Proper cultivation of cranberries in the garden
Under the name cranberries, they unite the species of plants of the heather family, which are creeping shrubs, mainly found in the northern hemisphere.
Cranberry fruits contain a huge amount of vitamins, micro- and macroelements useful for the body, are not high in calories, contain few fats and carbohydrates.
Initially, cranberries were exclusively a wild plant and only after the 18th century, breeders were able to breed varieties that are still successfully grown in summer cottages and vegetable gardens.
Where does garden cranberry grow?
Previously, before domestication, cranberries grew only in swampy areas, where the acidity of the soil was significantly increased. North America is considered her homeland., and the first explorers of America called it the crane berry.
Only a couple of centuries ago, cranberries were harvested in swamps, and now they are grown on a large scale on plantations, where favorable conditions for growth and conditions that are most similar to natural ones have been created.
In Russia, various varieties of cranberries are most widespread in Karelia, Kostroma and Leningrad region.
Cranberries are sometimes called northern lemon because of their high content of citric acid, vitamin C, quinic acid, vitamin B, PP, potassium, iron, phosphorus, cobalt, boron and manganese.
With the right conditions and proper care, cranberry yields can reach up to 11 tons per hectare of plantations.
Cranberries are now widely used in the production of confectionery, juice drinks and fruit drinks, jams and jellies, and therefore, the cultivation of this plant is not only in demand, but can also become a good source of income.
The program "Living Healthy!" Will tell you about cranberries:
Requirements for the garden plot for growing
Despite the fact that cranberries are considered a frost-resistant and unpretentious plant, growing them in their backyards and summer cottages is considered a rather laborious process due to the need to ensure a special microclimate and conditions in which it will give a good harvest.
The land plot for growing before planting young shoots is carefully prepared, since this plant thrives in high humidity conditions.
Also, the soil must be acidic, that is, have a low pH level - preferably, from 3 to 4.5.
Cranberry is a moisture-loving plant, in connection with which a significant advantage of the planting site will be the presence of groundwater, the optimal depth of their flow is considered to be about 40 centimeters.
In this case, the best soil option for growing will be peat soil, in which the water level is at the optimal level for cranberries. Loam and sandy loam are also suitable for cultivation.
A site for planting cranberries would be better done among trees or other plantings., which will not prevent the sun's rays from falling on it, but, at the same time, will protect it from the wind.
How to grow cranberries on your site:
When is it better to plant a berry in the country
It is believed to plant and grow cranberries best in springtime, as soon as the ground on the site thaws and warms up to 10 cm.
Since the plant develops better in more acidic soil, then if your site does not have one, it is necessary to clean the top layer of soil to 20-25 centimeters and instead cover it with a mixture of humus, sand, forest soil and peat with the addition of rotted needles.
Wells are prepared before planting., dig them up to a depth of 10 centimeters and a distance of about 20 centimeters between each other, spilling them with water before planting.
Two seedlings up to 20 cm high are lowered into each hole and the hole is covered with prepared soil. It is very important not to over-compact the soil after planting, as this can significantly hinder the development of the seedling's root system.
After planting, the first two years, cranberries will only take root and gain strength - the plant usually gives the first berries three years after planting... Well, already a fully good harvest will be only starting from the fourth year.
The average yield with good care is about a kilogram per two square meters of planted plants.
Planting cranberries in the fall is mostly not done., however, this time of year is used to prepare the beds for planting.
The main preparation operation is to fence the future bed by digging in any rotting material - plastic, slate - to a depth of up to 20 centimeters.
There are two ways of reproduction and further planting of cranberries - generative and vegetative.
Generative - seeded it is produced very rarely and mainly for any kind of breeding experiments, since the resulting plant does not have the characteristics of its parent.
If your goal is to grow cranberries with certain properties inherent in the mother shoot, then it would be better to use grafting method.
Before growing cranberries, a site is prepared for planting, and the process itself depends on the type of soil on which the plant will be grown.
Cranberry cuttings are prepared at a time when their shoots are intensively growing. Take green cuttings from 10 centimeters long and planted in pots with a mixture of peat, sand and rotted needles, or directly into the soil - in a permanent place.
The cuttings are deepened by two to three centimeters, slightly compacted the soil around the trunk and moistened abundantly.
Until the rooting of the cuttings occurs it is necessary to monitor soil moisture - depending on the humidity and temperature conditions, sometimes the garden bed is watered two or three times a day - under the condition of abundant irrigation of the soil with water, the shoots take root quite quickly.
If the landing site is in the sun, then it is better to make fabric protection for the cuttings.
For seed propagation, ripe cranberries are taken, rub gently and rinse with water. The selected seeds are planted immediately. This operation is carried out in spring or before autumn in pots containing peat and a small layer of sand.
The seeds in the soil are covered with glass, abundantly irrigated with water and placed in a warm place accessible to light. After planting the seeds, the soil is regularly watered, and the room containing the containers with germinating seeds is ventilated.
If mold appears on the surface of the earth from abundant moisture, then they will need to be treated with a fungicide solution.
Average, after three to four weeks, with proper care, shoots appear, after which it will be necessary to remove the glass, but maintain the abundant watering mode.
After the emergence of four to five leaves in the shoots, they are seated - a pick either into pots one by one, or immediately into the soil of a greenhouse or greenhouse at a distance of 10 centimeters from each other.
Further cultivation of shoots is carried out throughout the year with special care - abundant watering and regular feeding with Kemira's solution - at the rate of one tablespoon per 10 liters of water.
Usually, a solution is prepared at the rate of one liter per square meter of a plot with shoots, and when watering, you must make sure that the solution does not fall on the leaves - otherwise you can burn the leaves.
At the end of summer, the greenhouse cover is removed and mulching is carried out with peat, laying it in a layer up to one centimeter. For the winter, the plants are covered with a special material - spunbond, which is removed in the spring, after the end of the frost.
Further, the shoots are transplanted to a more spacious place, where they grow for another two to three years., after which you can plant them in a permanent place.
Nuances of care
The main rule for caring for cranberry seedlings for good development and ensuring a rich harvest in the future is ensuring sufficient watering.
It is especially important to have high humidity during the rooting period of seedlings, especially at high air temperatures.
During the growing season, plants are fed twice a month with various complexes of mineral fertilizers and watering with water containing a weak solution of acids (citric or acetic).
Soil acidification is not necessary for the first two to three years after planting.
For the formation and growth of a large number of fruits horizontal shoots must be removed from the plant, thus stimulating the development of vertical ones, on which mainly a larger number of fruits develop. This operation is performed in spring or autumn.
For the winter, in areas with a lack of sufficient snow, cranberries are sprinkled with a layer of peat, which protects the shoots from freezing.
With constant proper care of the plants and the presence of good weather conditions, cranberries will certainly delight you with an abundant harvest of berries.
Growing cranberries in the garden
Cranberry is an incredible berry that has a huge amount of trace elements in its reserves that have a beneficial effect on the health of the body as a whole. It contains huge reserves of vitamin C, which help to increase immunity, recover from illness, and also increase stress resistance. Therefore, growing cranberries can bring a huge number of positive health effects for the grower. Today we will consider the question of how to grow cranberries in the country.
To create a check, you need to choose a sunny place protected from the winds.
It is advisable that the groundwater level is at least 50 cm. Therefore, it is better to break a check in a lowland or not far from a reservoir. But this condition is optional.
Some people recommend planting cranberries at any time of the year (except in winter). However, most gardeners advise doing this in the spring, when the threat of recurrent frost has passed. For planting, it is better to take seedlings, but it is also possible to grow cranberries from seeds. True, this process is much more troublesome.
Reproduction of cranberries
Cranberries are propagated by seeds, cuttings and seedlings.
- Cuttings cut by 7-15 cm from adult plants, plant according to the 3 × 6 cm scheme and deepen by 3-4 cm. For planting, use high-moor peat, where the cuttings will root out without problems after a month. After rooting in peat, they will be ready for transfer to the main plantation, and after 2 months they will already grow up to 25-30 cm.
- Seeds cranberries for 4–5 months require stratification (keeping in the cold) at a temperature of + 5 C. Stratified seeds always germinate together when planted in open ground.
- Saplings. The most convenient way to propagate cranberries is to take low (up to 15 cm) young bushes with roots from the forest or purchase varietal seedlings in the nursery. And how to plant them correctly, read on.
Where is it possible to grow cranberries
In the wild, cranberries grow exclusively in sphagnum bogs, which are a completely unique ecosystem with very specific characteristics:
In nature, cranberries grow only on raised sphagnum bogs.
- High level of groundwater flowing directly to the surface of the earth.
- Extremely high soil acidity (pH 3.0 - 5.5).
- The soil is almost entirely composed of peat - a loose, permeable organic substrate formed from dead peat moss.
- The live peat moss, sphagnum, covering almost the entire surface of such a bog, is a strong natural antiseptic that prevents the development of putrefactive processes.
Peat moss sphagnum is a unique natural antiseptic, the basis of the ecosystem of sphagnum bogs
Accordingly, the most suitable for the cultivation of garden cranberries will be plots in peatlands. This is the only type of soil that does not require any special preparation for planting cranberries. You can immediately mark the beds and plant.
Peat bog with close groundwater - ideal for growing cranberries
Heavy clay soils are completely unsuitable. In such areas, cultivation of cranberries is possible only in artificial trenches filled with peat. In lowlands with clay soil, when making trenches, the necessary slope and drainage should be provided so that water does not accumulate after heavy rains or melting snow. Unlike permeable "breathing" peat, waterlogged clay is like a cement slurry, the roots suffocate and die.
Cranberries cannot grow on heavy clay - the roots will suffocate
Light sandy soils can be considered suitable only if there is a possibility of daily watering. They are well permeable to air and roots, but dry out too quickly. On sandy soils, a large amount of high-moor peat is required to increase the moisture capacity and achieve the desired acidity. For better moisture retention, planting trenches for cranberries should be lined with plastic wrap in several layers.
Sandy soils are easily root permeable but do not retain water at all
In spring, summer and autumn, the plant should be carefully looked after, which consists in the following:
- Spring - pruning, first mineral fertilization, weed removal, careful loosening of the soil.
- Summer - watering, weed harvesting, three-time preventive treatment during budding from fungal infections (Topsin M, Delan, Skor preparations are used).
- Autumn - harvesting treatment with insecticides, Bordeaux liquid.
Secrets of planting and caring for garden cranberries, choosing the right seedlings
Proper planting and caring for garden cranberries allows you to get high yields of tasty and healthy berries, which are highly valued for their medicinal properties.
Planting cranberries is a crucial stage, since the fruiting of a bush is measured in several tens of years. During this time, it is better not to replant the plant without good reason.
For planting, it is necessary to allocate an open, sunny place in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. It is good if the groundwater at the site passes close to the soil surface. High humidity is the key to proper growth and development of cranberries. Shaded areas are also suitable for planting, but in this case, the yield of cranberries is reduced.
Cranberries prefer acidic soils with a high peat content. The soil pH should be between 3.5 and 4.5. To find out the acidity of the soil, you can use the litmus test. Another way to determine acidity is to use 9% acetic acid. When reacting with soil, the acid can produce a strong foam, which indicates the presence of alkali. An acidic soil is characterized by a complete lack of foam.
Spring is best for planting cranberries. The planting holes are prepared to a depth of 10 cm. If the soil is not suitable for planting cranberries, it is necessary to fill the bottom of the planting hole with drainage.
For this, sand, pine needles or expanded clay are used, and a film is placed on top. For a better passage of water in it, it is necessary to make holes. You can also mix the top layer of earth with sand and peat.
In the resulting hole, carefully place the cranberry seedlings, observing the distance between the bushes of 20 cm. The seedlings must be purchased with a closed root system - in containers or pots. The younger the seedlings, the better they will take root on the site.
Garden cranberries begin to bear fruit in the third year, and in the fourth year, you can collect up to half a kilogram of berries from the bush.
In order for the seedlings to take root well on the site, only high-quality healthy plants should be purchased. It is best to buy seedlings from a nursery where the plants are fully prepared for planting.Such seedlings have additional resistance to disease and cold.
Cranberry is a moisture-loving plant that grows naturally in swampy areas. It is difficult to provide the plant with excess moisture - so much it loves water. However, if this still happens, you should not think that the plant will benefit from it.
Excess moisture, lasting from two weeks, negatively affects the cranberry root system. A fungus that lives on the roots and performs a nutritive function for the plant stops assimilating nutrients from the soil. The plant reacts poorly to drought.
During the season, several complex dressings and treatments for pests are carried out. Mature plants need less feeding.
Pruning is carried out regularly, depending on the selected plant shape.
Tip: For better pollination, you need to plant several varieties of cranberries.
Cranberries - recipes for diseases
Recipes with cranberries for diseases are varied in purpose and method of preparation. Thanks to the complex of vitamins, cranberries are useful for strengthening immunity during colds. The berry is useful for vitamin deficiency and for the prevention of scurvy.
Organic acids have anti-inflammatory properties and are also used for diuretic and choleretic effects.
Pectins, mineral complex and other substances contribute to the normalization of the digestive system and the elimination of heavy metals from the body.
Cranberry prevents the formation of kidney stones, heart disease and can even suppress the growth of cancer cells.
Recipes for cranberry diseases include the preparation of juices, fruit drinks, infusions and other drinks, as well as dessert, main courses and pastries.
For colds, it is recommended to use cranberry juice with honey. To prepare it, rub 1 cup of cranberries and add a tablespoon of honey. Such a remedy will help strengthen the immune system and make up for the lack of vitamins in the body.
To normalize the gastrointestinal tract, improve digestion and metabolism, tea is prepared from cranberry berries and leaves. For 10 g of berries and leaves, take 200 ml of water. Brew the mixture and insist. Take half a mug 3 times a day. This tea will perfectly lower blood pressure and protect you from atherosclerosis.
Cranberries are often added to pickles and salads. To prepare a vitamin salad, you need to mix cabbage, carrots, onions, herbs and add cranberries. Such a salad will well strengthen the immune system and make up for the lack of vitamins.
Cranberry propagation methods
There are different ways to propagate cranberries: seed propagation and cuttings.
For seed propagation, ripe berries are separated from the pulp and washed. It is best to start sowing right away. The best time for this is spring or late summer.
The seeds are spread on the soil surface and covered with sand or peat. After that, they must be watered and covered with a lid, creating a warm, windless environment. From time to time, the seeds need to be watered and ventilated. Seedlings will appear in a month - at this stage, the shelter can be removed. When leaves appear, the seedlings are placed in a greenhouse, where they will receive moisture and nutrients.
In autumn, the seedlings are prepared for winter - they are mulched and covered with a special material. In 1-2 years they will be ready to be transplanted to a permanent place.
This method of reproduction does not provide for obtaining all qualities from the mother bush. Saplings need long and laborious care, which will not necessarily be justified.
It will take a long time to wait for the harvest, and the plant can only perform decorative functions.
It is much more effective to propagate cranberries by cuttings.
For this, green cuttings about 10 cm long are separated from the shoots. They can be planted in a prepared container from a mixture of peat, sand and needles, or in a permanent place.
After planting, the cuttings should be covered with foil and watered regularly. The best time to plant cuttings is early spring.
The cuttings will get stronger and go into active growth only after a year, and the first harvest can be expected only after 5 years.
Cranberries in the northern regions
In the northern regions, cranberries thrive so well that they have been nicknamed northern grapes and northern lemon. The shrub has good frost resistance and remains green even in winter.
Under natural conditions, cranberries grow in swampy areas, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere.
The most frost-resistant varieties are marsh cranberries: Krasa Severa, Severyanka, Dar Kostroma, Alaya Zapovednik and others.
The yield and large-fruitedness of such varieties is practically on a par with American varieties.
Before the onset of the first cold weather, it is recommended to cover the cranberries with a peat layer. This will be especially useful for young seedlings that have not yet matured. At the first precipitation, cranberries are covered with snow. If a covering material is used, then it must necessarily pass air well.
Sometimes, to protect it from freezing, the plant is subjected to a kind of freezing. To do this, at a slight subzero temperature, the shrub is well watered several times with water. It is necessary to wait for the icing effect - the upper part of the plant will be covered with a thin crust of ice. This ice will protect cranberries during severe frosts.
Cranberry - skin care
Under the influence of cosmetics based on cranberry, skin care will bring more effectiveness and results. Due to the content of vitamin C, cranberries have a rejuvenating and firming effect.
Vitamin B9 regulates the secretion of the sebaceous glands and eliminates teenage acne. Organic acids, potassium and other elements nourish the skin, improve its color and general condition, increase firmness and elasticity.
Besides, cranberries perfectly moisturize the skin.
Cranberries are great for making face masks. An effective mask is made from grated berries mixed with honey and olive oil. This mask will make the skin velvety, strengthen and tone it up.
Cranberry seed oil, which contains beneficial Omega acids, will provide invaluable benefits for the skin. It has moisturizing properties, rejuvenates and prevents the appearance of wrinkles.
You can use frozen cranberry juice to tone the skin and strengthen the blood vessels. For this, cranberry juice is mixed with a small amount of chamomile decoction and any base oil. Distribute the resulting mixture into molds and freeze. Ice cubes are used after cleansing the skin to rub the entire face.