Sweet Chinese radish - cultivation features
The Japanese Daikon radish is very popular with gardeners today. At the same time, its closest relative, the Chinese radish, is practically unknown in our country. The root vegetable is also known as Peking or Lobo. Radish is grown everywhere in China, and it is easy to get it there in the market or in any store.
Agricultural technology of sweet radish
The shape and color of the fruits are varied: the root crop can be round or cylindrical, have a white, green or red skin color. However, the top of the vegetable is always rich green. As for the color of the pulp, it usually ranges from white to pinkish red. The weight of a ripe fruit is on average a little more than a kilogram. The Lobo radish tastes like a cross between Daikon and the fruits of varieties of European origin. The vegetable is practically not bitter, which is why it is called “sweet”. The plant often tastes like a radish.
In terms of storage, the variety can be kept fresh and flavorful longer than Daikon roots. However, the Chinese radish is stored worse than the European one.
In addition to an interesting appearance, remarkable taste and size of the fruit, the variety also has useful qualities. In particular, the use of root crops removes excess moisture from the body, has a positive effect on metabolism, cleanses the liver and kidneys (including stones), removes radionuclides and heavy metal salts. The harmful effect of radish on the growth and development of harmful bacteria inside the human body. Lobo radish does not have a negative effect on the heart, so older people can use it. Also, a root vegetable of Chinese origin strengthens the immune system, reduces the content of cholesterol and carcinogens in the human body.
Lobo radish is a crop that does not require special growing conditions and careful care. Even round roots that are not buried deep in the ground can be grown in heavy clay-type soils. However, the richest harvest can still be obtained on fertile lands with a neutral reaction, saturated with organic fertilizers.
It is best to plant the plant after legumes and winter grains, as well as cucumbers, tomatoes, onions and early potatoes.
You can sow the plant both in spring and summer (most often). When sown in spring, the crop often blooms, as a result of which its fruits cannot be consumed. At the same time, when sowing in the summer, the peduncle is not formed, and the harvest can be significant.
Preparing the soil in which the Elephant Fang radish (another name for Loba) will be grown is no different from the preparation procedure before planting other types of vegetables. The land must be well fed with organic fertilizers (a bucket of compost or humus per unit area for light soils; 2 buckets per unit area for heavy soils). However, fresh manure cannot be used as fertilizer.
It is necessary to dig the site to a depth of no more than 0.03 meters. Slaked lime must be added to acidic soils. In lowland conditions, the crop should be grown on ridges or other hills.
Before sowing seeds, it is necessary to nourish the soil with mineral dressings or nitrophosphate. It is best to use fertilizers of a complex nature, such as Keira-Lux or Kemira-Universal-1. In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, such dressings contain a number of useful trace elements. These fertilizers are very effective, albeit expensive.
Sowing radish is carried out in different ways, depending on the variety of the root crop. For summer harvest, seeds are placed in the soil starting at the end of April. If you plan to store the vegetable for a long time, it is better to sow it in late June - early July, because early planting of winter varieties provokes the appearance of inflorescences and a violation of the integrity of the fruits.
The largest crop yield can be obtained by sowing in early July. It is this time that is optimal for most varieties of culture. However, in any case, the soil should be abundantly moistened, and after placing the seeds in it, mulching should be carried out.
The plant develops best at a temperature of 15 ° - 18 °. The vegetable is considered cold-resistant, tolerates light frosts well.
Video "Agricultural technology of Chinese radish"
In this video, experienced gardeners and gardeners will tell and show you how to properly grow and care for radishes.
Seed sowing technique
The yield and size of root crops are determined by the sowing scheme. As evidenced by the reviews and recommendations of experienced gardeners, the most suitable scheme is to place seeds in four rows, adhering to a distance between the holes of 0.3 - 0.35 meters. The depth of the pits is 0.02 meters. A couple of seeds are placed in each of them.
If the soil is "dry", then after sowing it must be moistened. A week after the appearance of the first shoots, one, the strongest sprout is left from the shoots from one hole.
To speed up the sprouting process, the garden bed can be covered with cellophane, but after the first germination it should be removed immediately. For germination, it takes, on average, about a week. The process of emergence of sprouts from presoaked seeds occurs after 5 days. After the formation of a couple of leaves on the shoots, they must be thinned by 0.15 - 0.18 meters (depending on the expected size of future fruits).
The Red Meath radish needs feeding for the first time, after the diameter of the vegetable becomes 0.03 - 0.04 meters. As a fertilizer, it is permissible to use a solution of ash or mullein.
On mineral-rich soils for early maturing varieties, just a couple of fertilizers are enough, for winter ones - 3-4 every 10 days.
Harvesting and storage of crops
It is necessary to harvest the crop before the first frost appears. Early ripening types of vegetables are harvested according to the degree of ripening on a non-planting day, and winter ones - in a row.
The leaves of the fruits that are planned to be stored must be cut off, leaving a "stump" with a length of 0.015 - 0.02 meters.
In a cool place, such as an unheated cellar, the harvest is perfectly stored throughout the winter without losing its aroma and juiciness.
So, from the above, we see that the Chinese Loba radish is only gaining popularity in our country.
Video “What to do to harvest a rich radish harvest”
This video will show you what to do to get a good harvest of this great vegetable.
How to grow a radish
Radish in Russia is considered its own, local culture. We began to grow it in ancient times, so long ago that it is impossible to establish an exact date. Old sayings are associated with radish. "Horseradish radish is not sweeter", "Tired of worse than bitter radish" and others. And in the world it was known together with onions and garlic in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. And today radish is grown all over the world. We cultivate mainly two types, black and white radishes, which are called winter radishes because they are successfully stored until next spring. And only recently, Japanese radish began to appear on our beds - daikon, Chinese green radish and other, hitherto unfamiliar varieties.
Description of watermelon radish
Pink radish was bred by European breeders, but the vegetable gained great popularity among American chefs. Russian gardeners learned about the bright red root crop only in 2000.
Depending on the variety, watermelon radish can have a varied shape and color of the pulp. It is flattened, oval and round. The color of the pulp is snow-white, lemon, red and purple. There are varieties with a double color. The pulp is beautiful, juicy and sweet. The root vegetable got its name not because of the watermelon taste, but for the original sweet pulp. The radish acquires a pronounced taste as it ripens.
Regardless of the variety, the size of the red radish does not exceed 8 cm. The peel of the watermelon radish is light olive in color. Due to the dense peel, the crop tolerates transportation well, but the shelf life of the vegetable does not exceed 2-3 months. To increase the shelf life, the crop must be stored in a cool room, since at room temperature the watermelon radish loses its presentation and sweet taste.
The leaf rosette is semi-erect, medium-sized, dark olive in color with jagged edges. The average weight of a root crop is 100-150 g.
Red radish is an early ripe hybrid that can withstand changes in weather and slight spring frosts. In regions with an unstable climate, seeds are planted under a film shelter in mid-April, and if agrotechnical rules are observed, the first crop can be removed after 35 days.
Watermelon radish is a high-yielding variety. Due to its fast ripening, the crop can be harvested several times a season. The largest harvest is obtained in August, from 1 sq. m, subject to the rules of care, you can collect from 8 kg of fruits.
Red radish is resistant to diseases and pests. But so that serious problems do not appear, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures in a timely manner: watering by sprinkling, removing weeds, loosening the soil.
To appreciate the beauty of the red radish, you need to look at the photo, but to get an idea of the taste, it is advisable to grow the watermelon radish on your personal plot.
In horticulture, the apple tree is represented by two subspecies:
- decorative red-leaved variety
- Kitayka Red.
The original varieties are most often intended for use in landscape design.
Decorative red-leaved variety
The red-leaved variety is used to decorate hedges. Characteristic features define it as an unpretentious subspecies with high decorative qualities:
- The trees are medium-sized with a trunk height of up to 4 m.
- The crown is rounded, spreading. Reaches several meters in width.
- The foliage changes color from a bright red during flowering to emerald at the stage of fruit emergence.
- Snow-white flowers bloom on the tree. Then the fruits of a burgundy hue appear.
- The variety is characterized by high resistance to plant diseases.
An ornamental red-leaved variety is not picky about environmental conditions. It is successfully cultivated in the regions of the middle zone, in the Urals.
Chinese or Chinese Red
The apple variety Kitayka is unpretentious in care. It has a number of undeniable advantages:
- High resistance to frost and drought. Despite the drops in low or high temperatures, the tree retains its decorative qualities.
- During the flowering period, flowers of white, pink or red shades bloom on the crown of Kitayka.
- The harvest is represented by small fruits.
- Before the onset of cold weather, the foliage of the tree changes color to ocher and purple.
Apples of the Kitayka variety are not stored for long. They are used to make delicious desserts.
Varieties and varieties
A wide variety of species and varieties of radish appeared not so long ago. A little over 20 years ago, the main representative of the genus in Russian gardens was a black and white radish. Nowadays, varieties from Europe, China, Japan with different skin and pulp colors are in use. Each of them has its own taste, color, differs in the composition of microelements, soil and temperature requirements, therefore, when buying seeds, you need to familiarize yourself with the characteristics indicated on the package.
Black (Raphanus sativus var. Niger)
The species got its name because of the color of the dense black rind. Refers to plants with a two-year cycle. A leaf rosette 45-60 cm high grows from the seed, a rounded or elongated root crop weighing up to 200 g is formed, and from it, when planted in the spring of the next year, a peduncle grows, seeds are formed.
The diameter of the rounded fruit is from 8 to 10 cm, the elongated one is from 4 to 6 cm. Usually the vegetable is grown as an annual for food purposes. The taste of white juicy fibrous pulp in comparison with other types is more acute, bitter. Bitterness is due to the presence of a large amount of essential mustard oil.
- Winter round black. Ripens in 75-90 days, the fruit is round, weight - 250-500 g, the core is white, "vigorous" (can be compared to horseradish), excellent storage.
- Night. Matures in 65-75 days, the root is rounded, slightly flattened, weight - 180-220 g, juicy, sharp, excellent keeping quality.
- Black dragon. Can be consumed 55-65 days after sowing, the fruit is long (12-17 cm) with a pointed tip, weight - 300-320 g, the pulp is tender, juicy, spicy, long-term storage.
- Murzilka. Ready to eat in 90-100 days, the fruit is large (diameter 8-10 cm), round, weight - 220-300 g, pleasant taste, slightly spicy.
- Healer. Late ripening, round fruits, weight - 190-250 g, has medicinal properties.
- Cylinder. Mid-season, the shape of a large fruit is similar to carrots, the taste can be compared with radish, daikon.
White (Raphanus candidus)
It may look like a black radish in shape, but it differs in the color of the peel - it is white, and the taste is sweet, with a mild rare aroma. In terms of the content of vitamins and minerals, it is not inferior to other varieties.
- Winter round white. Rounded in shape, ripens in 80-100 days. The pulp is juicy, crispy, with a medium-sharp taste. Stored for a long time.
- Daikon. The growing season is 60 days. The root is long (up to 60 cm), thickened on top, sweet, juicy, fragrant, white rind. Productivity - up to 3 kg / 1 m².
- May. Designed for summer use, ripens in 55-60 days. The shape is round, the taste is delicate, not very spicy.
- Minovashi. Can be consumed in summer, stored. The elongated cylindrical root ripens in 55-60 days.
- Moscow hero. The fruits are large, long (70-80 cm), ready to eat in 75-85 days. There is no bitterness in the pulp. Productivity -16-17 kg / 1 m². Stored well.
- Rhinoceros. The growing season is 50-55 days. The root crop is elongated, rounded. The taste is dominated by sweetness, there is no sharpness. Productivity - 7 kg / 1 m².
- Sasha. Matures in a short period of 35-45 days. Root vegetable (weight 100-400 g) is oval in shape, cannot be stored, the taste is spicy-sweet. Productivity - 2.5 kg / 1 m².
Green or Chinese (Raphanus sativus var.lobo)
The variety got its name because of the color of the skin - the first roots brought from the East to the city of Margilan, in Uzbekistan, were green. Among the brethren, it differs in a softer delicate taste, a wide and short root crop, the mass of which, on average, reaches 500 g.
- Aelita. The growing season is 65 days. The root is elliptical, thickened, green in color, weight - 200-400 g, there is pungency in the taste.
- Green goddess. Matures in 60-65 days. The shape is round, the core with a greenish tint, mild spicy to taste, weight - up to 400 g.
- Southerner. Late ripening, resistant to flowering. The taste is sweetish-spicy, the core is greenish, weight - 200-300 g.
- Lobo. Matures 60-90 days. Differs in large (500 g) fruits of a round or elongated shape, they are green, red, purple in color. The taste is sweetish-spicy.
Colored radish varieties
Modern hybrids with different skin and core colors are widespread. The red color is due to the presence of carotene in large quantities. For example, such:
- Okay. Czech variety. The root crop (120-150 g) is long, conical in shape, the skin is red-pink, bright, the core is white, juicy. Productivity - 2.0-2.2 kg / 1 m².
- Severyanka. The growing season is 60 days. The shape is round, the base is pointed, the skin is pink-red, weighs from 500 to 850 g. The taste is sweetish, with pungency.
- Troyandova. Mid-season (80-85 days), oval pink root, weighs from 650 to 700 g, tender pink when cut, the taste is pronounced. Productivity - up to 7 kg / 1 m².
- Red long summer. The reddish-pink root (120-150 g) sticks out a quarter above the ground. Constant hilling is required. Ripening period - 40-45 days.
- Zlata - the brightest representative of the yellow radish. Bright yellow even rounded fruits (weight 23 g) are ready to eat in 21 days.
- Watermelon radish or purple radish. A hybrid with a growing season of 60-70 days, a root with a white peel, a raspberry-colored core with a pungent taste.
The timing is selected depending on the characteristics of the variety and the climatic conditions at the place of cultivation. The sowing time in the soil can be selected both spring and summer - you should focus on the early maturity of the root crop.
In spring, it can be sown from mid-April to the end of the last decade of May, and in summer from mid-July to early September. The seeding rate of radish in spring is 0.5-1g / sq. m, and in the summer - 0.4-0.5 g / sq. m.
If the radish was planted in spring, then if the weather changes too rapidly towards warmth and an increase in daylight hours, peduncles may appear on plants that have not yet formed a root crop. To prevent this from happening, most gardeners prefer to plant radish in the summer.
Abundant watering is the key to success when growing radishes in winter. Photo: Charles Dowding
The moisture content of the soil in the greenhouse must be maintained at a level.Therefore, watering is not carried out until mass shoots, then it is watered moderately, and when root crops are formed, it is abundant.
Plants are watered with warm water ° C). If a crust forms after watering, the crops are loosened or mulched with humus.
After watering, you need to ventilate the cultivation structure to prevent the stretching of the plants and their defeat by fungal diseases.
If necessary (slow growth, light color of the leaves), the radish plants are fed. A working solution of fertilizers is used (1 teaspoon of ammonium nitrate, 2 teaspoons of potassium magnesium and double superphosphate per 10 liters of water).
In addition to Dutch varieties of radish, domestic early-ripening varieties of Saksa, Rubin, etc. can be used for growing in film greenhouses.