How and how to treat gray rot on tomatoes?
Tomatoes are successfully grown in various regions of our country. A variety of varieties and hybrids helps to choose the most suitable species for the conditions. However, there are situations when plants become infected, get sick... Therefore, you need to be prepared for such a situation, to know how you can cope with the problem. In our article, we will consider in detail one of the diseases of tomatoes - gray rot, as well as how to treat it.
What is rot on tomatoes
Rot is a dangerous fungal infection that affects various vegetable crops, including tomatoes. Getting rid of plants from it is a laborious, long process.... Its success is largely determined by the timeliness of the protective measures taken and the correct diagnosis of the disease.
How does the disease begin?
The disease begins with damage to the injured plant stem. On the affected areas, spots of a gray-brown hue are formed. Then they grow along the stem within 5 days, encircle it... Then the spot brightens, stripes appear in its place. In the first week, there is still no gray rot fungus on the spot. The disease develops in the stem. Part of the stem dies off, through it the nutrition of the plant stops, it withers. Leaves above the affected area turn yellow.
Signs of gray rot are similar to those of pith necrosis. But there is a significant difference. With necrosis, the entire plant will wither, and with gray rot, only the part of the plant that is above the affected area withers. Most importantly, after 7-10 days from the moment of injury, a characteristic ash-gray plaque appears on the spot., by which the disease can be unambiguously identified.
The optimal conditions for the development of the disease are high air humidity. It develops during the formation of fruits, affecting all aerial parts of the plant. At the beginning of infection (of individual plants), the infection spreads relatively slowly... But with the onset of favorable conditions, it quickly infects neighboring plants. If distributed massively, it can destroy most of the crop.
The method of transmission is airborne. Other vegetable crops can be sources of infection: cucumber, lettuce, etc.
There are several diseases, united by one name - rot.
Fungal disease... Its appearance provokes Botrytis cinerea Pers. The disease can affect fruits grown both in greenhouse conditions and in the open field. For its distribution, high humidity, unbalanced nutrition (excessively applied nitrogen fertilizers) are needed. External manifestations of the disease:
- decay of a grayish fruit;
- characteristic fluffy bloom;
- leaf spot;
- affected plant stem.
The disease is spread from plant to plant... Having become infected, they rapidly wither and die. If rotten fruits are found, they must be collected and destroyed (burned or buried), but in no case left in the compost heap.
Brown rot is also called phomosis. This disease is very common. The place of plant damage is located next to the stalk.... The fungus enters the fetus due to a violation of its integrity due to rain or wind. Outwardly, it is not always possible to reliably determine the disease, because fruits may have only small brown spots. However, the tomato fruit will be completely rotten. The disease can be provoked by feeding plants with fresh manure, which is extremely undesirable for them.
The disease is caused by a pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The crop is damaged during storage. The primary sources of fungus are compost and soil.
- wateriness and discoloration of the leaves of the plant;
- fruits covered with white bloom.
Most often, white rot forms on damaged areas of the fruit.
Additional conditions for the onset of the disease are: soil that has not been disinfected, low temperature in the greenhouse (below 18 ° C) during planting, high humidity.
Top rot on tomatoes
Vertex rot affects tomatoes that are grown in greenhouses and greenhouses. The disease spreads very quickly and can cause great damage to the crop in a short time. The initial symptoms are noticeable even in immature fruits.: Watery spots are much darker than the fruit. Then the stain turns brown, the fruit shrivels and falls off. Fungi can develop at the site of the appearance of rot, but the disease does not have a fungal nature of origin. Main reasons:
- insufficient watering;
- salty soil;
- lack of calcium or its increased content in fertilizers.
Top rot affects a significant number of tomatoes that are grown in greenhouse conditions.
Rhizoctonia or root rot
Root rot of tomatoes, also called black leg, is common.... It is caused by a complex of pests: phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, Phytophthora, or the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwiniacarotovora. Tomatoes that are grown in greenhouses using a substrate are especially susceptible to disease. Up to 70% of young plants can die from this disease.
The main signs:
- softened root collar;
- its blackening;
- the appearance of a constriction.
After the appearance of these signs, the plant withers and dies. The conditions of tomato infection include: high level of air humidity, excessive watering of the substrate, imbalance in feeding with minerals.
Where does rot on tomatoes come from?
Rot is a fungal disease. In order to avoid its unpleasant consequences, you need to know why it appears. Experienced gardeners name a number of unfavorable conditions under which the appearance of different types of rot is possible.
The most common are:
- unsterilized soil or substrate, in which spores of pathogens of various pathologies have survived, will provoke a massive infection of plants in greenhouse structures;
- using untested seeds, especially often their own;
- non-observance of the air humidity in the greenhouse, excessive accumulating moisture when watering plants will lead to fungal infections of vegetable crops;
- no less dangerous and insufficient wateringsince in this case, the plant lacks nutrition, it weakens, becomes easily affected by all kinds of diseases, including fungal diseases.
Compliance with the temperature, humidity and watering regime will help to grow a decent crop of tomatoes.
Preparations against gray rot
Treatments for tomato gray rot are well established. However, they are often used late, which significantly affects efficiency. The most common measures taken are not effective enough due to incorrect diagnosis of pathology.
An integrated approach should be taken for plant protection. The most important thing is the timely identification of the primary foci of the disease. Particular attention must be paid to the careful handling of plants.: this will reduce the likelihood of wounds through which the infectious agent easily infects tomatoes.
During the growing season, it is necessary to regularly inspect the plants in order to identify the first signs of gray rot. Particular attention should be paid to this work when breaking off leaves in wet weather.... If you find foci of the disease, coat the tomatoes with a paste with fungicides. The general processing of plants is carried out if there was no thorough coating of the fruits at the time of the onset of the disease. For continuous treatment, experienced gardeners recommend the use of Topsin M, Bayleton, Euparen multi.
Growth regulators... The use of sodium humate during the growing season significantly reduces the likelihood of the development and mass spread of gray rot.
Biological products... Preventive treatment of plants with a Trichodermin suspension, especially after breaking off leaves, greatly minimizes the development of repeated foci of infection. The same purpose is served by smearing wet spots with a suspension of Trichodermin, Glyocladin. The method is time consuming, but very effective. It is also recommended to spray new cuts of leaf petioles with Trichodermin when they are massively removed. Process the tomatoes during the day to allow them to dry.
There are no hybrids resistant to gray rot of tomatoes, F1 Pilgrim and F1 Vasilievna are tolerant.
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. This statement fully applies to tomatoes. Compliance with agrotechnical requirements for growing tomatoes will help to grow, harvest and maintain a decent harvest. What should you pay attention to?
- Balance mineral fertilizers.
- Accurate handling of plants... Broken twigs can cause disease.
- Soil mulching, which will affect its properties and will not dry out.
- Hypothermia protection during planting.
- Plant protection against unsuitable weather conditions (disembarkation in greenhouse conditions).
- Maintaining the optimal distance between plants for the sufficiency of their receipt of useful substances.
- Timely and thorough soil disinfection.
- Choice and seed processing.
Any kind of rot is very dangerous. She is able to completely destroy the grown crop. Little of, rot is easily transmitted in a short time from one crop to another... In order to avoid unpleasant consequences, take care of the prevention of this disease.
Top rot of tomatoes and measures to combat it
Growing tomatoes, gardeners are faced with a variety of diseases of this culture. One of the most common is the top rot of tomatoes: control measures and the best methods of prevention against the disease, as well as the causes and primary signs of infection, are disclosed in our material.
Also called "Korinka". A deciduous shrub or small tree of the rose family with white or cream flowers. The berries are small, up to 1 cm in diameter, in the form of apples of black-blue or red-violet color with a bluish bloom.
Top rot equally affects both tomatoes in the open field and in the greenhouse. It appears as a result of improper agricultural technology and refers to the physiological diseases of tomatoes.
Causes of occurrence
The development of the disease begins not only from the transfer of spores to the wind. The cause of rot on tomatoes is improper agricultural technology:
- Using untreated seeds. Sometimes these are self-harvested seeds.
- Contaminated, untreated soil.
- Lack or excess of moisture.
- Insufficient provision of ventilation in the greenhouse method of cultivation.
Observing the techniques and rules of planting and growing, they ensure that the plants practically do not get sick.
Signs of tomato disease
You can identify "diseased" tomato bushes by the presence of the following signs of gray rot in plants:
- the appearance on the fruit of rotten areas with a grayish tint
- the presence of a characteristic fluffy bloom on tomatoes
- formation of spots on leaf plates
- damage to the plant stem.
The onset of morbidity is evidenced by the appearance of spotting on the leaf plates. At first, the spots are small in size, differing in a light gray color. During the week, they increase significantly, reaching 5 cm.
As the disease progresses, the mottling moves from the leaves to the stems. The spots grow, merge with each other, covering the entire surface of the plant. Soon the stems and foliage take on a gray color. The bush suffers from developed vascular necrosis, which provokes its wilting. There is a risk of death of the tomato planting.
In rainy weather, flowers and fruits are affected by gray rot. On these parts of the plant, gray spots of a round shape are formed.
Prevention and treatment of tomato top rot in a greenhouse
The choice of the variety must be done according to the recommendations from the manufacturer, noted on the package. Basically, if a tomato has resistance to various kinds of problems and diseases, then this is always noted on the package with seeds.
The most suitable tomatoes of this type are:
- Borodino F1
- White filling.
With the formation of apical rot, you need to resort to actions that can eliminate the disease in a minimum amount of time and save the crop. Most often, an infusion of wood ash is used. Initially, as soon as the first signs of the disease are noticed, you need to remove all affected tomatoes, and remove them from the greenhouse, and then start processing.
Ash contains components such as phosphorus, calcium, manganese and boron, which are best and prevent many tomato diseases and help eliminate them.
In addition, the ash is completely harmless and cannot cause toxic poisoning to the culture. To replenish exactly calcium, it is required to eliminate rot, or in other words, tomatoes with rot, and also to use foliar feed with calcium chloride and calcium nitrate. Top dressing is carried out by spraying. Feeding with phosphorus is considered an equally optimal option, since it allows you to preserve healthy tomatoes, but the main thing here is not to overdo it. Extraction from superphosphate is considered a very effective remedy.
Top rot of tomatoes: control measures, folk remedies
During the growing season, tomatoes are attacked by various ailments. During the period of fruit formation, apical rot appears. The disease affects the entire plant, but the fruits are most affected. The disease can be cured at the first stage of development using folk remedies.
Top rot of tomatoes
The disease is classified as non-infectious. If agricultural technology is not followed, it equally affects plants in the greenhouse and in the open field. It manifests itself on fruits and leaf plates.
The top of the tomatoes turns light green, the leaves turn yellow from below. A brown spot forms on the fruit, which grows as the tomato ripens.
You can no longer eat vegetables, even if you cut off the stain.
The reasons for the development of the disease
The main reason for the development of the disease is calcium deficiency. Calcium deficiency can be triggered by:
- insufficient or excessive watering. Dry soil does not allow plants to fully absorb nutrients from the soil, including calcium. With excessive watering, the decay process develops.
- increased alkalinity or acidity of the soil. In acidified or salted soils, reactions occur extremely pronouncedly that prevent tomatoes from fully developing. The calcium content in such soils is low.
- mechanical damage to the roots. A damaged root system allows you to absorb less nutrients from the soil than is necessary, which is why tomatoes are weakened
- abrupt changes in weather conditions. Changing the heat to prolonged rainy weather, watering tomatoes in hot weather with cold water, sudden changes in temperature, provoke a weakening of the immune system
- excessive saturation of tomatoes with potassium, magnesium and nitrogen-containing macronutrients.
Top Rot Signs
Top rot is treatable if identified in time. It is not difficult to identify the disease in time if you monitor the condition of the plants from day to day. Fruit decay begins at technical ripeness.
Initially, a small watery speck forms on the tomatoes.After a few days, it begins to grow, become dry and turn brown or brown. The surface of the spout on the fruit is completely absent, instead of it there is a depressed spot.
Fungal and bacterial diseases begin to develop and settle on the affected tomato, which aggravate the situation. The inside of the tomato begins to darken and rot. In dry weather, the rot is dry, and in rainy weather it is wet.
Tomatoes affected by apical rot ripen earlier. Therefore, if the first red tomatoes appear on the garden bed, this is one of the signals to check them for diseases.
Folk ways to combat summit rot
In the fight against the disease, folk remedies will help. It is no longer possible to save the affected fruits, but it will be possible to save the new ovary. For a long time, gardeners have used and continue to use the following methods of treating the disease:
Wood ash infusion
Wood ash contains a large amount of macro- and microelements, and calcium is no exception. Spraying with an ash solution will allow you to save tomatoes from calcium starvation.
Preparation of the mixture: boil one liter of water, and while the water boils, grind three hundred grams of wood ash to a powdery state. Pour the ash into a three-liter saucepan, pour boiling water over it, put it on the stove. Cook the mixture for half an hour. Let the slurry cool slightly. After that, dilute the ash infusion with a bucket of water.
Spray the affected tomatoes with the resulting solution. Repeat the procedure several times.
Calcium nitrate based solution
Spraying with calcium nitrate shows one of the best results in the fight against top rot.
Preparation of the solution: dissolve a matchbox of calcium nitrate in a bucket of warm water (25 ° C). The granules should dissolve completely, so leave the liquid alone for a few hours and then stir again. Process all affected and healthy tomatoes.
Spraying of plants is carried out in the evening. During the night, nutrients will have time to be absorbed through the pores of the leaf plate, and not evaporate in the sun.
Infusion based on oak bark
Oak bark contains up to 78% calcium, and besides, it has an antibacterial effect.
Preparation: take two tablespoons of chopped oak bark, pour 500 ml of boiling water, put on the stove, boil for 15 minutes over low heat. After that, leave the mixture to cool completely. Then, strain through a sieve or cheesecloth. Dilute with 10 liters of water before use.
Spray the plants completely, especially the lower part.
Sodium carbonate solution
Sodium carbonate or soda ash will only help in the first stage of apical rot development.
Preparation: Dissolve two tablespoons in a bucket of water. Then, dilute the resulting liquid again. For ten liters, you need one glass of the prepared mixture.
Before spraying, you need to collect all the affected tomatoes so that the plant does not waste its energy on them, and also does not distribute the resulting calcium to them.
Top Rot Preventive Measures
It is possible to prevent apical rot. The main thing is to observe agrotechnical measures:
- Moderate watering of plants and subsequent loosening of the topsoil. Excess or lack of moisture should not be allowed. Sharp changes in the water balance provoke changes at the cellular level, tomatoes weaken, diseases begin to appear more often.
- Before planting, fertilize the holes with wood ash or powdered eggshells to saturate the soil with calcium.
- Plant the seedlings half a meter away so that the air passes between the lower leaves of the plants, and the leaves of the bushes do not intertwine with each other.
- Choose varieties with high immunity to non-infectious diseases. Resistance is shown by tomato varieties: "Benito", "White filling", "Pharaoh", "Raisa".
- If the soil is alkaline, then to improve its condition and normalize the pH, the introduction of calcium sulphide (consumption per 1 m² 40 grams) will allow. Sour soil needs to be limed. Slaked lime, dolomite flour, chalk will allow you to bring the pH level of the earth. Add them in the fall so that the acidity decreases by the spring. Consumption of one of the substances is 200 grams per 1 m².
Correct and timely care will avoid top rot on tomatoes. Do not forget to fertilize tomatoes with calcium fertilizers, and then you certainly will not have to treat them for top rot.
Reviews and advice of gardeners
Top rot is a problem for experienced and inexperienced gardeners. Even the most careful care will not save you from illness if the weather is extremely unstable, agronomists say. An affordable way to get rid of the calcium deficiency of tomatoes is ash from burnt oak bark.
It must be introduced during transplanting seedlings (a glass of ash per well), as well as spraying during the budding period. Infusion for foliar feeding is prepared on the basis of 200 grams of ash and 10 liters of water. Place the ash in water, bring the solution to a boil, boil for 10 minutes, leave for 24 hours.
Then spray the tomatoes.
Gray rot is a fungal infection, and if you do not take measures to combat it, then ultimately the disease can destroy the entire crop.
Gray mold bacteria are absorbed through the pores into the fruit, and pose a threat to the human body. Eating contaminated berries can lead to severe poisoning, since its toxins are very poisonous. As a result, there is a decrease in immunity and the development of many diseases of varying degrees of complexity.
Gray mold can trigger asthma, headaches, bleeding, indigestion and allergic reactions. Negatively affects the liver.