Planting and breeding cherries: basic rules and useful tips
Of course, every gardener knows that the correctness of the planting procedure for any plant affects its further development, and cherries are no exception. There are several rules that you need to be familiar with in order to successfully plant and provide the cherry with the best conditions for further growth.
Cherry growing conditions
Cherries are successfully grown in all climatic zones (the exception is columnar cherry - it is recommended to grow it only in the southern regions and in the central regions), but this culture is demanding on conditions, therefore, before planting cherries, you need to choose the most suitable site and properly prepare his.
Basic site requirements
Location. Cherries are best planted in an open, well-lit area (try to choose the south or west side). It should also be sufficiently ventilated, but as far as possible protected from the cold north wind. Some gardeners quite allow the placement of cherries next to the wall of the house or a fence, since a lot of snow accumulates in these places in winter, which helps protect the root system from freezing. The minimum distance is 1 m, but if you rely on the established norms, then the distance to the fence is 2 m, to the walls of the house - 1.5 m.
The soil. In the selected area, the soil should be sandy, sandy loam or loamy. If you do not know what type of soil is on your site, then check out their brief description.
Sandy soil. Sand predominates in the composition of such soil. This type of soil is friable and flowing, and also passes water well. But it must be remembered that such soil needs regular fertilization (usually compost or humus is used for this purpose at the rate of 20 kg per 1 m2).
Sandy soil needs regular enrichment
Sandy loam soil. It is a mixture of sand and clay, good lump formation. The color of such soil is usually light brown. Fertility maintenance measures: mulching, sowing green manure, introducing organic matter (3-4 kg / m2) plus top dressing.
Sandy loam soil lends itself well to cultivation
Loamy soil. The composition is dominated by clay, so the soil has the usual dark color. You can form a sausage from it, which will fall apart when you try to make a ring. Fertility maintenance measures: the same.
Loamy soil suitable for growing any crop
It is strongly not recommended to grow cherries in the shade and on swampy soils.
Acidity. It is recommended to plant cherries on neutral soils, so check their acidity in the area of your choice. If the ground is covered with a light coating, moss or horsetails grow well on it, and the pits are filled with rusty water, then this indicates a high level of acidity. To lower it, add slaked lime (250-350 g / m2), ash (250-450 g / m2) or dolomite flour (300-500 g / m2).
Groundwater. Must lie at a depth of at least 1.5 m from the surface. If the groundwater is close, then make a 0.8 m thick earthen embankment to plant the cherry.
Neighbors. Gardeners say that cherry (it can be planted at a distance of 6–8 m), plum (distance to a cherry - 4–6 m), honeysuckle (it can be located at a distance of 1.5–2 m) are the best neighbors for cherries.
It is undesirable to plant cherries next to:
- Apple and pear, as they will take nutrients from cherries;
- Raspberries (she suffers from the same diseases as cherries);
- Gooseberry (it can harm the root system of cherries);
- currants (the soil is not suitable for cherries). The distance between cherries and these crops must be at least 10 m.
Also, do not place cherries next to solanaceous plants (tomatoes, eggplants, peppers) and blackberries (they form dense thorny thickets) - there should be at least 1.5 m between cherries and these crops.Oak, birch, linden, poplar and some conifers (spruce, pine), so try to plant a seedling 10 - 15 m from these trees.
If you want to plant cherries in the fall, then the preparation must be carried out in the spring, if in the spring, then in the fall. To do this, together with digging, add 10 kg of compost or humus, 100 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium salt to the soil for each square meter. After 3-5 days, add deoxidizing material if needed.
- In the Middle Lane and colder areas, cherries are recommended to be planted in early spring (early - mid-April), when the snow melts and the soil dries out a little and warms up, but before the buds swell. If you got hold of a seedling in the fall, then it is recommended to dig it in until spring. This is done as follows: dig a trench 40-50 cm deep and lay a seedling in it at an angle of 30about so that the crown is directed to the south, then cover the roots and trunk with earth to the first lateral branch. Tamp the earth and water, cover the crown with spruce branches. It is better to dig in seedlings in the period from mid to late September, until frost has come.
If you dig in the seedlings, then they will be well preserved until spring.
- In warm southern regions, cherries can also be planted in autumn from mid-September to late October, about a month before the onset of frost.
Planting a cherry seedling in the ground
The planting technology is the same for different types of cherries and can be used in any region.
Planting pit preparation
Usually the pit is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting. The technology is as follows:
- In the prepared soil, dig a hole 80 cm wide and 50 cm deep. Set the top fertile layer (20-30 cm) aside.
- Place a long (1.2-1.5 m) peg in the center of the hole to secure the seedling after planting.
- Prepare the following mixture: humus or compost (10 kg) + superphosphate (200 - 300 g) + potassium salt (50 g) or ash (500 g) + removed humus. If your site has clay soil (it has a reddish-brown tint and sticks strongly to shoes after rain), then add 10-15 kg of sand.
- Pour the substrate into the pit with a slide so that the top of the slide is level with the edge.
- Leave excess substrate at the edges of the pit.
If you want to plant a dwarf cherry, then the fertilizer composition will be as follows: compost (7 kg) + superphosphate (35 g) + potassium chloride (20 g) + ash (100-200 g).
Planting a cherry seedling
- Prepare the seedling for planting. To do this, you must first soak the dried roots for 3 to 4 hours in warm water. If the roots are damaged, then it is necessary to trim them to a healthy place, and then soak.
- After soaking, plant the seedling in the ground next to the peg on the north side, straighten the roots. Fill them with the rest of the soil so that the root collar (the place where the stem passes into the root, as a rule, gardeners are guided by the first large root branch) remains on the surface. Compact the soil carefully.
- Make a hole with a diameter of 20 cm around the seedling, pouring a small earthen shaft 10 cm high along the edges. Tie the seedling to the peg with a figure eight, without overtightening the trunk.
- Pour 15–20 liters of warm water into the well. If, after watering, the root collar is bare, then sprinkle it with earth.
- Mulch the hole with humus, peat or sawdust in a layer of 3-5 cm.
With the correct planting of cherries, the root collar is above the soil surface
Planting cherries - video
Placing different types of cherries when planting
The main difference in planting different types of cherries is their placement at different distances from each other. Also, when preparing the site, take into account the characteristics of the variety. If you want to plant a self-fertile cherry (it will not yield a crop without pollinating the flowers with pollen of another variety), and there are no other cherry trees nearby, then for the best fruiting you will have to purchase at least 1 more seedling of a different variety (experts recommend in this case not to plant less than 4 different seedlings). If you want to plant a large number of seedlings, then it is better to place them in a checkerboard pattern when planting.
Cherry propagation in other ways
If a cherry tree is already growing on your site, then you can increase the number of plantings of this culture without resorting to buying a seedling.
Cherry propagation by root shoots
To propagate cherries by root shoots, you need to choose the most viable shoots
Like many other fruit crops, cherries form basal growth, and with its help you can propagate your plant. It is best to carry out the procedure in early to mid-April, before bud break, (in the southern regions - at the end of September) on a cloudy day.
- Choose a tree that has less growth than others.
- Choose the most viable seedlings no more than two years old, located more than 1 m from the main tree.
- Next to the bush at a distance of 20 cm, excavate the ground and chop off the root that connects the shoot to the mother plant.
- Cut the shoot 1/3 and remove the side branches. Water as needed. Spend 2 top dressing with superphosphate (1 tablespoon diluted in 10 liters of water): the first immediately after separation from the main tree, the second - at the end of June.
Next year, at about the same time, dig out the seedling and transplant it to a pre-prepared permanent place.
Cherry propagation by horizontal layers
Horizontal layering allows for many new seedlings
Held from early to mid-April. Well suited for propagation of felted cherries or cherries on low stems, but can also be used for normal crops as long as the branches are long enough.
- Take a horizontal branch, shorten it by 1/4 if possible and lay it on the ground (it is advisable to dig a trench 5–7 cm deep).
- Secure the branch with wire.
- As soon as shoots begin to sprout on the branch, cover it with soil and water it well.
Water as needed. The next year, separate the sprouted shoots and transplant to a prepared, permanent place.
Cherry propagation by vertical layers
When propagating cherries by vertical layering, the shoots need constant hilling
This procedure should also be carried out during the rest period. Often carried out on damaged trees.
- Trim the seedling or cut down a mature tree to ground level.
- New shoots will begin to grow on the hemp, which must be immediately started to huddle in order to stimulate the formation of the root system.
- As the shoots grow, continue to huddle them, gradually increasing the height of the earthen layer. As a result, it should reach 20 cm, but not exceed half the height of the shoot.
The next year, in the spring, separate the shoots from the hemp, carefully undoing it, and plant it in a prepared place.
Cherry propagation by cuttings
To root cuttings, you need to properly prepare them.
- In early June, cut the young shoots that have hardened at the base and begin to blush. They should be about 30 cm long.The upper cut is made above the kidney, the lower one - under the kidney at a distance of 1.5 cm.
- Place the cut material in water, after removing the lower leaves. Soak the cuttings for 3-5 hours.
- Prepare a planting site. For this:
- Dig up the soil and make beds on it.
- Dig a trench 20 cm deep in the beds.
- Fill the bottom of the trench with drainage (pebbles, fine gravel, coarse sand).
- Pour a layer of fertile soil onto the drainage, mixing it with humus (3-4 kg / m2), ash (300 g / m2) and superphosphate (100 g / m2). Moisten well.
- Plant the cuttings in the ground, burying them 3 cm in the soil, at a distance of 10 cm from each other. Place the cuttings vertically.
- Cover the plantings with foil to protect them from the sun and provide the seedlings with favorable conditions for survival.
- Water and ventilate the garden as needed.
It will take about a month for rooting, after which you can remove the film. Water, weed, and loosen the garden regularly. Transplant the seedlings to a permanent location next spring.
The greenhouse creates favorable conditions for seedlings for rooting
If you prepared cuttings in the fall, then until spring they must be stored in a refrigerator or cellar, placing them in a moist substrate (sawdust, sand) and making sure that it does not dry out. If you store the cuttings in the refrigerator, then place them in a plastic bag, if in the cellar, then stick them into the box with the substrate with the lower end.
Cherry seed propagation
As a rule, cuttings of varietal cherry grown from the stone are used for rootstock, since they usually do not inherit the properties of the parent plant.
Preparing seeds for planting
- Remove the seeds from the fruit and rinse thoroughly.
- Drain and pat the bones dry on a paper towel out of direct sunlight.
- Wrap dry bones first in newspaper, and then in a plastic bag, you can also use a plastic container with a lid. Remove the workpiece in a dark place (the temperature should be about +20aboutC) until December.
- Then carry out the warm sanding procedure. To do this, take a container, put a layer of sphagnum moss on the bottom (it can be replaced with dry sawdust) 3 cm thick and fill it with warm water. Soak the substrate for 8-10 hours and then squeeze it to remove excess moisture.
- Place cherry seeds in the substrate.
To carry out warm sanding, the seeds must be placed in a moistened substrate.
- Close the container with a lid or cover with a plastic bag, making several holes in them for ventilation. Store the workpiece in a dark place at room temperature for 3-5 days, changing the water daily.
- Stratify. To do this, take a container or plastic bag and fill it with a moistened mixture of peat moss and sand, taken in equal proportions. Moistened sawdust or vermiculite is also good. Place the seeds in the substrate and place them in the refrigerator, but not under the freezer. The seeds should be stored in this way for 3 months. Remember to check the bones periodically, drain off stagnant water and moisten the substrate as needed. If some of the bones become moldy or start to rot, throw them away.
- Towards the end of February, start checking the bones more often. If you notice that the shell is cracked, then you need to immediately plant the bones in the ground. If it is impossible to carry out this event, reduce the storage temperature to 0aboutC, but keep in mind that sprouting seeds must be planted in pots no later than mid-March.
Planting seeds in pots and further care
- Prepare containers. These can be separate pots with a volume of 0.5 liters or a common box. The depth of the container must be at least 30 cm.
- Fill the dishes with soil, and it is advisable to take the one in which the mother plant grew. Some gardeners also use river sand or sawdust. Moisten the substrate slightly with warm water.
- Plant one bone at a time in a pot, deepening it by 2–2.5 cm. When planting in a common box, observe a distance of 20 cm.
- Cover the dishes with plastic wrap and place in a bright, but not hot place. The seeds need a month to germinate, but if they are cracked at the time of planting, the sprouts may appear in 20-25 days.
After sowing the seeds in the ground, they must be covered with a film.
- Remove the film after the sprouts appear. Water it sparingly and as needed, because with excess moisture, the bones can rot.
- When the shoots reach 20-30 cm in height, they can be planted in a prepared area in open ground.
As you can see, planting cherries is not difficult, and even novice gardeners can handle it. Careful and timely implementation of all instructions will certainly ensure the correct development of your plant, which means that it will bring you a high-quality harvest.
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How to plant cherries in spring: a step-by-step guide
Sweet cherry is one of the most ancient fruit plants, loved by many for its great berry taste and health benefits. It was known 2000 years ago, the Romans gave it the name "Curasunt fruits".
Sweet cherry is a capricious tree, has many nuances in cultivation and a gardener needs to know: when and how to plant cherries correctly, what varieties to choose and how to achieve abundant fruiting.
Cherry is considered to be the closest relative of cherry. Many people confuse cherries and cherries, only in 1491 botanists determined that these are different cultures, although they belong to the same family, sweet cherries are often called "bird cherries", and in Europe even Chekhov's famous play is called "Cherry Orchard".
The tree can reach up to 20-30 meters in height, blooms profusely, and the flowers appear before the leaves. Breeders have also bred dwarf varieties up to 3-5 meters, which provides a more convenient collection of fruits.
The color of the fruit is different depending on the variety: yellow, pink, dark red. According to the state of the pulp, it is divided into 2 types: bigarro - with firm pulp and late ripening and gini - with soft pulp and early fruiting. Sweet cherry is self-fertile, for pollination it is necessary to plant next to 2-3 of its other varieties. Cherry Iput is especially good for pollination.
The life span of a tree is about 100 years, but most often it is used 15-20 years. Sweet cherries can produce up to 25-30 kg of fruit per tree in a short period of fruiting. There are 4000 varieties of sweet cherries in the world, of which 46 varieties were created by breeders from Russia.
When to plant: in autumn or spring?
It is believed that sweet cherry is a tree that is more suitable for the south of the country, since it is very vulnerable to a drop in temperature and freezes during the first constant frosts, but today, thanks to the efforts of breeders, the cultivation of sweet cherries has become possible in other regions.
Cherry varieties have been created that correspond to different climatic conditions, are resistant to freezing and begin fruiting at the right time for a given region.
In the southern regions, cherries are planted mainly in the fall during the period of leaf fall. Spring planting threatens the seedling with high temperatures in March - April, dry winds and a large number of pests. In autumn, the tree manages to take root well and by spring it is already a mature plant, especially since there are no severe frosts in the south in winter.
For the Central regions of Russia, Siberia, the Far East, it is recommended to plant cherries in the spring, so that during the summer period the seedling will get stronger and take root. Spring for planting a tree has another indisputable advantage: throughout the summer, the gardener monitors the development and condition of the plant on a daily basis. He will be able to quickly apply the necessary measures in case of drought or excess moisture, pest attacks or plant diseases.
Preparing berries for planting in spring
A mistake for many sweet cherry lovers is the choice of a variety that is not zoned for a given region. Gardeners are tempted by beautiful descriptions, bright labels and do not take into account the survival rate of seedlings, the impact of climate and the biological characteristics of cherries.
This is especially true for areas with harsh and long winters. Moreover, when choosing a variety, it is necessary to take into account not only subzero winter temperatures, changes in temperature in spring are very dangerous - return frosts.
For the death of seedlings, it is enough to lower the temperature after the thaw to -2 ° C, if it does not have a high level of winter hardiness. Experienced gardeners in such a situation additionally use smoke from fires.
The yield can also be affected by the composition of the soil in a given region, the duration and intensity of daylight hours, the presence of stable cold winds.
The result is small yields, freezing, low taste, and sometimes the death of the plant.
Recommendations for choosing varieties for different regions:
|central region||Siberia||Far East||Leningrad region, North-West region|
|Pink sunset||Tyutchevka||Sakhalin||Leningrad black|
|Beauty Zhukova||Bryansk pink||Bigarro Bulat||Bryanochka|
|Valery Chkalov||Fatezh||Francis||Bryansk pink|
|Jealous||In memory of Astakhov||Ariadne||Teremoshka|
|Bryanochka||Kozlovskaya Michurina||Sweet pink||Fatezh|
For the Leningrad Region and the North-West regions, no special zoned varieties have been bred, gardeners successfully grow the most frost-resistant and unpretentious varieties intended for the Urals and Siberia.
Now 2 varieties are being developed for this region - Seda and Yurga. Cold winds from the Baltic Sea are a serious disadvantage for cherry cultivation in these areas.
Landing dates for different regions
|Central regions||End of March - mid-April|
|Far East||End of April - May|
|Northwest region and Leningrad region||End of April - May|
|Southern regions: Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region||Autumn, mid September - late October|
Requirements for soil and planting site
The soil for cherries should be with an air-permeable structure, well warmed up, moderately moist, with low acidity.
The level of groundwater is very important, since already at a level of 1.5 m from the surface of the earth, gum flow begins and the sweet cherry dies. It is preferable to plant it on loams rich in nutrients; peat soils, clay, sand are categorically unsuitable.
It is better to choose a planting place for cherries on the southern and southeastern slopes, well warmed up by the sun. Lowlands, from which water does not leave for a long time, are not suitable for it, in addition, it must be protected from northern winds.
When planting in the fall, the earth is completely dug up 2-3 weeks before planting, adding humus at the rate of 10 kg per 1 sq. meter.
When planting in the spring, the soil is prepared in the fall, digging it up and adding fertilizers. Many gardeners and planting pits prepare in the fall.
If the land is not suitable for planting cherries on your site, then this can be corrected. Sand is added to clay soil, and clay is added to sandy soil. Additionally, soil mixture, which is sold in specialized stores, is introduced, manure or humus. The earth is dug up and after a few years it is ready for planting cherries.
Sweet cherries are very demanding on light conditions. It feels good next to low-growing trees, forming a crown in the middle and upper tier for better absorption of sunlight.
Shading of cherries in gardens with tall fruit trees leads to the fact that fruiting switches to the upper branches, the fruits become smaller and their number decreases. For cherries, it is better to choose an open, sunny and warm place. For better lighting of the crown, annual pruning is used.
- High humidity is contraindicated in sweet cherries, the fruits begin to crack and rot, but excessively high dryness leads to the fact that leaves begin to fall off.
- Sweet cherry does not tolerate the neighborhood with walnuts, mountain ash, pear, peach, black currant. Apple, plum and cherry trees are recommended as neighbors.
- The distance between trees should be at least 4-5 meters, due to the highly developed root system of superficial occurrence.
- Once every 5 years, the soil around the cherries must be limed.
- Do not buy 3-year-old seedlings, they practically do not take root.
When planting cherries, you need to take care of protection from birds. Otherwise, most of the berries will be pecked and not usable. To do this, many people hang shiny, rustling foil tapes or old computer disks on a tree. As a rule, this does not help, therefore, in advance it is necessary to prepare a mesh net (50x50 mm) and throw it over the cherries during the ripening period.
Planting pit preparation
It is recommended to plant sweet cherries in spring at a constant temperature of + 5 ° C degrees, an additional plus is that for this period the soil still retained a sufficient amount of moisture.
Early planting dates can destroy the seedling due to recurrent frosts, and delay can lead to long survival due to high sun activity. The best time is mid-April, before the buds begin to awaken.
- The pit for planting cherries should be 80 cm wide by 100 cm and a depth of 70 cm, narrowing of the pit downwards is unacceptable. With such a pit, the root system should fit freely in it. Nearby, a stake is driven in - a support up to 80 cm high for dressing the seedling.
- The planting pit is filled with a nutrient mixture to 1/3 of the depth: 2 parts of the upper soil layer 1 part of humus 1 part of peat 100 g superphosphate 50 g of potassium sulphide
You can use another composition for the mixture: 2 buckets of compost, 1 kg of ash and 400 g of superphosphate. Nitrogen fertilizers are not added to avoid root burn
The pit is filled with the mixture 10 days before planting, mixed, the composition should settle.
Preparing a seedling before planting
The further development of the plant depends on the choice and preparation of the seedling:
- The seedling must be grafted, have a strong trunk prevailing over the lateral branches.
- You should not buy a seedling with a forked trunk, under the weight of the fruits in the future, they may break.
- It should have a developed root system without defects, with roots 15 cm long. If the root cut has a brown tint, then this is a sign of frostbite.
- The day before planting, the seedling is placed in a bucket of water to activate the root system.
- Before planting the seedling in the planting hole, the damaged roots are cut off.
- Long roots are cut, since the root system must completely enter the planting pit.
- Before planting, remove all the leaves, otherwise the seedling will become dehydrated.
Step-by-step planting instructions
- Pour a bucket of water into the landing hole.
- Place the seedling in the recess of the hole next to the support, the neck of the seedling should be 4-5 cm higher than the ground level.
- Cover the roots with earth.
- Compact the top layer and fix the seedling to the support with soft tape. The loop "figure eight" is made free so as not to damage the bark of the tree.
- Along the perimeter of the pit, make a circular depression for watering.
- Pour out 2 buckets of water, make sure that after the soil subsides, the root collar is at ground level.
- Cut the main trunk up to 80 cm, and the side branches up to 50 cm. This is necessary to form the correct crown.
- It is advisable to plant cherries in cloudy weather.
- The best seedlings take root at the age of 1-2 years.
- To attract bees, mustard is planted next to cherries, experienced gardeners spray the tree with a solution of water and honey
Further care of cherries
Sweet cherries require watering 3 times per season: in May, during the period of growing green mass, before flowering, in June, when the fruits begin to ripen and before winter.
Watering is stopped 20 days before harvesting, otherwise the fruits will crack and rot. Watering is carried out to a depth of 40 cm, and pre-winter - up to 70-80 cm. In dry weather, the frequency of watering is increased. In the second half of summer, watering is not recommended, as this reduces the frost resistance of the tree.
Top dressing in the first year should not be applied, since the seedling received all the necessary substances during planting. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied for 2 years of tree growth. In the spring, 120 g of urea should be scattered around the perimeter of the trunk circle, embedded in moist soil.
In the fourth year of growth, the roots will go beyond the near-trunk circle, so fertilizers are applied further from the trunk into the made furrows. In the spring, 120-200 g of urea are laid in moist soil, at the end of summer - 400 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate.
The width of the trunk circle in the second year is increased to 1 meter, and every year 50 cm are added. Cherry takes additional feeding with ash well.
Throughout the summer period until autumn, weeding and loosening of the near-trunk circle is necessary, since cherries cannot stand the neighborhood with weeds.
Crown formation, pruning
Sweet cherries need mandatory annual pruning, otherwise there will be no good harvest. It is of 3 types: formative - in spring, sanitary - in autumn and rejuvenating with aging of the tree. For all options, it is mandatory to remove branches 40 cm from the ground. When cutting, the places of the cuts are treated with garden pitch.
Formative pruning creates the correct crown, especially for young cherries. Before budding, the main trunk and upper branches are shortened by 1/3 of the length, branches growing inward are cut out, only those that grow in relation to the trunk at an angle of 45 degrees are left from the side shoots.
This is called a cupped pruning. It provides good lighting for the tree, stimulates fruiting and makes harvesting easier.
Sanitary pruning involves removing dried, broken, diseased branches.
Rejuvenating Pruning Helps Cherries Return Yield
Diseases of young cherries
Sweet cherries are quite resistant to diseases, but there are exceptions. Verticillosis is a fungal disease for many stone fruit crops; it is dangerous for cherries as well.
First, the bark bursts, then the flowers fall, the leaves turn yellow and gum appears on the trunk. You can use drugs such as Polychrome, Fundazol, Topsin. Clean up cracks and cover with clay with 2% copper sulfate. But, as a rule, treatment is ineffective, the tree dies within a year.
During a cold and rainy spring, cherries may be affected by bacteriosis (tree cancer). It is not possible to save cherries, scientists have not yet created a remedy against this disease. The tree must be cut down and burned.
|Buds do not bud in time||The root collar is deepened when planting|
|Discharge of ovary and foliage||Late watering during the growing season|
|Freezing wood||Wrong variety selected for this region|
|There is no regular and bountiful harvest||No annual pruning|
|Lack of fruit||No cross-pollination|
|Cracking of the bark of the trunks||Sunburn, trunk was not whitewashed in spring and autumn|
|Gum cutting, tree death||Rocks, gravel in the soil, diseases|
|Yellowing, crimson color of leaves after planting||Watering with cold water from wells|
|No side branching||The trunk was not trimmed during planting|
Sweet cherries are not only tasty, they are also very useful.
It regulates cardiac activity, “fights” against anemia, improves immunity and lowers blood sugar levels, improves vision and relieves irritability.
Cherry is especially appreciated by women for its properties to rejuvenate the skin, relieve swelling, and the possibility of using it in various diets.
Cherry growing is a laborious process, but the tree will thank you with a bountiful harvest.
Where is it more rational to plant gooseberries
The gooseberry is called a northern grape, it is an unpretentious plant that is grown in many gardens. Caring for the bush will not be difficult even for a gardener without experience, and the yield will delight for many years.
Choosing a place on the site for planting gooseberries
This is the first and important stage for the bush to take root. To correctly decide where and when it is better to plant gooseberries, you need to know the peculiarities of the culture:
- The gooseberry has a branched root system that penetrates deep into the soil. This allows the bush to survive even during periods of drought.
- For the rapid growth of the root system, conditions must be created. Therefore, the planting hole is made 2-3 times larger than the seedling - 0.5x0.5x0.5 m.
- Gooseberries need light, but little shading doesn't stop them from growing.
- Slightly acidic and neutral soils are optimal for it.
- Does not tolerate excess fluid and stagnant water.
- Before planting, perennial weeds must be completely removed. Subsequently, it will be quite difficult to weed them out.
Planting in October allows the seedling to develop a root system. In the spring, it will begin to grow and develop rapidly. It is necessary to transplant the plant in spring as early as possible, in March - it tolerates cold well. If you do not be late and plant the gooseberries on time, leaves will already appear in April. In late spring, the survival rate of planting material decreases.
The taste and quantity of berries depends on the correct planting. This applies to new bushes, own seedlings obtained by cuttings, and specimens that are transplanted to other places. These types of planting material almost do not differ in planting technology.
The gardener should be aware that an adult shrub can only be moved in autumn, this will facilitate his adaptation. It is prepared:
- pruning all the old branches near the ground
- leave several young and strong shoots
- the remaining shoots are shortened by a third of the length
- dug at a distance of at least 30 cm from the base
- thick roots are cut with a shovel.
The plant is laid out on an oilcloth or cloth and transferred to a new place.
There are basic planting rules that it is advisable to observe in order to obtain strong productive bushes:
- standard planting is 2 rows of bushes, between which a distance of 1.5-2 m is maintained
- suitable areas with well-drained soil, without strong shading
- in conditions of heavy soil, the place will have to be prepared by introducing sand, sawdust into the composition of the planting pit
- low-lying areas are not suitable, since in this case the gooseberries will hurt more often, especially with powdery mildew
- small hills, on the contrary, will be a good option.
Correct soil preparation
Even on sandy and sandy loam soils, gooseberries will give good yields with the presence of top dressing and proper care. The best option is light loams:
- The shrub tolerates acidified soils, responds well to any manifestations of care.
- Therefore, it is advisable to level the surface of the site where possible, where it is planned to plant seedlings, to remove lowlands and elevations.
- Mineral fertilizers are scattered on the ground.
- Then the area under the gooseberry is dug to the depth of the shovel. All weeds and rhizomes are removed.
- Then you need to take a break for several days, remove the newly sprouted weed residues and only after that start planting the shrub.
How to check the acidity of the soil
Self-examination will help you determine where to plant your crop and what to do to create better conditions for it. To check with improvised means, you need:
- pour boiling water over a few leaves of currants or cherries, the water will turn green
- after cooling down, a piece of soil is dipped into the infusion
- if the water turns red, the medium is acidic
- if it turns blue, it is too alkaline.
The acidity is reduced by the introduction of lime into the soil.
The middle lane is most suitable for the shrub - the gooseberry grows perfectly, the bushes are powerful and large, with a large green mass. From them, you can grow a fruiting hedge.
Neighborhood with other plants
For fast growth and good development, you need a place where the gooseberries will be protected and receive good nutrition:
- To protect the shrub from the winds, the site is selected near trees or buildings. In winter, this helps to accumulate more snow. This protects the ground from freezing too much.
- The optimal place where the bush will feel good is the ridges on which vegetables were grown, especially potatoes.
- It is good to plant the bushes parallel to the wall of the house - in this case, the wind does not threaten the gooseberries.
- Weeds are the enemies of a young plant. The best option is to plant green manure at the proposed planting site. This will clear the area from the roots of harmful and aggressive plants. If this event was not carried out in advance, you will have to constantly monitor and weed, since some types of weeds can stun the bush, interfere with its growth.
- Gooseberries will help protect the tomato that is planted around the bush from pests. The plant's spicy scent and sap repels most pests.
- The same task is performed by red currants, which can be interspersed with gooseberries.
- To scare off ants and aphids, the following are sown:
- Gooseberries are loved not only in Russia. It is widespread in Belarus - it grows in every garden, and not far from the gooseberry, gardeners plant elderberry, black or red. In summer, branches of this plant are laid out under the bushes to scare off pests.
- Places where raspberries or currants grew are not suitable for planting. They have common diseases and pests with gooseberries that can be transmitted to a new plant through the soil.
Bad neighbors for gooseberries are raspberries or cherries. Raspberries grow quickly and will start sprouting right in the middle of the bush.
The consequences of not choosing the right place
A healthy, actively growing bush is the result that a gardener will receive if planting rules are followed. If growth is slowed down and there are few berries, it means that not enough attention was paid to the question of where to plant gooseberries:
- If the site is swampy, does not dry out, water stagnates there, a fungus will begin to develop near the bush.
- An area open to the wind will lead to weakness and slow development of the bush.
- Partial shade is acceptable conditions for the plant, but the harvest will be later. It is recommended to plant one of several bushes in partial shade in order to get another one after harvesting the main crop. A dense shade will lead to disease and death of the bush.
- The gooseberries on the site should not be in the form of 1 bush, so you need to immediately plan the planting of several copies.
- When planting on a southern slope, even with a slight slope, there are risks of permanent sunburn of the plant.
- In the absence of buildings or trees that can hold snow, gooseberries can freeze or lose fruit buds.
The gooseberry is most adapted to growing in Russia, the climatic conditions of the middle zone suit him. If you pay enough attention at the initial stage - plant a seedling where conditions are better - the culture will bear fruit and grow abundantly without causing much trouble.
Where is it more rational to plant gooseberries Link to main publication
How to grow cherries correctly
All gardeners love sweet cherries, because they have fruits of unique beauty and taste. And if she hadn't grown so fast, she would have had no shortcomings.
Of course, they are trying to breed dwarf varieties, but this still does not deprive her of the stature that is inherent in her. The large growth and the area that it occupies does not allow growing this tree in a small garden.
Often this problem is solved by planting cherries near a high wall.
If the cherries were planted in a spacious place, then they use cultures of high and medium, and sometimes low boles. If you use weak rootstocks, you can grow it in a pyramid shape. We also mention that cherry-cherry hybrids are grown in the same way as ordinary cherry varieties.
Before planting a cherry tree, you need to prepare a planting site. This should be a place protected from northerly winds, for example, the southern slope. A place near the south wall or fence is also ideal.
If you plant cherries on the south side, you will not go wrong, because they like the abundance of warmth and light. Therefore, always plant it where there are many of them - on elevations, open spaces. You can make such heights yourself, pouring earth half a meter.
This will provide the roots with the necessary warmth.
This tree loves clay and sand. Its roots should be saturated with air, water and be in a fertile place. Heavy clay and peat soil is not suitable for cherries. She loves moisture, but not particularly, so it cannot be planted in highly humid places and where water is close.
In order for the trees to be well pollinated during flowering, you need to plant several varieties at once. Favorably on the cultivation of sweet cherry is affected by the growth of a nearby cherry blossoming in parallel with it. It is recommended that trees be grown at a distance of 3 m or more.
To plant cherries, you need to prepare the soil in the fall. First, a hole is dug half a meter deep and about a meter wide. Its bottom is dug up and enriched with a large amount of humus.
As soon as the pit has overwintered, it is enriched with a mixture of superphosphate and sodium sulfate (300 g + 100 g) or a kilogram of ash.
Fertilizers must be given strictly the right amount, otherwise, with an excess, too large, but fragile sprouts will grow, which will not survive in winter.
Once the soil is prepared, move on to preparing the seedling. It needs to be soaked in water for six hours and not planted too deep. When planting a tree, make sure that a watering hole is formed.
It is necessary to pour a bucket of water there, after absorbing which, fill the void with humus. As for a seedling that has been growing for several years, it needs pruning. This must be done on a strictly set date, in early spring.
If the tree is planted later, it is best to wait until the next pruning season.
In order for the tree to overwinter, you need to monitor the length of the newly formed shoots, and also feed it with phosphates in the amount of 40-60 grams per square meter of land under the tree. Also, the tree will need nitrogen fertilizers and manure, which are added in the spring.
Cherry grows quickly, so it must be cut off, which is done in spring. Pruning is carried out in late winter - early spring, before sap flow. Pruning is needed to form the crown and maintain it in the desired form.
On annual shoots, one-fifth of the branch length is reduced. In this case, you need to monitor the location of the kidneys. It is recommended that the bud closest to the top should look not towards the center of the tree, but away from it.
All branches growing to the main axis of the tree, interfering with tree growth, fruiting and harvesting, are removed, branches affected by diseases and dead are also eliminated.
When removing too thick branches, treat the cut with garden putty, and the cut itself should be perfect, even, without unnecessary damage to the tree.
The tree needs a spring-autumn whitewash. This will protect it from pests that fall on the tree from the ground. It is recommended to apply pest-fighting chemicals to the wood. Do this before flowering, as pollination of a flowering tree threatens to poison bees and other beneficial insects. The second time the tree is pollinated, when the fruits have already formed.
On average, sweet cherries yield 50 kg of yield if it is a standard form, and 15 kg if it is fan-shaped. But it all depends on the variety, the size of the tree, its age and other growing conditions.
Cherry loves when the soil around it is loosened, weeds are removed, so this must be monitored.
When pruning a tree, take into account that it is better to remove excess shoots on the main trunk after its final strengthening, 4 years after planting. You also need to remove all branches growing vertically.
If you correctly form the skeleton of the crown, then in three years about 5-10 main branches will grow. Then pruning occurs, during which only 60 cm of last year's growth should remain.
After these measures, the cherries are not cut off much, only as a preventive measure, clearing the tree of unnecessary branches.
The best solution is to form a bush with several trunks from a sweet cherry. This will increase her chances of overwintering.