Cherry planting rules
Sweet cherry is the oldest form of cherry, known for eight thousand years BC. This thermophilic plant of southern latitudes only in the last century, thanks to the efforts of breeders, began to move into cold regions. In order to grow this culture without problems and get a decent harvest, the gardener will have to work hard. And he also needs to study the rules for landing and choosing a place with favorable conditions.
Cherry planting dates
There are two options for planting cherries - spring and autumn. The first option is the most preferred and widespread, it is suitable for all growing regions. The time for planting should be chosen in early spring, when sap flow has not yet begun and the buds have not swollen. Moreover, the snow should already melt, and the earth should warm up to + 5-10 ° C. This time is good because nature begins to wake up and the planted plants will wake up with it. They will immediately begin to take root and start growing. The survival rate of seedlings at this time is maximum. And by the fall, the cherry will finally take root in a new place, get stronger, gain strength and be able to safely survive its first winter.
In southern regions with warm winters and a long growing season, an autumn planting option is possible. In this case, the time should be chosen so that 3-4 weeks remain before the onset of cold weather, during which the seedling will have time to take root. This option has one advantage - in areas with dry and hot summers, seedlings planted in spring will have to deal with drought and heat, which is excluded during autumn planting.
Where to plant cherries on the site
For planting cherries, you will need a well-lit and ventilated place. At the same time, it must be protected from cold northerly winds in the form of thick trees, walls of buildings or structures, fences. It is better to choose a small southern or southwestern slope, on which water will not stagnate. Swampiness and close occurrence of groundwater (less than 2.5 meters) are not allowed.
What kind of soil does sweet cherry love
For cherries grown in arid regions, fertile loams are suitable, and in areas with sufficient or excessive moisture, sandy loam. In this case, the soil should have a loose, well-drained structure. The optimum acidity level is pH 6.7-7.1, but on chernozems with a large amount of humus, plants can also tolerate the carbonate content (increased alkaline reaction) of the soil. In this case, a reaction up to pH 8.0 is acceptable.
How to plant cherries if groundwater is near
There is no economically feasible way of growing sweet cherries in areas with a close occurrence of groundwater. On damp soils, it is imperative to drain it by arranging drainage ditches that remove excess moisture outside the site. This pleasure is not cheap and time consuming.
Drainage of the site is an expensive undertaking
In cases where the occurrence of groundwater is within 1-1.5 m, you can apply cherry planting on a hill. It is poured over the planting pit with a height of 0.5-1.2 meters and a diameter of 2-2.5 meters.
At what distance to plant cherries from each other
The planting interval depends solely on the size of the crown. And it, in turn, depends on the variety of sweet cherry and rootstock to which the grafting was carried out. On average, the diameter of the cherry crown is usually 2.5-4 meters. Based on the characteristics of the planted variety, the distance between trees in a row is taken to be equal to the crown diameter, and the distance between rows is increased by 1-1.5 meters. That is, with a crown diameter of 3 meters, the landing pattern is chosen 3 x 4 meters.
Cherries are planted at a distance of three meters from each other
What trees can you plant cherries with?
It is best to group plants according to the principle - like with like. Cherries are preferably planted in a group with other cherries and cherries. Pome fruits - apple and pear - usually oppress cherries, so you should stay away from them. And also it is worth avoiding the neighborhood with sea buckthorn - it, in general, is a bad neighbor for any culture. The apricot has a rather extensive and powerful root system, which will actively fight against the cherry root system of the same power. Therefore, it is worth spreading their neighborhood by 5-6 meters. Plum and cherry plum will not harm the cherry, but it will oppress them by itself.
Where to plant self-fertile cherries
Self-infertile varieties of sweet cherries require the presence of pollinating plants within a radius of 50-100 meters. As a rule, these should be cherries of other varieties, the flowering period of which coincides with the flowering period of the planted tree. In addition, according to information from some sources, a good pollinator for cherries is the Lyubskaya cherry variety. This should be taken into account when planting cherries. If there are no such plants nearby, and you want to plant cherries, and it is self-fertile, then you will have to plant the pollinator variety sweet cherries at the same time.
How to plant cherries
Planting cherries requires some preparation.
Preparing a planting pit for cherries in spring
A planting pit for cherries must be prepared at least 20-30 days before planting. If it is planned for the spring, then it is better to prepare the planting pit in the fall. For this:
- You need to dig a hole 50-60 centimeters deep and 80-100 centimeters in diameter. On soils poor in humus, the volume of the pit is increased in order to introduce more nutrients into it when planting.
You need to dig a hole 50-60 centimeters deep and 80-100 centimeters in diameter
- If the soil is heavy, clayey, then the depth of the pit should be increased to 80 centimeters and a drainage layer 10–20 centimeters thick should be laid on the bottom of it. Crushed stone, expanded clay, gravel, broken brick, etc. are used as drainage.
If the soil is heavy, clayey, then a drainage layer 10-20 centimeters thick should be laid on the bottom of the planting pit.
- After that, the pit must be filled to the top with a nutrient mixture consisting of equal parts of black soil, peat, humus and coarse river sand. For each bucket of such a mixture add 30-40 grams of superphosphate and 0.5 liters of wood ash.
The planting hole must be filled to the brim with nutrient mixture.
- For the winter, the pit is covered with moisture-proof materials (film, roofing material, slate, etc.) to prevent the washing out of nutrients by melt and rainwater.
Planting cherries in spring with seedlings
The most common option for planting cherries is planting seedlings. They are purchased, as a rule, in the fall, since at this time there is a large selection of high-quality planting material of various varieties. It is worth giving preference to seedlings of one or two years of age. Such ones take root better and take root, they come into fruiting faster. The root system of the seedling should be well developed and have healthy fibrous roots without growths, knots and bumps. The trunk should be at least 10-15 mm in diameter, have a smooth bark without cracks or damage. Recently, cherry seedlings with a closed root system are increasingly being offered for sale. Their advantage is that such plants can be planted at any time from April to October.
Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted at any time during the growing season
How to save a cherry seedling before planting in the spring
You can save the seedlings purchased in the fall either in the cellar (basement), or dug into the ground. In the first case, you need to have a room with a constant air temperature from 0 to +5 ° C. The roots of the seedling are dipped in a mullein and clay mash, after which they are placed in a humid environment (sand, sawdust, moss).
In the second case, you need to dig a hole in the garden with a depth of 20-30 centimeters, at the bottom of which a small layer of sand is poured. The seedlings are placed obliquely in the pit and the roots are covered with sand. Watered with water and covered with earth almost completely, leaving only the top not covered. She is covered with spruce branches to avoid damage by hares.
Until spring, seedlings can be saved by digging them in the garden.
Step-by-step instructions for planting cherries
Now everything is ready for the successful planting of cherries - a planting hole in the chosen place and a seedling of the variety you like, placed for storage. In early spring, with the onset of the optimal time, they start planting:
- On the day of planting, they take out a seedling from the basement or ditch and examine it. If damaged or frozen roots are found, cut them off with a pruner.
If damaged or frozen roots are found, cut them off with pruning shears
- The roots are soaked for several hours in a growth stimulant solution (Epin, Heteroauxin, Kornevin).
Soak the roots for several hours in a growth stimulant solution
- Open the planting hole and make a hole in it according to the size of the root system of the seedling.
- A small mound is formed in the center of the hole, and a wooden or metal stake is driven in a little to the side of the center. Its height above soil level should be within 80-120 centimeters. You can use two stakes for better fixation of the plant.
- The seedling is lowered into the hole, placing the root collar at the top of the mound, and the roots are spread along the slopes.
The seedling is lowered into the hole, placing the root collar at the top of the hill, and spread the roots along the slopes
- It is best to use the help of a second person at this stage. One will hold the plant, and the second will cover the hole with earth. This must be done in layers, with each layer compacted. It is necessary to ensure that in the end the root collar of the seedling is at the level of the soil. For this, it is convenient to use a rail or bar.
It is convenient to control the level of the root collar when planting cherries using a rail or a bar
- The central conductor of the seedling is cut to a height of 60-80 centimeters, and the branches (if any) are shortened to 20-30 centimeters.
After planting, the seedling is pruned
- The stem is tied to the stake with an elastic material in the form of a figure eight, without squeezing the bark. And also for these purposes, you can use special plastic clamps.
You can use plastic clamps to tie the seedling
- A near-trunk circle is formed by raking an earthen roller along the diameter of the planting pit.
- Water the plant abundantly until the moisture is absorbed three times. This is necessary to ensure good contact of the soil with the roots and eliminate air sinuses in the root zone.
Water the plant abundantly until the moisture is absorbed three times
- The next day, the soil is loosened and mulched, using humus, compost, rotted sawdust, hay, etc.
After watering, the soil is loosened and mulched
How to plant grafted cherries
Grafted cherries are planted according to the same rules as self-rooted ones. The only peculiarity is that the vaccination site is sometimes too low. In this case, when planting, you need to ensure that it is not buried in the soil. It is desirable that the vaccination site is 5-7 centimeters above ground level. In regions with a high level of snow cover, it is better to purchase seedlings grafted at a height of 0.5-1.0 m.
It is desirable that the vaccination site is at least 5-7 centimeters above ground level.
How to plant cherries in a container
Nowadays, seedlings of plants with a closed root system (CCS) are increasingly being sold. They are usually grown in containers or buckets and sold with them. This method has obvious advantages:
- When transplanting such a seedling, the root system is not injured and its survival rate is 100%.
- Seedlings with ZKS can be 3-4 years old when transplanted, which shortens the period of cherries entering fruiting from the moment of planting.
- Such plants can be planted at any time from early spring to autumn.
A planting pit for cherries with ZKS is prepared according to the same rules as for ordinary seedlings, the planting rules also do not change. Landing features are as follows:
- A mound is not formed in the planting pit, since the seedling is transplanted from the container by transshipment with a lump of earth.
- And also such a plant does not need a stake for a garter, since a large clod of earth on the roots reliably holds the cherries.
A large clod of earth on the roots holds the cherries securely
Video: planting cherries
How to plant cherries with a bone
Of course, cherries can be grown from seeds. The question is: why? It is known that this method of cultivation does not preserve the varietal characteristics of the original. No matter how tasty and large the berry, the seed of which was used for cultivation, is, the result is likely to be the same. After much work, a wild game will grow with small berries of mediocre taste. Yes, such a plant will have endurance, unpretentious care, frost resistance, immunity to diseases and pests. But it can only be used as a rootstock for grafting varietal cherries or for decorative landscaping plantings. With this in mind, we will briefly describe the process of planting cherries with a bone:
- From the cherries growing in a given area, they collect the required amount (with a reserve) of seeds from fully ripe berries.
- The seeds are freed from the pulp, washed and dried.
The seeds are freed from the pulp, washed and dried
- Placed in a paper bag and stored until December at room temperature.
- In December, the bones are soaked for three to four days in water, changing it daily.
- Placed in a container with a moist substrate (sand, sawdust, sphagnum moss).
- The container is placed in the refrigerator for three months to stratify the seeds.
- In early spring, the container is taken outside and covered with snow.
- After the shells crack and begin to sprout, they are planted in individual pots or trays to a depth of 1.5-2 centimeters.
After the shells crack and begin to germinate, they are planted in individual pots
- Seedlings usually appear in 25-30 days. When they reach a height of 10-15 centimeters, they dive in a larger container.
When the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 centimeters, they dive in a larger container
- With regular moistening and loosening by autumn, they will grow to 25-30 centimeters.
- After that, at least a month before the onset of frost, the resulting seedlings are planted in a permanent place, observing the rules described above. At the same time, you need to take care of protecting plants from frost and rodents by equipping them with shelters from plastic bottles with a cut bottom.
It is necessary to take care of protecting the plants from frost and rodents by equipping them with shelters made of plastic bottles with a cut-off bottom
How to plant cherries in spring with cuttings
In order to plant a sweet cherry with a handle, it must first be rooted. The rules for planting a rooted cuttings are the same as for planting a regular seedling.
Rooting cherry cuttings
As a rule, cherries are propagated by green cuttings. This process is simple, but somewhat painstaking. It consists of the following:
- Harvesting cuttings. The best time for this comes when young shoots reach a great length and begin to lignify, but they themselves are still quite flexible. In central Russia it falls on June 10-30. So:
- Early in the morning, while it is cool, choose lateral shoots of medium growth, located on young growths of the last year and growing in a well-lit part of the crown. Cut them out with pruning shears.
- Cuttings 8-10 centimeters long are cut from these branches. Each of them should have 3-4 buds and leaves. In this case, the lower cut should be one to two centimeters from the first kidney.
- One or two of the bottom sheets are cut out completely, and the top ones are cut by 50-60% to reduce the evaporation area.
One or two bottom sheets are cut out completely, and the top ones are cut by 50-60% to reduce the evaporation area
- The prepared cuttings are placed with their lower end in a solution of a root formation stimulator (Kornevin, Heteroauxin) to a depth of 2.5-3 centimeters. In this solution, the cuttings should stand until evening.
- For rooting cuttings, you need to prepare a container with nutritious soil. First, a sheet of moisture-absorbing soil is poured onto the bottom with a layer of 10-12 centimeters. Pour a substrate from a peat-sand mixture on top with a layer of 3-5 centimeters.
- In the evening, cuttings are taken out of the solution and stuck into the prepared soil to a depth of 3-4 centimeters so that the lower bud is located in the substrate. The distance between cuttings in a row should be within 5-7 centimeters, and between rows - 8-12 centimeters.
Cuttings for rooting are cut from the side shoots located on the young growths of the last year
- Moisten the soil with a spray bottle.
- The container is placed in a well-lit greenhouse in which a high humidity level must be maintained. The best rooting temperature is 23-30 ° C.
The container with cuttings is placed in a well-lit greenhouse in which a high level of humidity must be maintained.
- Further care consists in daily airing and double irrigation from a sprayer. And also, if necessary, the soil must be carefully loosened.
- After about a month, the plants will already have good roots and should be planted. You can plant it immediately to a permanent place, but it is better to transplant it into containers or buckets, and postpone planting until spring. In this case, such seedlings will need to be placed in a greenhouse for the winter or equipped with a temporary shelter from frost.
Video: how to root green cuttings correctly
Planting cherries, depending on the growing area
Planting rules and requirements for the location of the tree do not depend on the growing area. They are standard and described above. The difference exists only in the varieties and methods of cultivation used, in the features of care and formation.
The continental climate of Belarus is excellent for growing winter-hardy varieties of sweet cherries. Among them:
- Syubarovskaya and others.
Cherry planting dates in Belarus are early spring.
Sweet cherries, like cherries, are massively grown throughout Ukraine, especially in its southern regions. A large number of zoned varieties have been bred here (mainly at the Melitopol Experimental Gardening Station):
- Melitopol black;
- Melitopol early;
- Valery Chkalov;
- Space and many others.
Planting is carried out both in spring and autumn (in the southern regions) according to standard rules.
Planting cherries in Central Russia, including the Moscow region
Winter-hardy varieties from early to mid-late ripening periods are suitable for these areas. For the most part, they are the fruits of the selection of the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupin (Bryansk) and the All-Russian Selection and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery (Moscow), as well as some Belarusian and Ukrainian varieties. Cherries should be planted here only in early spring.
For this region, only two varieties of sweet cherry are noted in the State Register - Early pink of medium ripening and Dyber black of medium late ripening. But gardeners of Volgograd and the region do not look into the State Register and successfully grow many of its other varieties:
- Donetsk beauty;
- Yaroslavna, etc.
Cherry planting in Volgograd is early spring.
In the Leningrad region
Bred for this area, the Leningradskaya black variety was never included in the State Register. There are no other varieties in it for the North-West. Gardeners of the Leningrad Region, judging by the reviews, grow the following varieties:
In the Urals
The climate of the Urals is characterized by unstable weather conditions and sharp temperature changes. In such conditions, the cultivation of a southern, thermophilic culture, which is sweet cherry, is fraught with considerable difficulties. But there is experience in the successful cultivation of some winter-hardy varieties, zoned in the Central Region. The most promising varieties turned out to be Iput and Severnaya breeding of the Belarusian Institute of Fruit Growing. Experienced gardener Vladimir Pitelin in 2012 wrote about the abundant harvest of Fatezh varieties (selection of the Moscow Institute of Fruit Growing) and 2-7-37 varieties in the South Urals. According to him, planting cherries in the Urals does not differ from planting in the middle lane. In this case, all the rules set out above apply. Only they need to be performed more scrupulously - the Ural climate does not forgive mistakes. He also recommends using seedlings on a dwarf rootstock VSP-2 for growing sweet cherries in both standard and stanza forms.
Video: cherries in the gardens of the South Urals
There are also enthusiasts in Siberia testing cherry varieties locally. As a rule, these are the same varieties as those grown in the South Urals. Dwarf cherries winter especially well in places where the snow cover is thick and completely covers the trees. Shale forming is also successfully used in Siberia. Landing rules are standard.
Shale shaping of sweet cherries is used in the Urals and Siberia
Cherry transplant in spring
A cherry transplant is an undesirable event for her. Moreover, the older the plant, the more harmful the consequences can be and the higher the risk of non-survival. This is due to the inevitable injury of the root system, as well as the loss of most of it in the event of transplanting an old tree.
When can you transplant cherries in spring or autumn
Most gardeners recommend doing this in early spring, especially in cold climates. This is explained by the fact that, transplanted in the fall, the tree will not have time to take root well and will leave weakened in the winter. In places with mild winters and hot summers, it is recommended to transplant in the fall, since the plant here is more likely to dry out in the summer than freeze out in the winter. In any case, when preparing for a transplant, it is better to rely on the experience of local gardeners and specialists.
How to transplant young cherries, including three years old
Transplanting a young sweet cherry is not much different from planting a seedling. The main difference is that in order to transplant a tree, it still needs to be properly dug out of the ground.
Step-by-step instructions for transplanting young cherries
In this manual, we will describe the process of planting a transplanted tree in spring:
- First of all, a young tree must be dug out of the ground. This is done in the fall, since in spring weather conditions may not allow digging the plant before the onset of sap flow. For this:
- If the soil is dry, then the day before digging it should be watered to soften it.
- A circle is marked around the tree with a diameter equal to the estimated diameter of the root system. You can do this with a string tied to the trunk and some kind of stick.
- With a shovel, they dig a groove around the plant, focusing on the drawn circle.
For transplantation, a groove is dug around the plant, focusing on the drawn circle
- The plant is removed from the pit, trying not to destroy the earthen lump on the roots.
- They drop it in the garden for winter storage.
- The second step - preparation of the landing pit - is also carried out in the fall according to the previously described algorithm.
- In early spring, a seedling is taken out of the ditch and planted in compliance with the rules set out above.
- The crown is cut, leaving no more than five skeletal branches, which are shortened by 30%. This is done so that the plant does not waste energy on the growth of shoots, but primarily directs them to the development of the root system. For the same purpose, all flowers are removed, preventing fruiting in the first year after transplantation.
How to transplant an adult cherry tree
If necessary, you can also transplant an adult tree, although experts believe that cherries over the age of seven years will not tolerate this. In this case, you can try an interesting method, which is as follows:
- At the end of September, a circle is marked around the tree, as is the case with a young tree. Its diameter should be such as to capture as many roots as possible, but at the same time the weight of the extracted part was within reasonable limits.
- A sharp shovel with a flat blade cut the roots in half of the marked circle.
- Dig a trench along this half of the circle deep on the bayonet of the shovel.
- In the lower part of the trench, the roots are cut even deeper, onto the bayonet of a shovel.
- Fill up the trench and watered it with water.
- The tree continues to feed on the other half of the roots that remain intact. In the first half, at this time, new roots will begin to form, which will fill the inner space of the root system.
- After 3-4 weeks, the same procedure is carried out with the second half of the roots. They are cut, dug in, cut again, buried. Water abundantly for another two weeks and leave the tree until spring.
- At the same time, it is worth taking care of the planting pit for the transplanted plant.
- In early spring, as soon as the weather permits, the plant is dug out of the ground with a lump of young roots and transplanted to a new place.
Unfortunately, there are no illustrations of this method, but there is a great video to watch.
Video: a new method for transplanting mature trees
Subsequent cherry transplant, including how to transplant an old tree
Subsequent transplanting of cherries will most likely become a useless exercise. It is unlikely that the tree will undergo this procedure again. Therefore, the choice of a landing site should be approached responsibly so as not to have problems in the future. In theory, the possibility of a transplant remains. But you need to do this with a large clod of earth, using special equipment for this - an excavator, a crane, a truck for transportation. And even if you do not take into account the significant material costs, the success of the event is not guaranteed. Since the indicated equipment will be able to drive far from every place.
It is unlikely that the gardener will use special equipment to transplant old cherries.
The rules for planting, breeding and transplanting cherries are actually not so complicated that a novice gardener could not figure them out. With due diligence and the presence of favorable conditions for culture, the result of the labor invested will certainly not upset.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Before planting, it is necessary to carefully study the issue and find out the optimal planting site, the timing of planting the sweet cherry and its further care. After all, these are important components that will affect the further growth and fruitfulness of the tree.
The landing site should be full of sun rays and shade is not desirable. Also exclude northern, cold winds. Planting a cherry tree assumes a positive air temperature. This also applies to winter-hardy varieties.
Does not tolerate stagnant water - this negatively affects its root system, but at the same time, the soil should not be clayey and it should be easy for water to pass through. For clayey soil, we recommend diluting it with sand.
The optimal time for planting cherries is early spring, when the buds have not yet swollen. This has been proven by experienced gardeners - the seedling takes root easily and is resistant to diseases. You need to prepare a hole for planting trees in the fall. To do this, you need to dig a planting hole, about 70 cm deep and a meter in diameter. And already directly in it, prepare the soil for the seedling: mix the earth with three buckets of rotted humus and a liter of wood ash (instead of ash, mineral fertilizers are also used). If the soil is clay, add a bucket of sand, and to reduce acidity and increase air saturation of the roots, add two or three buckets of limestone crushed stone.
When planting, pay attention to the roots, if they have dried up during transportation and storage, then they cannot be planted in this form. It must be allowed to saturate with moisture for 8 hours and only then plant
You should not bury the seedling deeply, because there will still be a shrinkage of the earth - it is better to raise it by 4-5 cm. You can also artificially raise the ground level by 0.5 meters. After planting, you need to make a small ditch around the seedling and pour water.
Since cherry trees love space and a lot of light, they must be planted at a distance of at least 4-5 meters from each other, so that there is room for the crown to expand and at the same time not create a shadow.
For cherries, it is good when they are planted with other varieties or with cherries, the flowering of which is the same. This is an excellent pollination. Why do you need pollination of cherries? Since most varieties are self-fertile and only a small part is partially self-fertile, the presence of a pollinator variety contributes to a good harvest.
How to plant cherries in spring with seedlings: timing, rules and step-by-step guide
Cherry is a tree that is sometimes forgotten when planting a garden, or it is believed that it can be grown especially in the southern regions of the country. But now many varieties have been bred that allow you to plant cherries in more severe climatic conditions. And its fruits are distinguished by a special taste and are liked not only by adults, but also by children.
Dates of planting cherries in spring
It is preferable to plant cherries in spring, because during the season the seedling will be able to grow stronger, grow a strong root and prepare for the upcoming winter. For the southern regions, the optimal planting time is the period from late March to early April, and for the northern regions, preferably from mid-April to early May.
But in each individual case, one should not only rely on these terms, but also take into account the weather conditions of the current season. It is recommended to plant cherries in a permanent place only at a stable above-zero temperature of at least +5 degrees. Also, the planting specimen should not have obvious signs of vegetation.
Carrying out the procedure during this period ensures that the soil is still moisture after winter.
Important! The timing of planting cherries is of great importance, since an early procedure can lead to the freezing of a seedling under the influence of frost, and later - it threatens to lead to a long recovery of the tree under the influence of active sunlight.
According to the lunar calendar in 2019
It can help you choose the optimal date for planting seedlings Moon calendar.
So favorable days for spring planting of cherries in 2019 according to the lunar calendar are:
Yes, this is not a mistake, according to the Lunar calendar, it is recommended to plant seedlings of fruit and berry crops only in April.
Of course, it is not always possible to get to the dacha on favorable days, therefore, the main thing is not to land on unfavorable days.
Unfavorable days according to the lunar calendar for 2019 for planting cherry seedlings in spring, the following dates are:
- in March - 6, 7, 21
- in April - 5, 19
- in May - 5, 19
- in June - 3, 4, 17.
According to the lunar calendar from the magazine "1000 Tips for Summer Residents".
Pros and cons of spring cherry planting
Planting cherries in the spring has its advantages compared to the autumn period. But in order for the gardener to be able to make a final decision about the timing, you need to familiarize yourself with them in advance.
- The seedling has at least 6 months in stock to grow stronger and grow shoots before winter, which guarantees its preservation until next year.
- During the current season, the gardener will be able to closely monitor the development of cherries and respond in time to its needs in the event of drought, pest attacks or diseases.
- It is possible to prepare a planting pit in the fall, which will completely settle by the spring. This will help to properly plant, while avoiding excessive deepening of the root collar.
Along with all the advantages, there are certain disadvantages of planting in the spring.
These include the fact that during this period the seedling begins an active growing season, and therefore it needs to spend energy not only on rooting, but also on building up green mass.
In addition, another disadvantage is the extreme employment of the gardener in the spring, when there is sorely not enough time to pay attention to all the trees in full.
When choosing the timing of planting cherries in autumn or spring, it should be understood that the tree is a thermophilic crop and therefore, if planted in autumn, there is a risk of freezing it in winter, since it will not have enough time to root itself by this period.
Step-by-step instructions for planting cherries, taking into account the features and rules
The main condition for the full development of a tree is the correct planting. Compliance with all recommendations and features allows the seedling to quickly recover and grow. Ignoring the rules of procedure will negatively affect the cherries and lead to the fact that the tree wasted energy.
How to choose the right seedling
When buying a cherry seedling, you need to pay attention to the presence of a grafting site, which is a guarantee of the variety of the specimen, and the quality of its fruits will be much higher than ordinary trees grown from seeds.
The choice should be made in favor of zoned cherry varieties that have proven themselves well when grown in this climatic zone.
It is recommended when buying cherries to choose a tree with a strong, strong conductor that will prevail over the side branches.
Also, you should not buy a planting specimen that has a bifurcated trunk, since in the future it can break under the weight of the fruit.
The root system should be well developed and have not only the main root, but also lateral ones, in addition, there should be no heavily damaged and broken areas on it. When choosing a seedling, you should choose only that specimen that has not yet begun to grow, that is, it is in a dormant stage.
Video: how to choose cherry seedlings
Where to plant: which place to choose
For cherries, it is recommended to choose sunny areas that warm well at any time of the year, while they must be protected from strong winds.
Therefore, it is optimal to plant a tree on the south or southwest side of the garden plot. You cannot plant cherries in a place where groundwater passes at a depth of 1.5 m and higher.
This will lead to the fact that after a few years of active growth, the tree will die abruptly, since groundwater will wash out the soil at the roots.
Respect for neighborhood
For the full-fledged growth of cherries, it is necessary to observe the neighborhood, otherwise the harvest of fruits can never be expected.
Important! Cherry is a cross-pollinated tree, so plant at least two plants at the same time or close to planted cherries.
Sweet cherries will feel good in the neighborhood next to apple, cherry and plum.
It is not recommended to plant cherries next to the following trees:
- black currant
At what distance
Sweet cherry is distinguished by a highly developed root system of a surface location, which from time to time covers a large area nearby. Therefore, when planting it in the garden, it is necessary to leave the distance between the trunks within 4-5 meters.
Important! Ignoring the distance will lead to the fact that cherries will begin to oppress neighboring trees.
Required soil composition
Experts recommend planting cherries on medium loamy and sandy loam soils. The tree needs fertile, loose and breathable soil.
If you plant cherries in sandy soil, it is necessary to add a layer of clay to the bottom of the planting recess; with a clay composition, it is recommended to pour sand, which will help develop a strong root system for the tree when it reaches the main soil layer.
With increased acidity, lime should be added to the ground in autumn at the rate of 400 g per 1 meter of area.
Preparing the pit for planting
It is recommended to prepare the site for planting 14 days in advance by digging it onto a shovel bayonet and removing the roots of the weeds. After that, the surface of the soil must be leveled and a depression made for the seedling.
It is recommended to dig a planting hole for cherries with a width of 80-100 cm and a depth of 70 cm. The walls of the recess should not taper downward, it is better to make them vertical. When digging a hole, the top layer should be set aside, as it will come in handy for further planting.
Drive in a wooden stake with a height of at least 80 cm on one side, which will be a support for a young seedling.
How and what to fertilize before planting
For full nutrition of the cherry root, it is recommended to fill the planting hole with a special mixture consisting of soil and fertilizers. But when preparing it, it is necessary to observe the dosage so that the roots of the seedling do not get burned.
- 2 parts topsoil
- 1 part humus
- 1 part peat or leaf land
- 50 g of potassium sulphide
- 100 g superphosphate.
Important! When planting cherries, you should not apply nitrogen fertilizers, which will lead to root burns.
All components of the mixture should be mixed and the cavity should be filled 2/3 of the volume 10 days before planting.
The procedure for planting cherries in compliance with the rules makes it possible for the seedling to adapt as soon as possible and start active growth. Failure to comply with the rules can lead to the fact that the tree will not be able to fully develop the root and gain strength during the season.
Important! The seedling must be placed in water a day before planting to nourish the roots and activate the processes in them.
Step 1. In the planting hole, make a depression the size of the cherry seedling root and moisten abundantly with water (1 bucket).
Step 2. While the water is absorbed, it is necessary to remove all damaged ends of the roots and shoots with a pruning shears, cutting off to healthy tissue.
Step 3. Place the seedling in the middle of the recess, placing the trunk near the support and the root collar above the soil level at a height of 4 cm.
Step 4. Cover the roots with earth, occasionally shaking the seedling so that the soil fills all the voids between the roots.
Step 5. Compact the topsoil and tie the main conductor to the support with a soft twine, fixing the tree in the required position. At the attachment point, it is necessary to put roofing material so that friction does not form wounds on the bark.
Step 6. On top of the perimeter of the planting pit, it is necessary to pour a roller to form a hole, into which 2 buckets should be poured. When the moisture is absorbed and the ground sinks, the root collar of the seedling will turn out at the level of the soil.
Step 7. On the second day, the hole should be filled up, and the trunk circle should be mulched with humus.
Step 8. Cut off the main conductor at a height of 80 cm, and the side shoots at a height of 50 cm, which will help to form the correct crown.
Video: step by step planting cherries in spring
Further care rules
After planting, if dry, sunny weather sets in, the seedling is necessary to water Once every 10 days, pouring at least 2 buckets of water under the tree. In the second half of summer, sweet cherry does not need additional watering, as it is a drought-resistant crop.
Top dressing during the current season, it should not be carried out, since the tree received all the necessary substances in the nutrient mixture during planting.
Further care is that throughout the season, the gardener must ensure that the cherries did not damage pests and fungal diseases, if necessary, spraying with fungicides and insecticides should be carried out.
By the way! Read about caring for cherries in spring in this article.
Video: how to plant and care for cherries correctly
When to plant cherries in different regions of the country
In different climatic zones, it is necessary to plant cherries taking into account the characteristics of the region, therefore, the varieties of trees and the timing of the procedure differ significantly.
In the Volga region It is recommended to plant cherries before the onset of an elevated air temperature, therefore, it is best to carry out spring planting during the first and second ten days of March.
In the conditions of the Middle zone (in the suburbs) It is recommended to plant cherries in spring from the third decade of March - until mid-April, based on the weather conditions of the current season.
Concerning Siberia and the Urals, then it is not recommended to rush to the spring planting of cherries there, as there is a risk of late frosts, which will negatively affect the tree. Planting should be done in May.
Possible mistakes when planting cherries in spring
Sometimes minor mistakes can develop into negative consequences for the seedling, which will be an obstacle to its full development. Therefore, following all the recommendations will help to avoid common landing errors.
- Excessive fertilization when planting, it can lead to suppression of the root system and further death of the seedling.
- The root collar should be at ground level, since its deepening leads to a prolonged lack of yield, and excessive elevation leads to drying out of the roots.
- For planting it is recommended to purchase one- or two-year seedlings, since planting more mature specimens leads to long-term adaptation.
- Choice varieties it should be taking into account climatic conditions further maintenance, otherwise the tree will not overwinter.
Strict adherence to the rules and recommendations for spring planting is a guarantee that cherries quickly adapt to a new place and grow. As a result, in a few years it will be possible to harvest your own fruit from this tree.
Video: planting and initial pruning of cherries
Landing rules and tricks
Here are some guidelines that will make it easier to care for the seedling and ensure the tree is developing correctly:
- It is not necessary to deepen the root collar. She must definitely be on top of the soil. It is in the neck that the roots pass into the trunk.
- It will be helpful to position the seedling correctly in relation to the cardinal points. Ideally, the same location will be suitable as before in the nursery. The cherry itself will help to understand this seemingly difficult matter. For example, bark and shoots will tell you which side of the tree was directed to the north and which side to the south. In the first case, the bark is lighter and there are not many shoots. In the second, on the contrary, the bark is darker in color and there are more long shoots.
- A young tree needs support. Having completed the landing, it is advisable to drive a special support peg into the ground next to it and perform a garter. This will allow the seedling not to bend under the pressure of the wind and to get stronger, keeping the trunk straight.