How to make a stone fence with your own hands?
Currently, there is a huge variety of materials and technologies for the construction of fences. The most durable of all is a stone. Reliable, textured and durable fences are obtained from it. For the construction of such a fence, you can hire craftsmen, but why overpay if it is quite possible to build it on your own? Let's understand the intricacies of the process.
Pros and cons of stone fences (table)
A stone fence will fit perfectly into any site design
|The lifespan of the stone fence is at least half a century. It all depends on how responsibly you approach the masonry process.||Some types of stones are very expensive.|
|The stone is an environmentally friendly and safe raw material, as it belongs to natural materials.||The stone fence is very heavy, so a solid and strong foundation is required for its construction.|
|A wide price range, which depends on the type of stones and their fractions.|
|It is easy to install.|
|Due to the aesthetic properties of the stone, the fence will perfectly match any landscape.|
|The stone can be combined with other materials.|
Varieties of stones
Stone fences began to be built a long time ago. Since ancient times, such fences have protected people's homes. Modern builders and landscape designers often take natural materials as their primary raw material.
There is a wide variety of fence stones on the market
There are a huge number of types of natural and artificial stones on the market, from which you can get confused. Choosing the right stone is a very important point. With its help, you can emphasize the style of your site.
- Cobblestone. In another way, it is called a boulder stone. It is the most common and affordable option due to its different factions. Despite the fact that it is simple, its strength is higher than that of other types. The disadvantages include its gray color, which is not to everyone's taste. The reddish brown color of the cobblestone is less common.
- Gravel. Also considered a popular option. Fences from it can take any shape. The combination of coarse and fine gravel allows you to create original fences. Fine gravel can be used to fill the steel frame. To create a solid fence, gravel is combined with bricks.
- Dolomite stone. Differs in a flat shape, different sizes and thicknesses. The place of its extraction is mountain quarries. It is a high quality natural stone. The constructed fence made of it will be durable and attractive.
- Limestone. Allocate shell rock, marbled limestone and bryozoan. It is soft so it is easy to handle. For beginners, this is ideal. Its disadvantages include the fact that it absorbs moisture. To prevent it from destroying the stone, it is necessary to pre-treat it with a water repellent.
- Sandstone. The use of this stone for the construction of fences has been going on for a considerable number of years. It is a durable, frost and moisture resistant stone.
- Booth. It is extracted from sandstone, limestone and dolomite. The stone is irregular. Its rib can be from 15 to 50 centimeters. Fences are not only built from it, but they are also trimmed.
- Fake diamond. Recently, its popularity has been growing due to the fact that it is much cheaper than natural. Most often it is made from concrete with the addition of pigments. Finished copies practically do not differ from their originals.
Combining stones with other materials
The original combination is the combination of wood and stone.
The perfect combination of stone and wood
Thanks to these natural materials, the fence blends harmoniously with the environment. True, it is quite difficult to make such a fence. Special skills and preliminary developments are required.
Gabions have been very popular lately.
Such a fence is easy to build with your own hands, and its service life is impressive.
Translated from French, these are “stones in a grid”. The basis for such a fence is a thick metal wire mesh. Fine and medium gravel is poured into it. In addition, fragments of bricks, rubble and other stones are often poured into it. The fence can be of any shape. As a result, the fence is attractive and durable.
The combination of stone and brick is the most popular type of fencing.
The combination of brick and masonry allows you to create very original fences
The fence turns out to be presentable, durable, resistant to temperature extremes and weather conditions.
The preparatory work includes the design and purchase of all the necessary tools and materials. The fence project and all the necessary calculations can be done using special online programs from open sources. The choice of material depends on your financial and taste preferences. The description of the most popular ones is above. And from the tools you will need a concrete mixer, a tape measure, a shovel, a trowel, a building level, pegs and a rope.
Preparatory work also includes land clearing, leveling and marking. The latter is carried out by driving in a peg and pulling a rope between them along the perimeter of the future fence.
With the help of such a plan, you can make calculations of materials for the construction of a fence.
As mentioned earlier, the stone fence has an impressive mass, therefore, it is necessary to approach the arrangement of the base with all responsibility. A solid strip reinforced base is ideal.
The width of the foundation should be 150 millimeters wider than the width of the future fence. The height of the base is at your discretion. The main thing is that it should not be lower than 100-150 millimeters.
- First, you need to dig a trench, the depth of which is 0.7 meters.
The depth of the trench should be 0.7 meters
- Fill the bottom of the trench with a 50 mm layer of sand and compact it well.
- Install the formwork. To do this, use boards, plywood, and so on.
- Then comes the laying of the reinforcing frame, not a sand pillow. Rebar rods should be 8 millimeters. Reinforcement takes place in two layers. The first layer is 5 centimeters above the sand, the second is 5 centimeters below the soil level. To hold the layers together and make the foundation more durable, first drive reinforcement or pipes into the soil, the diameter of which is 1 centimeter.
- Stir in the concrete solution and wait until it dries completely. It will take about a month, but the formwork can be removed in just two weeks.
The cement mortar is poured into the formwork and hardens for about a month.
For the construction of the pillars, the "sliding formwork" method is used. The optimal dimensions for supports are considered to be 30x30 or 40x40 centimeters. The formwork is assembled from boards and fastened with self-tapping screws.
- Set up the formwork for the bottom row of stones, keeping the selected size of the support posts.
The size of the supports should be 30x30 or 40x40 samntimeters
- Lay out the stones first without using concrete. Make sure the stones fit snugly against the walls of the formwork. There should be no gaps.
- After carefully calibrating the stones with which you will lay out the first row, lay them on the mortar. The cement mixture must be thick. Stones with smooth edges are laid out like brickwork. Stones with uneven edges will have to take a little more time. The gaps between the elements must be filled with mortar. The rest of the rows are laid out in the same way.
- When you have laid out one row, move the formwork higher and continue laying.
- After the first layer has been laid, it is necessary to wait a day, after which it is necessary to dismantle the lower formwork boards. Overlying element
"Floating formwork" - as soon as the bottom layer is slightly grasped, the wooden structure is transferred higher and the next layer of stones is laidleave. This is necessary in order to secure the next tier of the formwork.
- When removing the formwork, carefully seal the cracks with thick cement mortar. Thus, the post will be neat and sturdy.
Ideally, give each tier a day to dry before laying the next one. Thus, the pillars will be more durable.
Laying out spans
The most difficult thing is to do everything exactly
After the base and pillars are built, you can begin to build the spans. The optimal size of stones for them is considered to be 200-250 millimeters. Due to their not too large mass, it is easier and more convenient to work with them. Large stones can be smashed with a hammer or perforated. The stones are held together using a thick mortar made of sand and cement in a ratio of 3: 1, respectively. Adding dry dye to the mixture will allow you to get seams of a different color than the solution has.
First, you need to apply the cement mortar to the foundation. Then lay out the stone elements symmetrically along both sides of the span. To make it easier to navigate in the masonry, the section is marked with a stretched thread.
Lay out the bottom row of the section completely. Fill in any gaps between the edges. The flat side of the stone should face up. Before you start laying out each subsequent row, as in the case of the construction of pillars, leave the masonry for a day so that it dries up. Use a bandage while laying out the rows.
Combining different shades and sizes of stones will help create a unique fence
To give a more attractive look to the fence, it is necessary to perform the jointing.
Joints can be done in different ways
The seams are convex, shallow and deep. The latter option visually makes the masonry more voluminous.
You will need a scraper, a wire brush and a piece of foam rubber to do the jointing work.
The easiest way to re-join the seams is about 3-4 hours after the laying is completed. Later, the cement slurry becomes tight and difficult to grout.
- First you need to clean the stones and seams with a wire brush.
- Use a scraper to create neat ditches in the seams, the depth of which should not exceed 1–2 centimeters.
- Then the fence must be washed. This is done with foam rubber, a brush and 30% hydrochloric acid. In this case, do not forget about safety measures - use protective gloves.
As additional decorative elements, you can use forging or let climbing plants grow on the fence, and so on. It all depends on your imagination.
How to make a fence from gabions
The stones in the grid can be of different colors to create interesting fences
Fences made of gabions (stones in a grid) are rapidly gaining popularity among others. This is facilitated by a number of advantages:
- Such a fence reliably protects from wind and street noise.
- Hides your privacy from prying eyes.
- The fence is externally attractive.
- Withstands heavy loads.
- Easy and simple to assemble.
- Economical and durable.
- It perfectly tolerates temperature changes and any weather phenomena.
- Such a fence can be erected on any terrain.
- You can fill it with different materials.
How to choose a mesh?
As a frame of a fence made of gabions, a mesh-netting is most often used
In order for such a fence to be as durable as possible, special attention must be paid to the selection of material. There are a wide variety of fence nets that come in different shapes and mesh sizes. Most often, a mesh-netting is used, which is tension and sectional. Cells in it are round, square and other sections.
When choosing a grid, do not go wrong with the size of the cells. Stones must not fall over them.
DIY construction stages
The foundation for a fence made of gabions is made according to the same principle as described above. Make the posts the same as for the previous fence. The distance between them should be no more than 5 meters. As soon as the base and supports are completely solidified, proceed with the installation of the gabions.
For a fence from gabions, a tape base is used.
First you need to form a mesh frame. Lay the rolls on the ground, unwind and level them. Secure the mesh carefully to the supports and foundation.
The last step is to fill the grids with stones.
Video: construction of a fence from gabions
Video: highlights of buta styling
A stone fence will become a reliable protector of your summer cottage. It will serve you for a very long time. Its construction is a simple process. By following the recommendations and tips described above, you will not have to spend money on workers. You can do this job on your own. Good luck!
How to make a bath from a bar yourself - step by step instructions with photos and videos
- 1 Project creation
- 2 What kind of wood is it better to build a bath from
- 3 Laying the foundation for the bath - the main options, construction technologies
- 4 Laying the crowns of a log house - highlights
- 5 Ways to build walls
- 6 Openings for windows and doors
- 7 Video: building a bath from a bar from scratch
- 8 Photos
- 9 Drawings
A bath made from a bar is much lighter than a log, and, accordingly, the installation process will be easier. Unlike rounded logs, timber has an affordable price. In the article, we will tell you how to build a bathhouse from a bar with your own hands, we will give step-by-step instructions, drawings, photo and video materials.
What it is
Gabions are three-dimensional frame structures with a clear geometric shape, made of metal mesh or reinforcement, filled with different fillers. The very name "gabbia" is translated from Italian as "cell". There are several types of structures, each of which has its own construction technique.
The main component of the gabion group, on which its stability, strength, and also its appearance depend, is the filler. What materials can act in its role?
- Crushed stone
- Broken brick
- Wooden logs
- Metal cuts, pieces of pipes
- Flower pots
- Metal cans
- Plastic bottles and boxes
- Colored glass pebbles
- Artificial stone, etc.
Such a hedge looks natural, spectacular
Please note that the lighter the filler, the stronger, the stronger the cage should be.
The material is selected by color, type, size, and it is important that the filler unit is 60% larger than the size of the frame cell. The metal mesh from which the walls of the structure are made must be made by the method of double twisting, covered with an anti-corrosion compound, and not 4 mm thick. Cells can be square, rectangular, hexagonal.
In order for the structure to be stable, rigid, a frame made of reinforcement is placed inside before laying the filler. This is a must if you are installing a high hedge, a reinforcing structure or a decorative garden element of a complex geometric shape. Keep in mind that over time, shrinkage and compaction of the masonry will occur, therefore, without a rigid base, the gabion can begin to collapse or bend.
Any construction begins with the choice of material. For a fence made of wood, you need to choose high quality wood, then it will last a long time.
Suitable boards will be from:
Reliable supports will become an important condition for quality. The best material should be chosen for them. If it is not difficult to change the board in the span, then it will be difficult to change the support post.
Beautiful wooden fence
The fence can be made vertical and horizontal. The technology is similar, except for laying the boards. consider the example of a vertical fence
- Boards are cut to the required length or ready-made to the required size are bought. Usually the height of a wooden fence is from 150 to 250 centimeters
- Next, grinding is carried out on both sides. It is done to remove jags and give the surface smoothness.
- Treatment with an antiseptic is mandatory. It will protect the tree from decay and damage by harmful insects and fungal organisms.
- After the material has been prepared, it's time to make a markup around the perimeter of the site. For this, pegs with a pointed end are prepared. 60 centimeters high. Hammered into the ground
- A rope is pulled between the stakes. Its tension should be maximum
- In the place where the supports will stand, you need to dig holes. Their depth should be 50 to 80 centimeters. The distance between them should be approximately 2 meters.
- Supports are made of a bar with a section of 7.5x7.5 or 10x10 centimeters. The lower part is abundantly soaked in antiseptic and treated with resin. This measure will protect against decay. To increase the degree of protection, you can wrap it with plastic wrap
- The timber is installed in the prepared halls and poured with concrete mixture. In the case when the fence is planned to be light, it is enough to compact the soil tightly
- Nails are driven into the upper part of the supports. And pull the rope along them. This will pull them together, which will allow the sheathing to be made exactly at right angles to the soil surface.
- Horizontal beams are attached to the supports using nails. Between them, a step of 20-30 centimeters is observed.
- Vertical boards are nailed to the crossbeams. They can be tightly adjacent to each other or be located at an equal distance. It depends on which fence model is chosen. So that they are located exactly, you need to measure along the upper rope
- After the sheathing is finished, the ropes and pegs are removed
- The last stage is painting work. The shade is chosen according to personal preference. With artistic skills, you can apply a drawing or ornament to it.
The original fence will turn out if you use non-standard fastening methods. These include a fence assembled on the principle of blinds. Boards are stacked vertically with a slope to the outside. Such a fence will reliably protect the site from prying eyes, while increasing resistance to strong winds.
What are gabions used for
Simple design, no unnecessary details
The scope of their use is absolutely not limited to the use in landscape design. Initially, such structures acted as fences that reliably protected soldiers, as well as weapons on the battlefield. Later they began to be used in industry, to strengthen river banks, railroad and automobile embankments, the bottom of the channel, make fences, and protect pipelines.
Today gabions are used for the following purposes:
- Installation of supports on hills, slopes
- Fixation of the sea, river bottom, or shore
- Protection of pipes and gas pipelines
- Reinforcement of slopes and slopes
- In landscape design: for framing flower beds, fountains, dividing the site into zones, installing parapets, stairs, hedges
- "Reno mattress" can be laid on the bottom of an artificial reservoir in a suburban area - the water will stay clean for much longer
- For protection against mudflows, landslides, rockfalls, avalanches
- To change the direction of flow
- To create a stone foundation for lawns
- Gabion technique is used to create garden figures
Do-it-yourself photo of rock gardens in the country
Despite the many rules and features, this composition is very popular in many countries. Modern rock gardens, made with their own hands on the site of summer cottages, are a real work of art, which is proved by numerous photos.