Since ancient times, rosemary has been a symbol of prosperity, abundance and longevity. That is why the newlyweds were given a gift in the form of a sprig of rosemary for the wedding. Also, this shrub was used as a medicinal plant with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, tonic and wound healing effect. This plant was used during the treatment of rheumatism, hypotension, exhaustion, sciatica, sexual weakness, and it was also used for menopause. Also, this shrub is used in the treatment of certain heart diseases, colds, and it also helps to rejuvenate the body and stimulate blood circulation. It is also used as an effective remedy in the fight against cellulite and obesity.
Rosemary oil is highly prized. They are treated with boils, acne, infected wounds, and eczema. Oil is extracted from foliage, young shoots and flowers by steaming them. Ordinary rosemary is also used in cooking as a seasoning, for example, it is added to meat and fish dishes, as well as sauces, salads and tea.
Rosemary Healing Properties
Rosemary, as well as products based on it (infusion, tincture, decoction and oil), should never be used by pregnant women. Also, it is highly discouraged for use in case of a tendency to seizures, epilepsy, hypertension, children under 9 years of age and people with hypersensitivity of the skin.
Rosemary: growing, planting and caring at home
If you start listing the diseases for which rosemary tincture or extract helps, then this article will probably not be enough. Since ancient times, the flower - its roots, leaves, stems and flowers - has been used by people to treat rheumatism, radiculitis, infectious diseases, boils and wounds, exhaustion, digestive system disorders, reproductive system dysfunction, and menopause. And thanks to its special taste and smell, rosemary is added as a spectacular seasoning in the most famous cuisines of the world.
Today there are enough types of rosemary to grow in your garden and even as a houseplant at home. At the same time, the flower is not very whimsical and with almost a minimum of effort will delight the owner with a completely pleasant flowering in spring.
- Which rosemary varieties are suitable for growing on a windowsill?
- What conditions does rosemary need indoors?
- How to choose the right soil for your rosemary?
- Which pot or container is suitable for growing rosemary on a windowsill?
- How to choose a suitable place in a house or apartment?
- What kind of lighting conditions do you need to create?
- How to plant rosemary seeds at home. Step by step
- How to prepare seeds for potting
- Care of rosemary seedlings after germination
- How to grow rosemary from cuttings on a windowsill
- Features of care and cultivation of rosemary in the apartment
- Top dressing indoors
- Watering features
- Do I need to trim?
- When to transplant?
- Diseases and pests
- Frequent mistakes
- Frequently Asked Questions
Planting and leaving
Planting a perennial in open ground is carried out using cuttings, layering, seeds - according to the standard scheme of 50x50 cm.This usually occurs in late spring after the end of frost, when it is warm enough - in early to mid-May. A perennial will feel good when, in moderately moist, loose soil, there will be: sand, deciduous-sod land and a little humus (1: 4: 2). Before planting it, it is necessary to moderately moisten the soil by placing cuttings, layering or seeds to a depth of 0.4 (for seeds) - 4 (for layering and cuttings) centimeters, sprinkling with loose soil. The place should be well lit.
The spicy bush does not require any special care, it is not susceptible to diseases, pests also bypass it (apparently because of the aroma). It must be watered regularly and moderately, but not overmoisten the soil. If the leaves begin to turn yellow, it means that there is not enough moisture. If the plant sheds leaves, it means, on the contrary, an excess of moisture.
By these signs, you can navigate how much water is required for irrigation. Weed and loosen, like any other flowers, rosemary is also necessary. Top dressing is optional, but to make it look beautiful, you can use a complex mineral and organic fertilizer containing phosphorus and nitrogen once a month. In the spring - watering with nitrogen fertilizers (they perfectly strengthen the root system), in the fall - with phosphorus.
Old bushes are rejuvenated every 7 years, cutting off in March-April to the level of the soil - this is how new beautiful shoots are formed. After the flowering of a young bush, you can additionally cut off shoots up to 3 cm (end of summer) to strengthen them during growth. A perennial wintering in a summer cottage or a personal plot in the Moscow region must be covered so that it does not die out. For this, cuttings of spruce branches, pointed at the ends, are stuck around the bushes at a slight angle, thus constructing a protective "tent". Additionally, cover with a layer of dry leaves. Some summer residents transplant rosemary into pots for the winter and transfer it to a cool and bright room (it is possible to store it in the basement, sprinkling the roots with earth, but sufficient lighting must be provided). At the same time, you should be aware that a plant grown in an open field is unlikely to survive and adapt to new conditions if it is transplanted into a pot as a permanent container culture.
Passionflower growing from seed
Cultivation of passionflower is a long process: you will have to wait for seedlings from a month to a year, and passionflower from seeds will bloom only in six to eight years!
If you have collected seeds from your own passion flower, keep in mind that freshly harvested seeds have a germination rate of about 30%, and last year's only 1-2%! Therefore, it is best to buy seeds from a specialized store.
You can sow passionflower seeds for seedlings in late winter or early spring. To begin with, passiflora seeds are scarified - they damage the hard shell with fine sandpaper or a nail file, rubbing the seed on all sides.
Prepared seeds are soaked in warm water (25ºC) for two days. After this period, the seeds that remained floating on the surface are thrown out - they are not viable.
Swollen seeds are laid out on the surface of the soil (mixed in equal parts soil for seedlings with vermiculite (or sand) and peat) and slightly pressed into it, deepening into the soil by about 1 cm.
To create 100% moisture required for germination of seeds, the container with the inoculation is covered with glass or transparent airtight film, placed under bright diffused light and kept at a temperature of 20-25ºC.
When the shoots appear, remove the glass or film and provide the shoots with twelve hours of daylight hours with the help of additional lighting.
When the seedlings have the first pair of true leaves, they are carefully dived into separate pots, trying to keep an earthen lump on the roots and not burying the seedlings too much in the ground.
When rosemary can be harmful
Sometimes it is worth giving up the use of this aromatic herb. It is not recommended to use it:
- pregnant and lactating women
- small children
- hypertensive patients
- epileptics and people with a predisposition to seizures.
Essential oil has a vasodilating effect, therefore its use can be dangerous in some conditions and diseases of a person. When concentrated, it can burn sensitive skin and cause an allergic reaction. Therefore, people prone to allergies should dilute rosemary oil with water or ordinary vegetable oil.
I drip rosemary essential oil onto the comb and I don't get overwhelmed by my hair - it shines, smells nice and the dandruff is gone. And I like to use rosemary in my cooking. Tomatoes in combination with it have a special sound.