Gloxinia: home care, growing from seeds, photo
Did you know that the first gloxinia brought from South America in the 18th century were rhizomatous, and tuberous species were brought from the same places only in the last century? And what exactly tuberous gloxinia became the basis for breeding many excellent varieties of this indoor culture?
What's more interesting: in botanical reference books, gloxinia is listed as beautiful synningia, although gloxinia and synningia are two different, albeit related cultures: synningia is a rhizomatous plant, and beautiful gloxinia is tuberous.
In this article, you can learn how to care for gloxinia during the growing season, how to stimulate its flowering, and then how to organize a dormant period for the plant.
Planting and caring for gloxinia
- Bloom: from March to the end of summer.
- Lighting: bright diffused light with 12-14 hour daylight hours.
- Temperature: during the growing season - usual for living quarters, during the dormant period - about 10 ˚C.
- Watering: during the growing season - regular, but moderate, by the method of bottom watering, from August the plant prepares for a dormant period, and watering should be less frequent.
- Air humidity: increased, but spraying the leaves is strictly not recommended, it is better to keep containers with water around the plant.
- Top dressing: during the active growing season, once every 10 days with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer for flowering indoor plants.
- Cropping: in May or June, after the end of the first flowering, and in autumn, before the beginning of the dormant period.
- Rest period: from late October to late February.
- Transfer: at the end of the dormant period.
- Reproduction: seeds, leafy cuttings.
- Pests: thrips, cyclamen and spider mites.
- Diseases: gray rot, viral infections.
Read more about growing gloxinia below.
Plant gloxinia (Latin Gloxinia), named after the Alsatian physician and botanist Benjamin Peter Gloxin, forms a genus in the Gesneriev family. Gloxinia flowers are perennial tropical grasses and shrubs. Gloxinia is native to Central and South America, where it grows in the deciduous forests of Brazil and Peru, in the rocks of Mexico, in the Andes or on the banks of rivers. Another name for gloxinia is sinningia (Latin Sinningia) - was given to her in honor of Wilhelm Sinning, a gardener at Boston University who devoted himself to the selection and hybridization of gloxinia. Thanks to his efforts in floriculture, a hybrid or home gloxinia (sinningia) appeared, represented by many varieties and hybrids.
Botanical description, types
Indoor gloxinia is a tuberous perennial with a short stem and juicy velvety leaves of a rich green color. The same velvety bell-shaped flowers, simple or double, pink, red, white, purple, speckled, frill or two-colored, reach 5 cm in length and 7 cm in diameter. Numerous gloxinia seeds are very small. Of the 25 species that exist in nature, only the royal gloxinia and the beautiful gloxinia became the basis for breeding work.
Gloxinia royal (Gloxinia regina)
P is a flower with thickened stems up to 10 cm tall. Dark green pubescent leaves, with silvery veins on the upper side and reddish on the lower side, broadly oval, located opposite to 4-6 pieces, 15 cm to 20 cm long. Peduncles are long, bell-shaped drooping flowers of a dark purple hue reach 5 cm in length , and 7 cm in diameter.
Gloxinia fine (Gloxinia speciosa)
Herbaceous plant with broadly oval, evenly green leaves tapering towards the base on long cuttings. Flowers of various shapes, depending on the variety, including terry gloxinia, white, red, purple, blue, pink, purple, there are forms with a white rim around the edge.
Like any plant, gloxinia has some characteristics:
- after flowering, the aerial part of the flower dies off, and it is important to wait until this process spontaneously ends;
- before a dormant period, gloxinia requires fertilizing with fertilizers that do not contain nitrogen - potassium monophosphate, for example;
- a gloxinia pot is required of a decent size, for an adult plant - at least 15 cm in diameter;
- if you want your gloxinia to bloom all year round, arrange for them a rack or warm shelf with additional lighting for 14 hours a day.
Home care for gloxinia
If you decide to grow gloxinia, provide it with a spacious place on which bright diffused light will fall: it needs twelve to fourteen hours of daylight hours, so during long nights, be prepared to arrange additional lighting for the plant. There is an easy way to find out if the flower has enough light: if the dark green leaves are horizontal and the stem is short, you do not need to worry, but if the leaves and stem stretch up, then the plant lacks light.
However, remember: caring for gloxinia involves, first of all, protection from direct sunlight, which is detrimental to the plant.
And one more important point: no drafts! If you decide to keep the flower on the windowsill, you will have to forget about frequent airing. And the humidity of the air, which gloxinia needs, will have to be increased artificially, placing containers with water around the flower, since the plant does not like moisture on the leaves and flowers, which cannot be avoided when spraying.
As for the temperature, during the growing season, gloxinia will be satisfied with the usual room temperature for this time of year, but during the rest period it needs coolness - about 10 ºC. Watch the plant, and it will tell you itself what changes in care it needs: from overheating, the leaves of gloxinia stretch upward, if the leaves are lowered below the edge of the pot, then the flower freezes.
Gloxinia is watered during the growing season in a pan or overhead irrigation, trying not to wet either leaves or flowers. The top layer of the substrate should dry out between waterings. At the end of August, the intervals between waterings are increased so that the plant gradually enters a dormant period until the end of October. Both waterlogging and insufficient watering should be avoided. Pour gloxinia with settled or filtered water a degree or two warmer than room temperature.
Gloxinia is fed during the period of active growth once a decade with a complete complex fertilizer for decorative flowering plants. In mid-August, feeding is stopped. If you neglect the application of fertilizers, problems can arise with both growth and flowering: growth slows down, the buds become smaller, the color of the flowers fades, which causes the decorativeness of the plant to suffer, the flowering period becomes much shorter.
Sometimes the plant suffers from a lack of boron. This becomes noticeable in summer at maximum daylight hours: deep notches appear along the edge of the leaf plate. In this case, you need to carry out foliar feeding of gloxinia with a 2% borax solution. And let me remind you that an excess of fertilizer is much more dangerous for a plant than a lack of it, so try to be moderate in this matter.
Gloxinia is transplanted into a new pot at the end of the rest period every year. The potting mix is the same as for begonias and violets. It can be purchased in a store, or you can make it yourself from two parts of leaf, one part of humus earth and one part of sand.
So, in February, the gloxinia tubers are taken out of the pot along with a lump of earth and transferred into a new pot, slightly larger than the previous one, in which a layer of drainage is preliminarily laid, and a layer of soil on top of it. Then the substrate is gradually added and tamped. As a result, the tuber should be buried only halfway into the substrate. The primary planting of gloxinia is carried out according to the same principle.
Gloxinia has faded - what to do?
When the gloxinia has faded (usually in May-June), cut off the stem and almost all the leaves, leaving only 2-4 lower leaves on the plant, in the axils of which stepchildren will soon appear, of which you will leave a couple of the strongest, and remove the rest ... At this time, it is advisable to feed the flower with fertilizers for growth, and after a month, when the buds appear, fertilizers must be introduced for flowering.
The second bloom will likely not be as lush as the first, but that's okay. Sometimes gloxinia blooms all summer, and the question of re-flowering disappears. When the gloxinia has completely bloomed, you need to gradually reduce watering and stop feeding, wait until the leaves turn yellow and dry, then cut off the tops, leaving a stump of 1-2 cm above the tuber.
Gloxinia in winter
To the question "How to store gloxinia after flowering" there are two answers:
- gloxinia, trimmed for the winter, is stored in a dark, cool place until the end of February. Gloxinia is moistened in winter only 1-2 times a month so that the tubers do not dry out. Gloxinia wintering can take place under a bathtub or in an insulated loggia;
- The second way to preserve gloxinia during the dormant period involves removing the tuber from the pot, and since in late January or early February you will still have to transplant gloxinia into a new pot with a new substrate, so why not get the tuber out of the pot in the fall? The extracted tuber is cleaned of soil residues, placed in a plastic bag with a lock, vermiculite with a substrate is added to the bag in a 1: 1 ratio, the lock is fastened and the bag is placed for winter storage in the vegetable section of the refrigerator. Now you do not need to worry that the tuber can dry out without watering after three to four months of rest.
You don't have to worry about how to preserve young gloxinia grown from seeds in winter: it is left in a pot and watered moderately so that the small, still weak tuber does not die over the winter.
Reproduction of gloxinia at home
Growing from seeds
The rich assortment of gloxinia seeds in specialty stores inspires optimism for those who want to test themselves as a breeder. But don't expect too much from this experiment. Growing gloxinia from seeds begins with the purchase of seed - thank God, today this is not a problem - and it is better to purchase granular seeds. The packaging usually indicates a germination period of 4-6 months, or even 9-10 months, but this is in the event that you will sow in winter or autumn. If you do this in March, then the process will go much faster.
You can use purchased greenhouses for sowing, or you can make a greenhouse yourself: in a plastic deep container with a lid, place freely and soak peat tablets, on which you spread the granules without embedding them in the soil. Make some ventilation holes in the lid. Place the sowed greenhouse in a bright, warm place with a temperature of about 22-23 ºC and for one and a half to two weeks, carefully moisten the soil as necessary and wait for seedlings to emerge. When the sprouts germinate and get stronger, plant them together with peat tablets in disposable cups, and after a while in permanent pots.
Whatever they say, vegetative propagation is usually more reliable than seed, and if you do not have a special reason to grow plants from seeds, use the vegetative method, and we will tell you how to grow gloxinia from leaf cuttings. Since the leaves of gloxinia are quite large, take either the smallest leaf or divide the large leaf into fragments. You need to cut the leaf plate across, parallel to the transverse veins, the leaf petiole is also cut off, leaving no more than 2 cm.Use a sharp tool for cutting, otherwise rotting of the edges of the leaf or its fragments is possible as a result.
Plant the fragments in pots with a light, slightly damp substrate and place them in a greenhouse or cover them with a plastic bag - within a month you will not have to water the soil or ventilate the greenhouse, and after a month, the rooted fragments should be gradually accustomed to life outside the greenhouse, opening the plastic for a while ... Keep the greenhouse with rooting parts of gloxinia in a well-lit, warm place.
Pests and diseases
Unfortunately, gloxinia, like other flowers, suffers from diseases, which are usually the result of improper care. Gloxinia is affected by gray rot, which is manifested by brown spots on the leaves. It is necessary to deal with it by treating the plant with a fungicide, after removing all damaged areas. But most often the plant is sick with root rot: the roots turn dark brown, the stem rotting at the base and the plant dies. This happens from constant waterlogging of the roots or watering the plant with too cold water. In addition to the named diseases, protect gloxinia from late blight, black leg, powdery mildew and fungal diseases. For preventive treatment, use phytosporin, for treatment - foundationol.
Viral diseases will also not bypass gloxinia, especially if thrips, cyclamen or spider mites start on it, so try not to allow this.
A cyclamen mite can only be seen under a microscope, with the naked eye you can only detect a large accumulation of mites that looks like a layer of dust on the underside of the leaf plate, but if the leaves of the plant begin to deform and thicken, and curl down at the edges, if the stem twists, the buds wither , the petals of the flowers are deformed, and the tops of the shoots are drying up, which means that the flower is occupied by cyclamen mites.
The spider mite is also almost invisible, it also settles on the underside of the leaf and feeds on the cell sap of the plant. You can understand that you are dealing with a spider mite by the white dots, which later turn into yellow-brown spots, or by the thin web, if the infection is already in a very strong stage.
The presence of thrips is revealed by light dots, strokes and spots on the leaves and a silvery sheen of intact leaf areas, which dry out over time, turn brown on the underside, and the edges begin to curl upward. The larvae of thrips go into the soil, therefore, to combat the pest, you will have to change the top layer of the substrate, or it is better to replace it with a new one, but before that, carry out a triple treatment of the plant with insecticides (aktara, karbofos, fitoverm, actellic) at intervals of a week. The same measures are effective in the fight against ticks, but the soil does not have to be changed.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Gesneriaceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Plants per G Plants per C Gesneriaceae
Description of Strelitzia
Strelitzia belongs to the herbaceous evergreens. Its size in the natural environment can be very large - up to 10 m in height, although on average the bushes usually grow only up to 2-3 m.At home, their size does not exceed 2 m.In nature, strelitzia live in forests, but are usually found on spacious plots. Growing this color at home also requires a lot of free space.
Strelitzia has a taproot extending to a great depth. The stems of the bush are almost absent.Rosettes formed from large leaves on thick petioles extend from the root. The leaf blades are oval in shape and can be up to 80 cm wide and up to 2 m long in size. They resemble banana foliage in shape, but differ in longer petioles. The leaves are colored in shades of green and have pronounced veins.
During flowering, the plant forms a long peduncle on which there is an inflorescence that resembles a bird's crest. It is placed horizontally on the peduncle. It contains orange, bluish, blue or purple flowers up to 20 cm in diameter. Each peduncle can form about 7 flowers, while on each bush several such peduncles can form at once. This significantly prolongs the flowering period and can last for about six months. Small birds feeding on nectar are engaged in pollination of flowers. At home, to obtain seeds, inflorescences are artificially pollinated. It takes about a month to set fruits with seeds, and they will ripen for about six months. Each capsule contains no more than 8 black seeds, partly covered with a bright bush that attracts birds.
At home, strelitzia can bloom several times a year, but for this, the bush must be properly looked after. At the same time, bird flowers can also be used for cutting. In the form of a bouquet, they can delight the eye from a couple of weeks to a month.
- A prerequisite is a greenhouse. You can put the container in a bag, you can close it with a lid and put it in a lighted place.
- The seeds can germinate for 3 to 30 days. As soon as shoots appear, the first pick is carried out a month after sowing.
- Since the crops are small, you can also choose a small bowl or container for picking. Soak the peat tablet again, spray the surface again and dive the seedlings from a small container to a large one with a toothpick. This must be done very carefully.
- The distance between seedlings can be made about a centimeter. After you open them, you create greenhouse conditions again. Can be placed in a bag and left to grow for two to three weeks.
- A pick is carried out every three weeks. It is advisable to constantly increase the capacity or the distance between seedlings. Then they will grow together and bloom faster. Seedlings can be grown under additional lighting. They grow and develop very well.
The variety of hybrid varieties is one of the most striking differences between Gloxinia and many other beautifully flowering plants. The most popular of them look very impressive and can grow up to 30 cm in height. To determine which seed option to choose for planting, it is worth considering varietal gloxinia in more detail, having studied them describedno.
- "Impress blue ink" has a characteristic color. Snow-white dots are scattered against the rich background of the indigo shade, the golden core dilutes the composition, giving it sophistication. Large inflorescences are formed on the bush in large quantities, which looks very expressive and decorative against the background of lush green leaves.
- "Negrityanochka"... Terry hybrid gloxinia has expressive blue petals with a deep velvety black tint. Against the background of green foliage with silvery veins, they look incredibly impressive. Large flowers have a diameter of up to 12 cm, buds form best when grown in a cool, well-lit place. The bush is quite high, reaching 25 cm.
- Strawberry Shake. Intense pink-raspberry color of terry gloxinia variety "Strawberry Shake" looks elegant and attractive. The flowers have a compact rosette and short peduncles, a small bush. The petals are strewn with bright crimson-speckled dots.
- "Defiance"... A spectacular variety of gloxinia "Defiance" has a rich scarlet color of petals, has a pronounced bell-shaped inflorescences. The plant has a long flowering, compact bush grows up to 25 cm in height.
- "The Snow Queen". Luxurious gloxinia looks especially impressive due to the presence of erect shoots on a low, up to 10 cm, bush. The rich green leaves are covered with a silvery gossamer pattern. Large bell-shaped flowers have an unusual purple color to the edges of the petals, turning into an almost white color.
- "Starry sky"... White peas on a velvet-blue background - this is how the color of a gloxinia flower of the "Starry Sky" variety looks like. The main tone varies from almost black to pale lilac, tall flower stalks hold double buds well, the bush is compactly formed, flowering is long.
- Blanche de Meroux... The white throat and the outer part of the petal, combined with the lush crimson border, is what makes this gloxinia variety stand out. It is characterized by the formation of a large leaf rosette - up to 25 cm in diameter. When properly cared for, the cultivar provides long, uninterrupted flowering, abundantly covering green shoots with spectacular flower bells.
- "Friedrich" or "Kaiser Friedrich". A rich dessert-crimson, with a white center and a wide snow-white border around the edges of the petals, the gloxinia looks like a true queen of flowers. Bells are large and look very decorative. But in order to achieve abundant flowering, you have to make a lot of effort.
The variety is capricious with regard to feeding, soil moisture level, nutrient content. But all efforts will be rewarded with the beautiful flowering of this gloxinia.
- "Kaiser Wilhelm". The deep purple hue and contrasting white edging of the petals are harmoniously combined with an unusual core in specks. Due to the high arrangement of the peduncle, the buds open wide above the leaves, standing out against their background. The lush rosette, fully opening, becomes slightly wavy at the edges. For flowering, bouquet formation of flowers is characteristic, long-term preservation of the splendor of foliage.
May lose color brightness when placed in bright light.
- "Tigrina Red". The variety implies the possibility of growing flowers, in which a red border around the edges is combined with a white center and bright contrasting polka dots - a scattering of small dots. The corolla has a scarlet or purple tone, it can have both the shape of a bell and the shape of a shoe. Flowering usually lasts from spring to autumn. The plant supports an exclusively vegetative way of propagation, since it belongs to the category of hybrids. It will not work to get seed from him.
- "Yesenia". Gentle terry gloxinia "Yesenia" belongs to the group of Dutch breeding hybrids and is one of the ten most popular varieties. The plant can grow up to 30 cm in height, the leaves form rosettes on a short petiole. The flowers are large enough, in a half-open form they resemble pink buds. When the bud is fully opened, a contrasting white or pink border is visible along the edges of the crimson petals. Flowering is long, the bouquet shape of the bush is preserved, it looks very decorative.
How to dig up rhizomes and prepare for storage
Ahimenez can be left in a pot without digging up the rhizomes, and in the spring he will wake up again. But if you want to save space, plant a flower in the future and get some plants, then dig them up is the best solution.
The rhizomes are easily stored dry in zip bags in vermiculite, which is no doubt convenient and compact. Thus, a huge collection of different varieties can fit in just one small box.
In addition, rhizomes in bags do not require watering at all. Dug up, folded up and forgotten. Remembered only in the spring.
It should be noted that flower growers who are fond of Achimenes get special pleasure from digging up with rhizomes and often compare this process with harvesting. Because while the plant is in a pot, it is not known which rhizomes and how many of them he managed to grow during the period of growth and flowering.
Therefore, we can say that digging up the roots of achimenes is as interesting as opening a kinder surprise.
To do this, you must first of all wait until the plant is completely ready for the dormant period. It will make it clear to you about this with all its appearance.
Cutting off the stems before it completely dries out is impossible, because this will affect the rhizomes, they will not have time to ripen and form as expected. Therefore, although it is not entirely beautiful, we are waiting for just this type of plant.
First of all, we cut off all the dry branches of the plant with sharp scissors.
We take out the earthen lump from the pot and examine it. In some places, you will already notice rhizomes.
Very carefully, with our fingers, we begin to remove the excess soil and break the earthen lump. Usually all rhizomes are concentrated in the upper and middle part of the pot.
The rhizomes of achimenes are quite fragile, but if you break one or more, it is not a big deal. Ahimenez will sprout from each part in the future. This is how rhizomes are located. They fall off on their own, or you can carefully pull them off.
The found crop is laid out in some container. Rhizomes may look different depending on the variety. They are long, short or round and super-small at 0.5 cm. One variety in a pot can have roots of completely different lengths.
If the crop turned out to be small and unsightly, do not be discouraged, all the same, all the resoms are suitable for future germination, and perhaps next time you will be more lucky.
Then the roots are dried for several days at room temperature, as a result of which excess earth easily flies off them and they become clean. You do not need to wash them.
We prepare our own separate bag for each variety. We pour vermiculite into it.
Rhizomes are placed in a bag and stored in a box with a lid to exclude the access of light. The box is placed in a dark, cool place, the storage temperature of the rhizome of Achimenes in the winter is 15-17 degrees.
Once every few months, the condition of the rhizome must be checked. Does condensate accumulate inside the bags - it must be removed, the bag must be opened and ventilated.
Are there any signs of fungal diseases on the rhizomes: mold, darkening, rotting. If you find something similar, cut off the affected areas and treat the rhizome with antifungal drugs such as Fitosporin (according to the instructions), then dry and pack again.
With proper care, the tropical beauty gloxinia can live up to 10 years, delighting its owners with colorful flowering. Moreover, the older and more developed the plant, the more flowers it will have. Sometimes their number reaches 50 pieces!
- Gloxinia leaves have brown spots - this indicates that water has entered them, as well as the use of too cold water for irrigation.
- Gloxinia leaves turn yellow - a sign of dry or too humid air, direct sunlight or an excess of fertilizer.
- Gloxinia leaves curl - this happens with excessive feeding and when exposed to drafts.
- Elongated, pale leaves are a sign of a lack of lighting.
- Plaque of gray on flowers and leaves - this indicates the defeat of the plant by gray rot.
- The flowers remain hidden under the leaves - this happens with a short day of light or too low a temperature.