Features of growing olive trees and obtaining valuable oil

Features of growing olive trees and obtaining valuable oil

Oliva from antiquity to the present day

Even rows of low trees with a beautiful crown that change color under the gusts of the wind - from green to gray stretch to the very horizon, giving the extraordinary charm of the mountainous terrain of central and southern Italy. These amazing trees - olive.

Olive orchards are laid out on the hills near the ancient city of Montecello, 30 km from Rome and founded in the 10th century. They are the same age as the city. These trees, like human destinies, are unlike each other. Time, like a great sculptor, piled their trunks, some now look like knotted lattices with free space in the center, others are intertwined in bizarre knots, but the most amazing thing is that they are all covered with caps of young branches. And it is not clear how, in the complete absence of a core at their trunks, they continue to turn green and, most importantly, bear fruit.

A bit of history

The olive tree is one of the main symbols of the entire Mediterranean. It has been known since pre-biblical times. Archaeologists have found references to it 6000 years ago, but the first written documents containing information about olives date back to 1700 BC. e. - This is the code of laws of the Babylonian king Hammurabi.

The homeland of the olive tree is considered Asia Minor and Egypt. It is here that the wild forest olive variety Olea sylvestris, or Oleaster, has been widespread since time immemorial, which differs from the cultivated variety in its thorny branches, small leaves and fruits. This unpretentious plant was gradually cultivated and ennobled by the most ancient farmers, which eventually led to the widespread distribution of the olive tree along the entire Mediterranean coast. It was there that olive oil was first produced from olive, which became the main commodity. Gradually, Phoenician merchants brought olives to Spain and Greece, and then from the Greek colonies, the olive goes to Italy.

There are many legends and poems about the olive; its branch has been a symbol of peace, honor and victory for thousands of years. Olive oil was blessed for kingship and priesthood, the anointing of the faithful was performed.

Biological features of the olive

The olive belongs to the Oleaceae family. Botanical name Olea europaea. Of the 60 known types of olives, only the European Olive (Olea europaea) is of economic importance. All varieties of olives are divided into varieties:

  • the olives from which the oil is obtained (Olea europaea oleaster);
  • table olives (Olea europaea sativa);
  • the olives are dual use, there are not so many of them.

Olive is a perennial plant due to its ability to heal itself. It is a drought-resistant fruit species that can withstand short-term frosts down to -10 ° C. Olive trees grow well in soils with a sufficient lime content, on rocky sandy soil, their roots are so strong that trees can even grow in rock. The root system is very highly branched, it is several times larger than the projection of the crown of the tree, although it is located at an average depth of 80 cm. This allows the olive to withstand droughts. The root system and trunk form a thickening - a neck, which very often grows, expands. Young shoots grow from it every year, which must be constantly removed so that the tree does not turn into a huge bush.

The trunk of an olive tree is usually no higher than one meter. Young trees have ash-gray bark, old ones - dark, rough.

Olive leaves are small, lanceolate or elongated-oval leathery, located opposite each other; from above they are dark green, from below they are silvery-gray. At the edges, the sheet is slightly bent (therefore, the heating area by the sun's rays decreases). This particular leaf structure helps the plant to withstand severe droughts. During a humid mild winter, the olive accumulates a large amount of reserve starch in its leaves, which serves it as a good help in spring and dry, waterless summer. The evergreen leaves on the olive tree are replaced gradually, new leaves begin to form from spring to autumn.

Leaf lifespan is one year, very rarely reaches two. A tree growth bud at the base of each leaf can be dormant for a long time, it starts growing only if necessary - with severe pruning, damage from hail, etc. This is a very valuable property of the olive tree - it always regenerates.

Olive trees are exposed to hot sunlight and a salubrious sea climate all year round. This gave unique properties to both fruits and foliage of trees. Archaeological documents confirm that the beneficial properties of the olive leaf were already known several thousand years ago. Due to its pronounced antimicrobial action, olive leaf is used as an anti-febrile agent and for the treatment of purulent wounds. A decoction of the leaves helps to normalize blood pressure.

Olive flowers are hermaphrodites (bisexual), small, fragrant, white with a shade of cream, collected in axillary inflorescences. They bloom from April to June, depending on the place of growth, weather conditions and, of course, the variety of the plant.

The olive fruit is oblong-oval or round in shape with oily pulp and hard bone. Depending on the variety, it weighs up to 15 grams. When fully ripe, it turns dark purple or black, often with a waxy coating. A good harvest is considered to be 25-35 kg of fruits per tree. Olives ripen from October to December, again, depending on the variety and location.


Olive harvesting is always a small family celebration. On dry days (harvesting in the rain, the oil can ferment), the whole family goes to the olive garden. Almost solemnly, each tree is examined to decide which one to start collecting.

Olives begin to be harvested when most of them change color to purple, wine. They have not yet reached their full ripeness, but it is at this point that they have the highest percentage of oil, strong aroma and least bitterness. Before harvesting, a canvas is spread around the tree, on which the fruits will then fall. They are knocked down with a rotating pitchfork-like device without damaging either the fruit or the tree. But more often, as well as several centuries ago, olives are harvested, as if by combing a tree, holding small "rakes" along the branches with ripe fruits.

After harvesting the fruits, the crown of the trees is pruned. This is a very crucial moment, because the fruits are formed on the two-year-old branches of the plant. Therefore, they invite a specialist - "pruner" of olives, often this profession is inherited. Basically, the crowns are formed in the form of a bowl so that the sun's rays freely penetrate to each branch of the tree.

Breeders have bred many varieties, only in Italy there are about 250 of them, but along with them, ancient varieties of the so-called "home" selection, planted several hundred years ago, continue to grow and bear fruit in olive gardens. Some gardeners have planted new varieties on them, and both "oil" and "table" olives are harvested from one tree.

The most popular "oil" varieties in Italy are Canino, Caninese, Carboncella, Strana, Olivato, Raja, Rosciola, Salviana, Leccino. The percentage of oil in their fruit is higher.

Table varieties have large, fleshy fruits, but they are not suitable for oil production.

Turning fruits into a river of gold

The collected precious fruits are manually sorted out, freed from the fallen twigs and leaves. Their juicy pulp contains from 40 to 70% of a golden-yellow transparent fat with a delicate aroma. Oil is the main wealth of the olive tree... It also contains the kernels and even the walls of the pits of the olive (respectively 12 and 5%). But the harvested fruits undergo a certain processing before they turn into "green gold".

Olives, peeled from leaves and twigs, are carefully collected in boxes with holes for free air passage. One of the main conditions for obtaining high quality oil is the need to process the olives within 24 hours after harvest. Although in practice this is done after a few days because of the long queues at the oil factory.

In Italy, along with modern factories, there are also old, traditional ones, although there are fewer and fewer of them. To see the amazing process of obtaining olive oil, the most valuable and noble of vegetable edible fats, I went to an old factory. There were a lot of people who wanted to get oil from the olives collected in their garden.

So, the washed olives are sent to a mill, where large, heavy millstones, made of stone or marble, grind them together with the seeds into a homogeneous mass. After that, the crushed olives go into the mixer. This is a very important and crucial moment when the mass of olive paste is thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous consistency. Then a certain volume of it is decomposed into special circles with holes with filters. These circles are stacked three at a time on solid steel discs, and the discs, in turn, are mounted on a pin mounted on a special mobile trolley. When 20 such disks are put on it, the cart is placed under a press and subjected to slight pressure. The squeezed mixture of oil and water enters the separator, where the water is separated from the oil. The golden stream coming out of it is the famous olive oil of the highest quality Oliva Extra Vergine, obtained by the so-called cold method.

Even in modern factories, the olive oil production process has remained much the same. There are slight differences in crushing: a knife system is used and then the olive paste is placed in a horizontal centrifuge where water is added. The process of separating oil from water takes place at 28 ° C. The oil is also of excellent quality.

It can be eaten right away, but it should take some rest and wander before selling it. Fresh oil seems transparent, but after a while a sediment will appear at the bottom of the container where it is stored, which must be separated from the oil, otherwise it will then acquire a sour taste. Only after the sediment has been separated will the crystal clear liquid gold be bottled in bottles bearing the Olio Extra Vergine di Oliva label, i.e. the highest quality oil, cold processed.

Olive for decoration ... and for the kitchen

The amazing olive tree, thanks to its beauty, has recently taken center stage in gardens, on balconies, on terraces. It is no longer a tree just to receive fruits, but serves both as a decoration and as a tribute to respect and love for national traditions. Breeders have developed varieties that allow you to grow olive in containers. Low evergreen trees with a beautiful silvery-green crown will not only delight you with their beauty, but will also give you the opportunity to harvest olives in your garden. Olive can tolerate a drop in temperature, but if the winter is harsh in your area, you need to bring the tree to a sheltered place during the colder months.

For a home garden, it is preferable to choose varieties of table varieties, since it is almost impossible to get olive oil at home, but it is not difficult to have your own salted olives all year round. They are delicious.

And then you can cook a lot of goodies out of them. Italian housewives pickle olives like this: add 50 g of soda per 1 kg of olives to a container with water. The water is changed twice a day for a week (until the olives soften). Moreover, they must be mixed three times a day. Then the olives are taken out, washed with clean water. Then they are put in a jar of very salty water (so that the egg does not sink in it) and fennel is added. You can try the resulting dish only after 2 months. Salt olives on occasion - you won't regret it!

Elena Kulishenko, Italy
(specially for "Flora Price")


As they say, there are no comrades for taste and color. And yet, most people consider apricot to be one of the most delicious fruits. This is the oldest fruit crop, cultivated since time immemorial on the mountain slopes of China and Central Asia. It is mentioned in Chinese books written as far back as 2000 BC. From here, it spread through Iran and the Caucasus further west. Some scholars believe that in the IV century BC, the apricot was taken from Armenia by Alexander the Great and ended up in Greece and Rome.

The first mention of the cultivation of this crop in the middle lane dates back to 1654, when 19 overseas trees were brought and planted in the Izmailovsky Garden near Moscow, among them 2 "apricot apple" trees.

Apricot is a fruit tree with blackish-brown longitudinally cracking bark and single white or pink flowers. Apricot blooms in April before the leaves open. Bears fruit in July.

The ancestor of the overwhelming number of apricot varieties is the common apricot, which is distinguished by high drought resistance and sufficient winter hardiness.

Currently, about 60 varieties of apricot have been zoned. For the middle lane, including for Belarus, varieties have been bred that are distinguished by high winter hardiness and increased resistance to bark podoprevaniya.

Apricot is a very popular crop, which is explained not only by the value of its fruits, but also by the biological characteristics of its trees. Apricot is an intensive type of culture. Growing rapidly at a young age, it bears its first fruits very early. The tree begins to bear fruit soon after planting one-year-olds in the garden (in the 3-4th year), and in the 5-6th year it yields up to 30-50 kg per tree. In the following years, the harvest continues to increase.

Photophilous, durable. The root system is highly developed, goes deep into the ground. It is undemanding to soil conditions, tolerates some soil salinity and excess lime, develops well on sandy and stony soils. Grows best on well-lit, well-aerated and drained slopes with light sandy or loamy soils. The close location of groundwater is harmful to the root system and trunk.

The main diseases of apricot are spotting of fruits, leaves and gray rot. Control measures: spraying with Bordeaux liquid and removing all affected branches and dry fruits. Of the pests, the cherry elephant is the most dangerous. These beetles gnaw on young buds and leaves, the larvae eat the contents of the seeds. Control measures: regular shaking off and destruction of beetles.

Apricots are widely used fresh and processed. For the preparation of juices, compotes, marmalade, pat, figs, candied fruits, preserves, confiture and for obtaining dried fruits: dried apricots - dried fruits without seeds in the form of halves of kaisa - fruits with removed seeds by squeezing apricots - whole fruits with seeds.

Many varieties of apricot have edible, sweet kernels used in the confectionery industry as a substitute for the more expensive almonds. Bitter seeds are used to obtain valuable technical and edible oil, of which they contain 30-50%.

The wood of the apricot tree is highly valued for its strength and beauty, which is used for various crafts.The trees themselves are also unusually picturesque, especially at the time of flowering, when large pinkish flowers that completely cover the branches exude a strong aroma and the hum of working bees stands over the apricots.

Sea buckthorn - planting and care, rules, subtleties, variety selection

What is sea buckthorn, planting and caring for it, breeding features - I will tell you about all this in this article. The valuable medicinal qualities of this culture are known all over the world today. Sea buckthorn is grown, cultivated, on its basis medical and cosmetic preparations, as well as all kinds of culinary delights are made. All parts of sea buckthorn have medicinal value and are used in folk and official medicine. Depending on the planting site and on leaving, sea buckthorn can be a low spreading shrub or a powerful tall tree.

Where does sea buckthorn grow

In the wild, it grows on rocky and sandy soils, in river valleys, near streams, reservoirs, on the seashore. Because of this, it is often called sea thorn, sand berry, dune thorn. The homeland of sea buckthorn is the highlands of the Himalayas. Where does sea buckthorn grow in Russia? You can answer - everywhere, except perhaps in the regions of the Far North. Today this culture is spread all over the world. This is a representative of the sucker family. Through the efforts of breeders, many of its varieties have been bred.

Where and how sea buckthorn grows in the wild, photo:

Features, how to distinguish male from female sea buckthorn, photo

In our domestic open spaces, its name is explained quite easily - the branches of the tree are abundantly strewn, covered with bright orange fruits from all sides. The leaves are narrow, elongated, of a bluish tint, the flowers are so inconspicuous that at first glance they can be easily mistaken for leaves. As already mentioned, depending on the variety, the sea buckthorn can be undersized or tall.

When does sea buckthorn bloom? By the very beginning of May or closer to its middle, small short brushes bloom on the branches, each of them has 3-5 small yellowish flowers. Flowers bloom first, leaves follow.

Here it is necessary to mention one feature of sea buckthorn - only female representatives bloom, on male trees there are stamens collected in a bunch. These stamens contain pollen, which is easily carried by the wind to the female inflorescences, as a result of which pollination occurs. If you slightly disturb a flowering male branch, you can see a cloud of this very pollen. Sea buckthorn flowers have no aroma, therefore they do not attract bees.

To get a good harvest, it is imperative to plant male and female trees together. Fruits are produced only by female plants, male plants are only pollinators. For pollination, sometimes one male representative is enough, which can grow at a considerable distance (up to 50 meters) from female specimens. Windy weather favors the process.

Sea buckthorn female and male: the difference is that a male tree can even grow from wild growth. But as for the female plant, it must be cultivated sea buckthorn. As mentioned above, the floor of a tree is determined by the appearance of the buds. The male variety is easiest to identify in the spring or fall, while the female can be easily identified in the summer when the tree is in bloom and fruiting. Female kidneys are much smaller than male ones, covered with a pair of scales. Male buds are larger, voluminous, have from 5 to 7 covering scales.

The male sex of the sea buckthorn is on the right, the female is on the left, photo:

Sea buckthorn - drawing of female and male branches Branch of a male plant in spring Branch of a female plant in spring

When does the sea buckthorn season start? When does sea buckthorn ripen? From the last weeks of August to early October, depending on the climate in the region of growth. However, there are some nuances here: the collection time depends on the purpose for which you need the berries.For freezing or eating fresh sea buckthorn, the fruits should be harvested at the very beginning of their ripening (late calendar summer-early autumn). By this time, they are already saturated with vitamins, but they are firm enough to the touch, do not ooze juice. If the berries are needed to obtain oil, prepare all kinds of jams, jams, sauces, then you should wait until they are fully ripe. Ripe fruits are filled with juice, slightly soft.

Why is it difficult to harvest sea buckthorn?

This task is quite difficult, the process can be traumatic due to the sharp thorns that cover the branches. Sea buckthorn has rather short stalks, and ripe berries are soft to the touch, easily wrinkled under the fingers. Plus, the juice of the fruit is very acidic and can irritate the skin of the hands with prolonged contact. What to do in this case?

There are radical methods in which the branches are pruned along with the fruits, but this is quite cruel in relation to the tree. Experienced gardeners have found a way out of this situation. To begin with, before harvesting, put on those clothes that you will not mind getting dirty, and this will inevitably happen. The second rule - you need to collect fruits from the top of the branch towards the bottom.

  1. The first method is a rough one, in which branches with fruits are carefully cut off and immediately frozen. Frozen berries can be easily removed from the branches, but this method is only suitable for those cases when you need them frozen.
  2. The second method is manual; cherries, cherries, apricots and other fruits are harvested in the same way. It is traumatic, takes a long time, and requires increased attention.
  3. The third method is “skillful hands”, ie. the manufacture of auxiliary devices. Gardeners go to various tricks: a sharp scraper is attached to a long stick with electrical tape, which, as it were, is used to comb the berries from the branches. Your helper should stand at the bottom and hold either an open bag or an open berry picking umbrella. Sometimes a long-handled knife is used and the fruit is harvested in the same way. However, the most convenient device is considered to be "cobra" - this is a popular name that has taken root among gardeners and summer residents. The device is a loop of dense wire that is securely attached to a long handle. You can drill two holes at the end of a rounded stick and thread a wire through them. For convenience, the loop itself is slightly bent so that when viewed from the side it resembles a cobra's hood. The top of the loop should be slightly narrowed. The attachment point must be securely wrapped with wire or wrapped several times with insulating tape. Now you can quite conveniently cut the stalks with a "cobra", you can open the umbrella from below, where the berries will fall.

The method of collecting sea buckthorn "cobra" is the most acceptable, less traumatic.

A device for collecting sea buckthorn berries - a thin nylon rope is stretched between the slingshots

You can also wait for the first frost, spread a cloth or a piece of polyethylene under the tree, then arm yourself with a heavy stick and attack the trunk with branches with it. Frozen fruits will separate from the branches from the blows and fall on the prepared blanket. Decide for yourself - how it will be more convenient for you.

Watch a few videos, maybe you will use ideas, picking berries with devices that are easy to do yourself, with your own hands.

How to plant sea buckthorn correctly

Before planting, you need to decide on the variety - the selected type of sea buckthorn must be adapted to the climate of your region. It is best to purchase seedlings from trusted locations, such as fruit tree nurseries or horticultural institutes. Additionally, you will be sure of the purity of the variety. It should be borne in mind that this culture has a very short dormant period, so that the sea buckthorn tree does not "wake up" in the middle of winter, choose those varieties that are designed for growing in your area.

When to plant sea buckthorn - in spring or autumn? Sea buckthorn seedlings can be planted with the arrival of spring and autumn.But it is preferable to do this in early spring - this way they will take root better. If you plant a tree in the fall, then a sudden winter warming can trigger its awakening.

When choosing a place, give preference to areas near buildings, paths - away from areas where active gardening is in full swing. The fact is that sea buckthorn has cord-like roots that are located in the upper layers of the soil (about 50 cm). They are quite long, they can diverge to the sides for a distance of more than 10 meters. Thus, the roots can be damaged when digging, they are very sensitive, so even with the slightest injury, the sea buckthorn can get sick. In general, it is not recommended to dig the soil near this tree, even if you do it carefully. Digging provokes the appearance of overgrowth, especially in the places of the "affected" roots. Lightly loosening with a hoe will be sufficient. For this light-loving culture, choose open, unshaded places.

Even in the fall, do not be too lazy to add sand with humus mixed in equal amounts (2 kg / 1 m² or for each hole) to the agreed place, phosphorus-potassium supplements are also relevant.

How to plant male and female sea buckthorn together, at what distance? If there are several trees, then the distance between them should be about 2-3 meters. There must be a male sea buckthorn (for pollination). As mentioned above, 1 male specimen is enough for 5-6 female trees. The process itself is no different from planting other fruit representatives: the hole should be about 70 × 70 × 70 cm, at the bottom you need to form a small hill, carefully spread the roots along its slopes.

After that, the pit is covered with soil just above the root collar. After soil shrinkage, the neck should be flush with the soil level. After planting, a wide hole is formed around the tree, which must be filled with water in the amount of about two buckets.

How to care for sea buckthorn

Caring for seedlings consists in regular watering, you should know that sea buckthorn is a moisture-loving culture. When the seedling gets stronger and becomes a tree, then it no longer needs to be watered too often, only during a drought. It makes no sense to add top dressing to the trunk circle, because the cord-like root system of the tree diverges to the sides and stretches for many meters. When sea buckthorn begins to bear fruit, it can be fed with organic and mineral fertilizers, once every 3 years (4-5 kg ​​of humus per 1 m², 20-30 potassium-phosphorus supplements).

You should also carefully remove the weeds in the area of ​​the trunk circle, do not loosen the ground too actively (without deepening more than 7-10 cm). Pruning branches and forming the crown is best done in the spring, while the buds have not yet blossomed.

After the sea buckthorn tree turns 8 years old, you can practice rejuvenating pruning - remove old branches, giving preference to three-year-old shoots. Dried, frozen, diseased fragments must also be removed.

How to propagate sea buckthorn?

The process is carried out using cuttings, shoots and seeds. It is impractical to describe the seed method in detail, since this method takes too much time. The resulting plants do not inherit the varietal qualities of the mother tree, most often the result is "wild". Often, sea buckthorn is propagated by seeds in laboratory conditions to obtain new varieties, hybrids.

During coppice propagation, the young sea buckthorn inherits all the features of the main tree. Selected representatives are regularly watered in spring and especially in summer. With the arrival of a new spring, the shoot is carefully cut off with a small fragment of the root, after which it is planted in a separate place of residence.

How to propagate sea buckthorn by layering? It is necessary to select those branches that are closest to the ground. In the spring, small depressions are made in the soil near these branches (about 10 cm). The branches are bent and pinned to the ground with wire brackets.When these branches give shoots, the pinned place is covered with soil. The next year, again, with the arrival of spring, they are dug up, cut off with a secateurs and transferred to their permanent residence or growing.

The most high-quality and productive way of propagation is the cuttings method. Cutting sea buckthorn is no different from cutting other fruit trees - everything happens in a similar way. Around the middle of summer, cut off a beautiful and strong stalk (about 15-20 cm in length), pinch off the three lower leaves, treat the cut with Kornevin (optional). Dip the end of the cutting into nutrient soil, substrate, or moist vermiculite. A mixture of clean river sand, fertile soil and peat is perfect. Cover the top with a plastic transparent glass to make something like a greenhouse.

In the room where cuttings germinate, the air temperature should be approximately +26 .. + 28 ° С. Young livestock should be regularly watered, irrigated with a spray bottle, periodically ventilated (raise the glass). After about 8 weeks, the coating is removed, the stalk is fed with potassium-phosphorus additives. The cover is no longer used, the seedling is watered and waiting for a new spring, When it gets stronger, it is transferred to a permanent place of growth.

Sometimes on garden forums you can come across such a question - why doesn't sea buckthorn bear fruit? The answer is actually simple: sea buckthorn is a dioecious crop; to obtain fruits, the presence of male and female specimens is mandatory in the same area. If you have only "girls" growing up, then they will not bear fruit. "Boys" do not bear fruit at all, but are only pollinators. To solve the problem in the spring, you can plant a couple of shrubs of the opposite sex on the site. It is best to choose the cultivated male varieties "Alei" or "Gnome". Just in case, it is better to immediately plant two male trees, suddenly one will die or freeze in winter.

Vaccination also gives good results. You can take several branches from a healthy tree of the opposite sex (for example, from a neighbor in the country) and graft them on your sea buckthorn when spring comes.

Sea buckthorn varieties, description, photo

To get a good harvest, large and juicy berries, choose only the best types of sea buckthorn that are adapted to growing in your area. Take cuttings from a "proven" tree or purchase from a nursery with good recommendations. High-quality sea buckthorn berries are always large, have a pleasant taste, juicy, do not burst in the hands, abundantly cover the branches of the tree.

Variety Krasnoplodnaya - red sea buckthorn photo:

The universal variety Moskovskaya Krasavitsa has an average yield, the shrub grows up to two and a half meters, from mid-summer to early autumn it bears fruit with large (up to 10 g) juicy berries.

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is characterized by a sweeter taste, the branches of the tree are not too densely covered with thorns, the thorns themselves are not long, the size of the fruits is slightly smaller than that of the Moscow Beauty, but larger than average.

Sea buckthorn Krasnoplodnaya has reddish berries, which becomes clear from the name, is resistant to diseases, is distinguished by its vitality and unpretentiousness.

Sea buckthorn Elizabeth belongs to the classic varieties, bears fruit abundantly, the berries have a pleasant sweetish taste, large size. Description of Elizabeth's sea buckthorn: it is a very winter-hardy variety, resistant to diseases, ripens a little later than other species, reaches medium size.

Botanical sea buckthorn is more convenient to collect, since its stalk is slightly longer than that of other species. To obtain valuable sea buckthorn oil, this species is most often grown.

The Giant variety fully justifies its name, the tree grows up to 3-4 meters in height, the fruits are large in size, and the branches are practically not covered with thorns. That is, the Giant variety is a sea buckthorn without thorns. The variety is winter-hardy, the berries ripen by September.

Sea buckthorn Lyubimaya is another common cultivar in our open spaces. It is distinguished by large sweet berries on long stalks, it is easy to pick, it does not wrinkle under the fingers, the bushes are rather sparse, which optimizes the harvesting process (it is easy to get to the berries). This variety is winter-hardy, unpretentious, bears fruit abundantly.

In addition to its medicinal value, this culture can act as an element of landscape design on your site. Its long, rope-like roots hold the soil well. With its help, you can form a hedge, and in the company with the rest of the shrubs, it will look very harmonious.

From whatever side you look, sea buckthorn is good for everyone - planting and caring for it will not be a burden for you, since it is unpretentious, incredibly useful and looks beautiful on the site.

How to land

Planting oak seedlings infected with black truffle mycelium is carried out in the spring, when the threat of frost has passed. The soil must be well prepared and all weeds removed. It is impossible to use chemicals to kill weeds, since even a small part of them in the soil can lead to the death of the mycelium.

The use of herbicides with ammonium gluphosphate is allowed, but only in small quantities and in case of urgent need. This substance decomposes quickly in the soil.

Planting is carried out according to a certain scheme, taking into account the fact that no more than 500 oak trees per 1 hectare. Immediately before planting, the soil cannot be fertilized, this can lead to the death of the mycelium of the royal mushroom.

It should also be borne in mind that when transplanting, there is a high risk of damage to the root system, therefore, oaks are first planted in the prepared hole, a small amount of water is poured, the seedling is densely covered with soil and again abundantly watered. Planting depth - 75 cm to protect mushrooms from frost and other adverse weather conditions. In addition, mulching is done near the tree (from a layer of leaves, moss and branches). If the plants are young, it is better to protect them with plastic wrap.

Since the truffle is an ectomycorrhizal fungus (the formation of mycorrhiza on the root system), the area of ​​the tree for development should be at least 20 m2. Along with the oak, it is allowed to grow other companion trees: citrus, olive trees. You cannot plant poplar, chestnut, pine, spruce and fir next to oak trees.

About pest control and harvesting

Since pigs and rabbits are the main danger to truffles, the area where the Perigord mushroom is grown must be fenced off. Cockroaches and weevils also pose a serious threat to the future harvest.

The appearance of fungi (after a few years) can be recognized by the small tubercles that appear on the soil. The body of the mushroom is in the ground, the depth is about 20 cm. The weight of one specimen is from 0.5 to 1 kg. The black truffle has a round or oblong shape. The color of the mushroom is black and the "skin" is hard.

Most of the crop can be located practically on the soil surface. In order not to disrupt the ripening process, it is important to sprinkle such places with sifted sand. By the way, the fact that the mushroom is close to the surface can be judged by the flies and midges - if there are a lot of them in this place, then it's time to harvest.

To search for royal mushrooms, specially trained dogs are used (they are watered with milk with the addition of mushroom broth, and later they are trained with a stick grated with truffle) and pigs. You need to dig out the truffle exclusively by hand with small spatulas.

Growing royal truffles is troublesome, but due to the high cost of mushrooms, it is very profitable. There are many valuable mushroom farms in the world. You can find lands even in places where these mushrooms have never grown. So it is quite possible to grow truffles in artificial conditions, especially since the yield on such farms will be several times higher than in nature.

For the intricacies of growing truffles, see this video:

How to grow an olive tree at home

Olive Is an evergreen tree related to the olive family. Its homeland is Africa, Australia, southern parts of Europe and Asia. In the world, the olive tree is known for making healthy oil, and the fruits - olives - are pickled. There are many legends about its origin. Despite the fact that the olive grows only in warm countries, it can also be grown at home. This can be done from a seed - a bone. However, eating delicious fruits from such a tree will not work - they will be tasteless and will appear only 10 years after planting. Plants in this way can only be grown for decorative purposes. Read about how to grow an olive tree at home in our article.

How to grow an olive tree at home: secrets

The cultivation of olive trees requires a temperate climate. If you live in a region where the weather is unfavorable for this plant, then planting can be carried out even in an apartment, providing the desired temperature regime. How to grow an olive tree at home? Detailed instructions.

Choosing a variety

First you need to choose a variety of olives. This condition is important because they can be used for different purposes:

  • for eating
  • for cooking oil
  • for any purpose.

When planning to grow an olive tree at home, use dwarf plants. They are designed specifically for this.

Olives are dioecious. This means that both male and female cells are needed to produce fruit. Pollination in natural conditions is carried out by the wind. At home, you will have to do it yourself, using a brush or a piece of fur.

Olive propagation methods

Seedlings can be obtained in three ways:

  • using seeds
  • planting a cutting
  • by vaccination.

1. How to grow an olive tree from a seed

This method is lengthy. It takes 10-15 years from planting to fruiting. The sequence of actions is as follows:

  1. The bones are extracted from fresh olives.
  2. Soak them in 10% alkali solution overnight.
  3. Rinse with warm water.
  4. Dry with a paper towel.
  5. Saw off the hard layer of the bone (to facilitate germination).
  6. Plant the bone in the ground to a depth of 2 - 3 cm.
  7. Expect germination for about 3 months, maintaining the optimal temperature of + 18 C heat.

  1. For the soil, a mixture of sand, turf and garden soil is used in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 with the addition of a small part of peat and lime (in general, 25 g per 1 kg of land).
  2. The pot is chosen small in size. As the plants grow, they increase it. This makes it easier to control watering. Olive does not tolerate excess moisture.

The seedling is transplanted every year until it reaches the age of five. Then after 2 - 3 years.

2. Vegetative reproduction

This is a quicker way to demonstrate how to grow an olive tree at home. Such a seedling will begin to bloom faster, inheriting all varietal characteristics. For vegetative propagation, cuttings or root suckers are used. The process takes place in several stages:

  1. Annual cuttings are harvested.
  2. The cut site is treated with a rooting agent.

To shorten the period until the moment when the olive begins to bloom and bear fruit, you can graft it using varietal plants.

3. Grafting olive

Reproduction is carried out by the budding method. An erupting peephole is cut from the stem, which is placed in a split on the bark. The first fruits appear in 8-10 years.

Olive tree care

Young plant care consists in removing the lower leaves and new shoots. This will help give the plant the appearance of a tree. Dry, weakened or strongly vegetating shoots should also be removed.

The plant should be in the brightest part of the apartment, and in winter it needs additional lighting. Water it daily, but in small amounts.In the spring, fertilizing with complex fertilizers is necessary. In winter, less water and no fertilization. Transfer to another place (less warm only + 10 -12 C). During this period, flower buds are laid. In spring, the plant blooms.

This information on how to grow an olive tree at home is enough for self-breeding of the plant. Despite the voluminous breeding process, the result usually exceeds all expectations, since olives are not whimsical to care for. And in a year from a perennial tree, you can harvest about 2 kg of the crop.

Textbook Biology Grade 7 Ponomarev Kornilov Kuchmenko

Explanation: To download the book (from Google Drive), click on the top right - ARROW IN RECTANGLE ... Then in a new window, top right - DOWN ARROW ... To read - just scroll the pages up and down with the wheel.

3 cm.Small seeds of poppy, turnip, lettuce, celery are sown on the soil surface, only slightly sprinkled on top with a layer of soil no more than 1.5

2 mm. The seeding depth also depends on the quality of the soil. Seeds are embedded deeper into sandy soil than into dense clay soil. The necessary conditions for seed germination are: the presence of water, air oxygen, a certain temperature and reserve nutrients in the seed. To get a good harvest, it is necessary to observe the timing of sowing seeds and the depth of their incorporation into the soil. 1. What are the main conditions necessary for seed germination. 2. Why are freshly harvested seeds dried before storage? 3. What are the conditions for seed germination that you learned for the first time? Where can you use this knowledge in practice? 4. Look closely at Figure 38. Explain what happened to the pea seeds in each of the three vessels. How did you determine that the swollen seeds did not germinate? Why did the seeds germinate only in the second vessel? Why did they not sprout in the third vessel, where was the water? 55 5. Conduct an experiment at home to prove the effect of light on seed germination. Mark the time it took for the seeds to germinate on your workbook. Sketch your objects, draw up the results of the experiment in the form of a report. Germination. ^^ ag. what structure the mushrooms have • what is mycorrhiza • what organisms are mushrooms attributed to by the way of nutrition. The concept of lichens. Lichens are a peculiar group of living organisms that grow on all continents, including Antarctica. In nature, there are more than 26 thousand species of them. For a long time, lichens have been a mystery to researchers. Although people have used them since ancient times for dyeing fabrics, for medicinal purposes and even for food, they called them differently: either mosses, or algae, or the "chaos of nature" and "impoverished vegetation." Finally, in 1867, scientists discovered the essence of the lichen organism - it turned out to be a symbiosis of a fungus and algae or cyanobacteria. However, until now, researchers have not come to a consensus regarding the position of lichens in the system of living nature: some attribute them to the kingdom of plants, others to the kingdom of fungi. The external structure of lichens. The lichen body is represented by the thallus. It is very diverse in color, size, shape and structure. The thallus can have the shape of a body in the form of a crust, leaf-shaped plate, tubules, bush and a small rounded lump. Some lichens are more than a meter long, but most have a thallus 3-7 cm in size. They grow medially. Their thallus is often several hundred and even thousands of years old. Fig. 155. Lichens: 1 - scale 2 - foliose 3 - bushy 231 Depending on the appearance of the thallus, lichens are divided into three types: scale, foliose and bushy (Fig. 155). Crusty lichens look like a crust closely intergrown with the substrate (most often on a stone or rock, on glass). In foliose lichens, the thallus is lamellar, sometimes with a wavy edge, horizontally located on the substrate (soil, stones, wood).It is firmly attached to the substrate by a thick short leg. Bushy lichens look like a bush, erect or hanging, highly branched or unbranched. They are located on the soil, and epiphytes - on tree branches or on rocks. They attach to the substrate in small areas of the thallus, and the ground ones - by filamentous rhizoids. Lichens are painted in a variety of colors: white, pink, yellow, blue, green, gray and even black. Internal structure of lichens. Thallus consists of two different organisms - fungus and algae. They interact so closely with each other that their symbiosis is characterized as a single organism. Thallus is a multitude of intertwined mushroom filaments (hyphae). Between them there are groups or singly cells of green algae, and in some - cyanobacteria (Fig. 156). ^ The main distinguishing feature of lichens is the symbiosis of two ^ organisms of different species: a heterotrophic fungus and an autotrophic alga. It is interesting to note that the species of fungi that form a lichen do not exist in nature without algae at all, while most of the algae that make up the lichen thallus are found in a free-living state, separately from the fungus. Lichens are fed by both symbionts - fungus and algae. The hyphae of the fungus absorb water and minerals dissolved in it, and the alga (or cyanobacteria), which contains 1 Fig. 156. Internal structure of a lichen in a cross section: 1 - cells of algae or cyanobacteria 2 - fungal hyphae 232 chlorophyll, forms organic matter (due to photosynthesis). In this way, both symbionts, providing each other, create conditions for the existence of a lichen. Lichens reproduce like mushrooms - spores and pieces of the detached thallus. The simplicity of lichens. Lichens often settle in the most barren places, where other organisms do not survive. Absorbing the moisture of rain, dew and fog with the entire surface of the body, they are able to settle in various places regardless of the proximity of water: on sheer rocks, walls, stones, even on glass, in forests, swamps, desert and tundra. But they are very sensitive to air pollution. In the presence of smoke and poisonous gases, lichens quickly die. According to their condition (especially in cities), the purity of the air is determined, that is, they are used as indicators (from the Latin indico - "I indicate", "I define"). Lichens grow on rocks and rocks in Antarctica in extremely harsh conditions. Living organisms have to live here at very low temperatures, especially in winter, and practically without water. Due to the low temperature, precipitation always falls there in the form of snow. The lichen cannot absorb water in this form. But the black color of the thallus helps him out. Due to the high solar radiation, the dark surface of the lichen's body heats up quickly even at low temperatures. Snow falling on a heated thallus melts. The lichen immediately absorbs the moisture that appears, providing itself with the water it needs for respiration and photosynthesis (Fig. 157). The meaning of lichens. They are of great importance in nature and in human life. Lichens are among the first to inhabit stony ground, bare rocks, participate in the destruction of rocks, dissolving stony substrates with their special acids. Dying parts of lichens enrich the soil, and also serve as food for the inhabitants of the soil. Fig. 157. Bushy lichen from Antarctica on stone 233 Some species living on the surface of trees protect them from the penetration of fungi - tree destroyers. An important place in the life of animals and humans in the countries of the North is occupied by bushy lichens (about 40 species), which are known as reindeer moss, or lichen. It is the most valuable, and in winter the only food for reindeer. Other ungulates also willingly eat a variety of lichens. Representatives of some species of lichens are suitable for human consumption.So, in Iceland, they are mixed into flour when baking bread in Japan, one of the types of lichens is considered a delicacy. Another area of ​​use for lichens is medicine. Even the ancient Egyptians used them for treatment 4000 years ago. In the XVIII century. lichens have been included in the official lists of medicinal plants due to their strong antimicrobial properties. Some types of lichens are used as natural dyes and are also used in the perfumery industry. Lichens are a unique group of living things. They are symbiotic organisms composed of fungus and algae. The role of lichens in nature and in human life is great: they serve as food for animals, create soil, are used by humans as medicines and food, and serve as an indicator of air purity. 1. Explain what could have caused the appearance in nature of a symbiotic organism - lichen. 2. On what basis are lichens used as indicators of air purity? 3. What is the reason that the lichen fungus cannot exist in nature without algae? 4. Why can lichens live in the most barren places? 5. Using the resources of the Internet, prepare a report on the role of lichens in nature. Lichens: scale, leafy, bushy. 234 Let us summarize. What did you learn from chapter 7 "The Kingdom of the Bacteria" and chapter 8 "The Kingdom of the Mushrooms. Lichens "? Answer the questions 1. What was the significance of the appearance of cyanobacteria in the evolution of plants? 2. Why modern scientists have isolated bacteria in a separate kingdom? 3. On what basis is the living world divided into two kingdoms? 4. Why are mushrooms attributed to the eukaryotic super kingdom? 5. What type of nutrition is observed in lichens? 6. What are the rules for collecting and eating mushrooms? 7. What changes observed in plants of different taxonomic groups indicate their evolution? 8. Why do fungi occupy an intermediate position between plant and animal organisms? 9. What is the role of fungi in nature? 10. Why is bacteria considered a biotic factor in nature? Complete tasks A. Complete the statement by choosing the correct answer. 1. A bacterial cell, unlike plant cells, does not have: a) cytoplasm b) a capsule c) a formed nucleus d) a cell wall. 2. Cyanobacteria are representatives of: a) the kingdom of bacteria b) the kingdom of fungi c) the kingdom of plants d) the kingdom of animals. 3. The vegetative body of the fungus is called: a) mycorrhiza b) mycorrhiza c) symbiosis d) hyphae. 4. Molds are: a) autotrophs b) saprotrophs c) symbionts d) predators. 5. The body of a lichen is called: a) a bush b) a thallus c) a plate d) hyphae. B. Choose the correct statements. 1. In bacteria, the cytoplasm is motionless. 2. Cyanobacteria are heterotrophs. 3. The bacterial cell wall is impermeable. 235 4. Bacterial cells lack a formed nucleus. 5. Yeast - unicellular fungi. 6. The body of the fungus is represented by the mycelium. 7. Mycorrhiza is a symbiosis of a fungus and a plant. 8. All fungi are parasitic organisms. Discuss the problem in class • Why did bacteria, the very first bacteria that appeared on Earth - more than 3 billion years ago, not become extinct, but still exist today? • What happens if bacteria cease to exist in nature? Express your opinion • What is the importance of mushrooms in the culture of different nations? • Protection of biological diversity is one of the main problems of humankind. Your position • Are bacteria good or bad for humans? • Amanita muscaria is included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, and it is considered a protected species. Explain why, because fly agarics are poisonous mushrooms. Observe and Conclude • Conduct a small biological study at home. 1. Grow white mildew of the mukor fungus. 2. Note the time after which a black plaque will appear on the white cannon of the mycelium. 3. Examine under a magnifying glass a tenfold increase in the hyphae of the fungus. You will see that the "black bloom" is the heads with spores. four.With a dissecting needle, separate a small piece of the mycelium with the heads, put it on a glass slide (you can use a small mirror) and drop a drop of water next to the mycelium. 5. Using the dissecting needle, touch the water droplets with the flour heads and watch what happens. 6. Make a general conclusion about the role of fungal spores and why unattended food molds so quickly. 7. Write the results of the research into a notebook. Learning to create projects, models, diagrams 1. Create a flyer for the prevention of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. Fill out the text you have written, 236 show it to friends for their evaluation, and then post it in your home for your family members to share. 2. Make a list of mushrooms that you or your friends have collected in the forest (or bought). Make an album of pictures of the mushrooms you have eaten. Supplement the album with information about these mushrooms that you find on the Internet or in reference books. Present the album to your loved ones. Themes of the projects 1. Creation of a set of models of various forms of bacteria (from glued wool, clay, etc.) for a school biology classroom. 2. Implementation of a project to create a volumetric model of a cap mushroom with a papier-mâché mycelium for a school biology classroom. 3. Creation of a volumetric model of the internal structure of a lichen for a biology office. 237 Natural Communities After studying the materials in Chapter 9, you will be able to characterize: • representatives of the living world inhabiting the natural community • various natural communities • biogeocenosis and ecosystem. You will learn to: • describe the structure of a natural community • compare the adaptability of different species to life in a natural community • explain the reasons for changes in a natural community • compare natural and cultural natural communities. The concept of a natural community Remember what relationships exist between living organisms in nature • what plants prevail in the natural conditions of your region. The concept of a natural community. In nature, all organisms do not exist alone, but live together, interacting with each other. For example, blueberries, lingonberries always grow in the coniferous forest. Mushrooms (porcini, moss) grow there, insects that pollinate blueberry or lingonberry flowers live. In the crowns of trees 238 nests are built by birds that eat the fruits and seeds of these plants. All these organisms form a kind of natural complex of living organisms - a community. Communities of living organisms do not arise by chance. They are always determined by specific natural conditions - abiotic environmental factors, that is, inanimate nature. A complex of plants adapted to exist on a specific territory is called a plant community, or phytocenosis (Greek fi-top - "plant", koinos - "common"). In some conditions of the abiotic environment, a spruce forest is formed, in others - a pine forest, in others - an oak or birch forest, meadow, swamp or steppe. The community of different living organisms - animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, formed in nature in a natural way, coexisting for a long time on a homogeneous territory under certain environmental conditions, is called a natural community, or biogeocenosis (from the Greek. Bios - "life", ge - "earth" , koinos - "common"). Ш Biogeocenosis has specific boundaries. They are determined by the boundaries of a specific plant community (phytocenosis). The concept of biogeocenosis was introduced into science by the Russian scientist-botanist Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachev. The structure of the natural community. V.N.Sukachev drew attention to the fact that among the inhabitants of the natural community there are always several organisms that perform different functions in nature.Some organisms, absorbing the energy of sunlight, from inorganic substances create organic substances in which energy is stored.This is a group of autotrophs, it includes various green plants.The second group of organisms is heterotrophs. Some of them feed on living plant matter (animals and fungi), others (bacteria, some fungi) - on organic matter of dead bodies, while decomposing them to inorganic compounds (salts, water, carbon dioxide). These compounds, in turn, can be reabsorbed by green plants during photosynthesis and soil nutrition. As a result of this interaction, there is a circulation of substances and a flow of energy between organisms and the abiotic environment. That is why integrity is created, the unity of the natural community, in which the existence of others depends on the existence of some living organisms. 239 Fig. 158. The circulation of substances and the flow of energy in nature. Fig. 159. The structure of the natural community The circulation of substances and the flow of energy is the movement of inorganic substances and energy from the environment to some organisms (autotrophs), from them to other organisms (heterotrophs), and then back into the environment (Fig. 158). The circulation of substances and the flow of energy is the main sign of biogeo- "cenosis. Four important functional links are distinguished in the structure of a natural community. The first is the abiotic environment (inorganic substances, solar energy, climate, moisture, soil). Then there are three functionally different groups of living organisms. : creating substances with a reserve of energy, eating these substances and processing organic substances to inorganic (Fig. 159). Due to this complex interaction of living organisms and the conditions of the abiotic environment, biogeocenosis is also called an ecological system, or ecosystem. Biogeocenosis and ecosystem are similar concepts, but not The concept of "ecosystem" is broader, it has no dimension. An ecosystem can cover a space of any length. This is a rotting stump, and an anthill, and a park, and the biosphere of the Earth as a whole. Any biogeocenosis can be called an ecosystem, but not every biosystem - biogeocenosis. К Biogeocenosis is an ecosystem, the boundaries of which are determined are determined by the nature of the vegetation cover, that is, by a certain phytocenosis. 240 Environmental conditions in a natural community differ from those outside it. This is due to the fact that the whole complex of living organisms inhabiting it (bacteria, fungi, lichens, plants and animals), receiving funds for their life from the surrounding abiotic environment, strongly affects it - it changes the illumination, air temperature, humidity, soil composition. As a result, a unique habitat is created within the biogeocenosis - its internal environment, a "home" for its living population, in the creation of which the organisms themselves take part. Such an internal environment of a natural community is called a biotope (from the Greek. Bios - "life", topos - "place"). When you are in the forest, walking in a meadow or in the steppe, you should remember that we are just guests in a “house” where a variety of living things live. Observe the rules of conduct adopted in this "house" in order not to harm its "tenants" and their living conditions. A natural community (biogeocenosis, ecosystem) is a set of living organisms and conditions of an abiotic environment. It manifests itself in nature as a single whole. An important feature of a biogeocenosis (ecosystem) is the cycle of substances and the flow of energy. The concepts "biogeocenosis" and "ecosystem" characterize from different positions one and the same natural phenomenon - a set of living organisms and conditions of the abiotic environment. 1. Explain why different groups of heterotrophic organisms coexist in the natural community. 2. Name the organisms that make up the forest biogeocenosis, which are autotrophs. 3. Describe the structure of the natural community. 4. Do you think the composition of the natural community changes depending on the season? 5. Prepare a report on the natural communities of your home area. Search the Internet for information on the natural communities in your area.Note which biogeocenoses there are more - forest, meadow or steppe, of which woody plant species the forests are composed. 9 - IN Ponomar “va 241 Plant community (phytocenosis), natural community (biogeocenosis), ecological system (ecosystem), biotope, circulation of substances and energy flow. F • The originality of a natural community depends on the composition of living organisms that inhabit it, and on the number of their species. For example, if spruce is present in large numbers in a natural community, then it will be a spruce forest. But if it contains approximately the same number of spruces and birches, then it will be a different plant community - a mixed forest (for example, a birch forest with spruce undergrowth). Dubrava is a natural community in which tree species are mainly represented by oak. • The species population in the biogeocenosis is formed gradually over a number of years by the influx of species from neighboring territories. As a result, over time, species settle here, mutually complementing each other: according to the use of existing natural conditions, according to the biological needs of the species and their life forms. This allows a very large number of different species of plants, mushrooms and animals to be accommodated on the same territory. • The tropical rainforest is the most species-rich natural community. Due to its complex tiered structure, the density of its population - animals, plants, fungi and bacteria - is extremely high. Therefore, it is almost impossible to artificially restore the rainforest. The adaptability of plants to living together in a natural community Remember • what functions living organisms perform in a natural community • what is the role of the cycle of substances in a natural community • as natural communities are called. The structure of the natural community. All organisms of the natural community are located in it in accordance with the structural characteristics of their bodies and their needs for life. Thus, forest plants determine the structure of this natural community. It is presented in the form of tiers (floors), towering one above the other (Fig. 160). Plant organs are located in one tier or another - leaves, flowers and fruits <надземные ярусы).="" ярусы="" w-m="" рис.="" 160.="" ярусы="" лесного="" биогео1еноза="" (дубравы)="" в="" дубраве="" наиболее="" высокие="" растения="" —="" дуб,="" липа,="" клён,="" ясень.="" их="" кроны="" находятся="" в="" наилучших="" условиях="" освещённости.="" они="" образуют="" самый="" высокий="" —="" верхний,="" или="" первый,="" —="" ярус.="" второй="" ярус="" составляют="" низкорослые="" деревья="" рябина,="" черёмуха,="" яблоня,="" боярышник.="" третий="" —="" более="" низкий="" —="" ярус="" образуют="" кустарники:="" орешник,="" крушина,="" калина.="" ещё="" ниже="" располагается="" четвёртый="" ярус,="" его="" составляют="" травы:="" медуница,="" купена,="" вороний="" глаз,="" ветреница,="" а="" у="" самой="" почвы="" —="" пятый="" ярус,="" занятый="" мхами="" и="" лишайниками.="" почву="" выстилает="" «подстилка»="" из="" перепревших="" остатков="" опавших="" листьев,="" отмерших="" побегов="" и="" веток.="" в="" каждый="" ярус="" леса="" входит="" большое="" количество="" видов.="" названные="" ярусы="" отражают="" надземную="" ярусность="" леса.="" ^="" ярусное="" строение="" природного="" сообщества="" обеспечивает="" возможность="" существования="" на="" небольшой="" территории="" очень="" большого="" количества="" разных="" видов.="" ярусное="" размещение="" органов="" растений="" наблюдается="" и="" в="" подземной="" части="" природного="" сообщества="" (подземные="" ярусы).="" ярусы="" в="" почве="" вы-="" 243="" деляют="" по="" глубине="" расположения="" всасывающих="" частей="" корней.="" первым="" подземным="" ярусом="" называют="" самый="" глубокий,="" а="" третьим="" —="" самый="" близкий="" к="" поверхности="" почвы,="" второй="" —="" в="" промежутке="" между="" первым="" и="" третьим.="" больше="" всего="" корней="" находится="" в="" верхних,="" самых="" плодородных="" слоях="" почвы="" (см.="" рис.="" 160).="" но="" и="" на="" глубине="" 3-5="" м="" в="" лесных="" биогеоценозах="" умеренной="" зоны="" корней="" также="" много.="" количество="" ярусов="" —="" надземных="" и="" подземных="" —="" в="" разных="" природных="" сообществах="" неодинаково.="" чем="" более="" благоприятными="" оказываются="" условия="" биотопа,="" тем="" большим="" числом="" ярусов="" он="" отличается.="" если="" в="" дубраве="" можно="" выделить="" 5-6="" надземных="" ярусов,="" то="" в="" ельнике="" их="" не="" более="" трёх.="" в="" тропических="" лесах="" насчитывают="" более="" 15="" надземных="" ярусов.="" по="" ярусам="" размещаются="" не="" только="" растения,="" но="" и="" все="" другие="" обитатели="" природного="" сообщества:="" бактерии,="" грибы,="" водоросли="" и="" животные="" (см.="" рис.="" 160).="" сочетанием="" разных="" жизненных="" форм="" растений="" (деревьев,="" кустарников,="" трав,="" водорослей)="" и="" других="" обитателей="" биогеоценоза="" (бактерий,="" грибов,="" лишайников,="" животных)="" обеспечивается="" наиболее="" полное="" использование="" живым="" населением="" абиотических="" условий="" на="" данной="" территории.="" условия="" обитания="" в="" природном="" сообществе.="" в="" пределах="" разных="" ярусов="" наблюдаются="" неодинаковые="" условия="" обитания.="" так,="" в="" верхнем="" ярусе="" сказывается="" яркое="" солнечное="" освещение="" и="" сильное="" влияние="" ветра.="" поэтому="" в="" этом="" ярусе="" располагаются="" светолюбивые="" виды="" растений="" и="" те,="" у="" которых="" ветер="" переносит="" пыльцу,="" осуществляет="" распространение="" семян="" (ель,="" сосна,="" берёза).="" в="" более="" низких="" ярусах="" значительно="" меньше="" света,="" так="" как="" его="" поглощают="" кроны="" деревьев,="" но="" зато="" в="" воздухе="" больше="" влаги="" и="" нет="" ветра.="" в="" этом="" ярусе="" леса="" встречаются="" лишь="" сравнительно="" теневыносливые="" растения="" с="" насекомоопыляемыми="" цветками,="" имеющие="" плоды="" или="" семена,="" распространяемые="" животными.="" поэтому="" именно="" здесь="" многие="" животные="" (дрозды,="" иволги,="" сойки,="" белки)="" размещают="" свои="" гнёзда.="" у="" самой="" поверхности="" почвы,="" где="" много="" перегноя="" и="" теплее,="" чем="" в="" других="" ярусах,="" скапливаются="" углекислый="" газ="" и="" влага,="" но="" там="" мало="" света.="" поэтому="" в="" самых="" нижних="" ярусах="" поселяются="" тенелюбивые="" виды="" растений="" (кислица,="" ландыш,="" майник).="" для="" них="" характерны="" широкие="" тёмнозелёные="" листья,="" пахучие="" цветки,="" имеющие="" белую="" окраску.="" многие="" растения="" самоопыляемые,="" семена="" распространяются="" с="" помощью="" муравьёв,="" птиц,="" конечностями="" крупных="" животных="" или="" путём="" саморазбрасывания.="" 244="" в="" подстилке="" —="" перегнойном="" слое="" почвы="" —="" много="" организмов,="" имеющих="" сапротрофный="" тип="" питания:="" грибы,="" бактерии,="" дождевые="" черви,="" личинки="" жуков,="" слизни.="" ш="" организмы,="" населяющие="" всё="" пространство="" природного="" сообще-"="" ства,="" приспособлены="" к="" совместной="" жизни.="" у="" большого="" количества="" растений,="" входящих="" в="" биогеоценоз="" и="" различающихся="" по="" своим="" биологическим="" свойствам,="" органы="" питания="" размещаются="" в="" разных="" ярусах.="" поэтому="" все="" виды="" организмов="" природного="" сообщества,="" обитая="" на="" одной="" и="" той="" же="" территории,="" не="" конкурируют,="" а="" дополняют="" друг="" друга="" при="" использовании="" условий="" окружающей="" среды.="" м="" природное="" сообщество="" —="" это="" комплекс="" разнообразных="" живых="" организмов,="" приспособленных="" к="" совместной="" жизни="" в="" данных="" природно-климатических="" условиях.="" размещение="" живых="" организмов="" по="" ярусам="" обеспечивает="" возможность="" существования="" на="" небольшой="" территории="" земной="" поверхности="" необычайно="" большого="" количества="" видов="" из="" разных="" царств="" живой="" природы.="" именно="" совместная="" жизнь="" в="" природных="" сообществах="" обусловила="" появление="" в="" процессе="" эволюции="" большого="" разнообразия="" форм="" живых="" организмов.="" это="" проявляется="" в="" их="" строении,="" характере="" питания,="" сроках="" размножения="" и="" способах="" распространения="" по="" земной="" поверхности.="" все="" организмы,="" входящие="" в="" природное="" сообщество,="" приспособлены="" к="" совместной="" жизни.="" биогеоценоз="" (экосистема)="" —="" это="" совокупность="" большого="" количества="" видов,="" которые="" взаимодействуют="" между="" собой="" и="" приспособились="" к="" совместной="" жизни,="" а="" также="" к="" определённым="" условиям="" среды="" обитания.="" 1.="" объясните,="" почему="" у="" лесных="" растений:="" черёмухи,="" боярышника,="" ландыша="" —="" цветки="" белые="" и="" имеют="" сильный="" запах.="" 2.="" охарактеризуйте="" значение="" для="" зелёных="" растений="" лесного="" биогеоценоза="" населяющих="" его="" организмов-гетеротрофов.="" 3.="" выявите="" черты="" сходства="" и="" различия="" между="" понятиями="" «надземный="" ярус»="" и="" «подземный="" ярус».="" 4.="" как="" вы="" думаете,="" какие="" листья="" пожелтеют="" раньше:="" те,="" которые="" появились="" весной,="" или="" те,="" которые="" образовались="" летом?="" объясните="" своё="" предположение.="" 245="" 5.="" подготовьте="" сообщение="" о="" разнообразии="" видов="" природных="" сообществ="" на="" территории="" вашего="" региона.="" ярус,="" ярусное="" строение="" природного="" сообщества,="" надземньрй="" ярус,="" подземный="" ярус.="" ф="" •="" пр="">1 The ability of species to coexist is manifested not only in the placement of plants in tiers and in the adaptability of organisms to environmental factors of a particular tier, but also in unequal rhythms (rates and timing) of the development of organisms, allowing a certain species to appear in mass quantities, then disappear until next year. ... In the external appearance of the biogeocenosis, this manifests itself in the form of an alternation of mass flowering of various plant species. This provides them with a sufficient number of pollinators and other necessary conditions, which are never in abundance in the environment. Blooming in turn, the species one after the other receive "their share" of the optimal habitat conditions. • In deciduous forests in early spring, the soil surface receives a lot of light, as trees and shrubs have not yet opened their leaves. During this period, there is a massive flowering of wind-pollinated (trees and shrubs) and perennial early flowering herbaceous plants. The yellow spleen and the blue liverwort begin to bloom, a little later the corydalis and yellow goose onions bloom, followed by the lungwort, then the spring rank, the oak tree anemone, a little later - the buttercup anemone, and behind it - the ram primrose. Their flowers are different in color - blue, blue, purple, yellow, white and pink. The periods of mass flowering of these plants are short, since with the appearance of leaves on trees and shrubs, the lighting conditions of herbaceous plants change and it is difficult for insects to find their flowers. Under these conditions, only species with white flowers (kupena, stellate, lily of the valley) bloom, which are better visible to pollinating animals in darkened conditions.246 Change of natural communities * what processes are the main feature of biogeocenosis »what is the significance of its tiered structure in a natural community. The concept of changing the natural community. Observing any natural community over a number of years, one can notice that it does not remain the same: over time, habitat conditions change in it, new species populate it, its structure and features of relationships between species change. As a result, the biogeocenosis in this area becomes different. It differs significantly from the one that was here earlier. In this case, it is said that there has been a change from one biogeocenosis to another. ^ A change in biogeocenosis is the replacement of one natural community with a qualitatively different natural community. Most often, a change in a natural community begins with changes in the composition of plant species. Since a complex of plants in a natural community more than others affects the habitat conditions and species composition of animals and other inhabitants , then the composition of the heterotrophic population of the biogeocenosis soon changes. The change of natural communities on our planet occurs everywhere, but at different rates and for different reasons. Due to this, there is a huge number of different natural communities in the vegetation cover of the Earth. a natural community, there are external to the natural community and internal, enclosed in it. The external cause of the change in the natural community can be a fire from an open fire, grazing, cutting down trees in the forest. Lead to rapid changes and other natural causes of changes in climate or relief , composition and structure of the soil, flooding of the territory, the impact of volcanoes, landslides and landslides, earthquakes. Changes from external causes are so profound that the natural community can completely collapse and disappear. 247 The internal reason for the change in the natural community is the impact of the plants themselves and other living organisms that make up the biogeocenosis on their habitat. Such an impact is called the environment-forming influence of the population of the biogeocenosis.An example of a change in the natural community that occurs under the influence of internal causes is the appearance of a spruce forest on meadow or abandoned lands in the northern regions of our country. The herbaceous communities developing here, and then small-leaved forests: birch, aspen, alder, are unstable natural communities. Therefore, they are called temporary. The change of such an unstable natural community occurs because the plant species living here, by their environment-forming influence, create conditions in which their own young individuals cannot develop. Such communities do not exist for long. In addition, as a rule, new species begin to settle in the temporary community from neighboring territories, among which there are more powerful environment-formers, for example, spruce. They radically change the conditions for the existence of a biotope. At the same time, both young and adult individuals of the newly introduced species are able to develop well, give seeds and hold this territory for a long time. So, over the course of several years, a spruce forest appears on the site of a small-leaved forest, for example, a birch forest. In this case, they say that a stable, or indigenous, natural community has appeared (Fig. 161). The indigenous biogeocenoses are spruce, oak, and peat bogs. Birch, aspen, willow, meadows are temporary biogeocenoses. 1-2 years 10-15 years 20-25 years 30-50 years 70-80 years 80-120 years Fig. 161. Replacement of a birch forest by a spruce forest 248 The gradual process of replacement of natural communities is called succession (from the Latin succession - "continuity"). “A change in the vegetation cover in a biogeocenosis always leads to a change not only in the plant community, but also in the entire living population of the biogeocenosis.The change of biogeocenoses is an important natural phenomenon that constantly occurs in the living cover of the Earth. The reasons for the change are different: some are due to external influences, including human activities, while others are due to internal ones associated with the vital activity and environment-forming properties of the species themselves inhabiting the natural community. в 1. What is the difference between an indigenous natural community and a temporary one? 2. What are the reasons for the change of biogeocenoses on Earth? 3. Predict the consequences of human impact on natural communities. Environment-forming influence, indigenous biogeocenosis, temporary biogeocenosis, change of biogeocenosis, succession. F • Even in the case of simultaneous spruce and birch seeds entering any territory, a temporary - birch - forest will first develop, and then it will be replaced by an indigenous one - spruce. The fact is that birch grows faster than spruce. The fall of birch leaves creates soil fertility. In such conditions: under the canopy of a birch forest, on fertile soil, protected from bright light and strong winds, shade-tolerant young spruces grow well. Years later (30-50 years), the spruce grows to a large size, emerges into the upper tier (see Fig. 161). By this time, old birch trees gradually fall out of the stand, and young birches do not appear. The fact is that birch is light-requiring and cannot grow and develop in shade under spruce crowns. • Often, in a number of regions of Russia, after the felling of valuable coniferous forest, for a long time (for 80-120 years) it turns out to be occupied by a less valuable aspen forest, and mossy bog biogeocenoses often develop rapidly in places of the burned-out forest. Timely human intervention can prolong the life of the natural community. 249 Diversity of natural communities • what are the differences between temporary and indigenous J, natural communities • what are the reasons for the change of natural communities. In the living cover of the Earth there are many different natural communities - natural and artificial (cultural). This is the result of numerous changes in biogeocenoses and other processes occurring in wildlife. Natural natural communities are forest, meadow, swamp, steppe. They arise as a result of natural processes, regardless of the person. Such biogeocenoses include a large number of mutually adapted species. Natural natural communities are stable, they occupy the territory on which they formed for a long time. In natural biogeocenoses, there is always a large number of different types of living organisms. Therefore, they are stable. On each rather vast territory, you can find different types of natural communities: forests, swamps, meadows, steppes. The landscape of natural communities differs well in appearance, which is determined by a part of the biogeocenosis - a plant community, that is, a complex of co-living plants in a given biogeocenosis. That is why the diversity of natural communities is judged by plant communities. Forest is a natural biogeocenosis with a predominance of woody plants. In a moderately cold climate on the territory of our country, coniferous forests are especially widely represented. They are dominated by spruce, pine, fir, larch. They, as the main members of the community, form spruce, pine (they are called pine forests), fir and larch forests. Of the deciduous species, forests are formed by birch, aspen, linden, oak, maple and ash. There are small-leaved forests (birch, aspen) and broad-leaved (oak, lime, maple and ash). 250 maple, ash and linden often grow together with oak in a broad-leaved forest (oak forest). Among the bushes, common hazel, warty euonymus, wolf bast, and common viburnum are common. In damp places, a liana grows - curly hops. The meadow is a natural community dominated by perennial grasses. Usually this is a community of gramineous or herbaceous plants in places with sufficient soil moisture.There are floodplain meadows - they stretch along rivers, sometimes they are flooded with spring waters. Dry meadows are formed in the form of forest glades and treeless valleys. Alpine meadows are formed high in the mountains, therefore they are also called alpine meadows. All of them are valuable natural communities that provide food for livestock and serve as habitats for many different living organisms. The swamp develops in conditions of excessive, stagnant moisture. It is formed by herbaceous, wetland plant species with the participation of shrubs. The community is dominated by bryophytes, mainly sphagnum species. Among the dwarf shrubs, wild rosemary, blueberry, cranberry are found, and from grasses - cotton grass, sedge, round-leaved sundew, calla. Steppe is a herbaceous community that forms in a vast arid zone of chernozem soils. Distinguish between grass-feather-grass and forb steppes. For both, turf grains (feather grass, fire, fescue), bulbous plants (tulips, hyacinths, onions, poultry farms), herbs (sage, adonis, wormwood, peony, cornflower) are characteristic. Plants of steppe communities are photophilous and can tolerate the summer dry period well. Artificial natural communities are created by man. These include fields, orchards, vegetable gardens, greenhouses, parks, squares. Field communities created by human efforts are usually called agrocenoses (from the Greek agros - "field"). There are few species in cultural natural communities, therefore they are unstable and can exist only under the condition of constant human care. A person determines the species that are advisable to grow in a cultural community, creates and constantly regulates the soil environment, water supply, sowing (planting) and harvesting dates. Without human help, the cultural community quickly loses its stability. On abandoned arable lands and orchards, the development of natural communities soon begins, and forests usually appear in the temperate zone (Fig. 162). 251 Fig. 162. Agrocenoses: 1 - rye field 2 - potato field Any natural community is a part of the living cover of the Earth, its biosphere. Therefore, to maintain his life, a person must carry out his economic activities in such a way as not to destroy this greatest gift of nature, but, on the contrary, competently maintain the natural state of various biogeocenoses in his region. There are many different natural communities (biogeocenoses) in the living cover of the Earth. Some of them are natural. They are quite stable and arise in nature due to the processes of the sequence of changes in biogeocenoses. Other communities are artificial (cultural) - they are unstable, they do not exist for long without human support and are soon replaced by natural ones. 1. State the main difference between natural and artificial natural communities. 2. Explain how the sustainability of natural biogeocenoses is maintained. 3. Describe the reasons for the instability of agrocenoses. 4. Name the plant communities (natural or artificial) prevailing in your area. 5. Using the resources of the Internet, prepare a message about activities for the protection of natural communities. Biogeocenoses, natural and cultural (artificial), agrocenosis, forest, meadow, swamp, steppe. 252 Life of organisms in nature Remember • what types of natural communities exist • what ensures the stability of biogeocenoses • what determines the stability of cultural biogeocenoses. Living in a natural community. The life of any organism proceeds in interrelation with the habitat and other organisms. His well-being depends on many other representatives of different species, which in one way or another affect him. In nature, there are not random, but regularly formed cohabitation of various organisms. Under similar conditions, with a similar species richness, similar natural communities are formed on the Earth. The life of all living organisms proceeds in them. ^ The life of any living creature takes place only in natural "communities.The total number of species, representatives of which are able to live in one community, is enormous. Most often they are in tropical forests. But a large number of organisms coexist in tundra and desert biogeocenoses. The members of the biogeocenosis together participate in the creation of its internal environment, enter into food and territorial contacts, and compete with each other in the struggle for life. In this complex historical interaction, species and their individuals get along and survive only in those cases when they have different requirements for the conditions (factors) of the environment (heat, moisture, light, air, food). This determines the formation of various life forms in plants, the development of different types of nutrition - autotrophic, heterotrophic or mixed, the existence in different tiers, the non-simultaneous development of organisms during the growing season. ^ In natural communities, organisms are connected by interaction "not only with each other, but also with inanimate nature. The value of living organisms in nature. Plants, thanks to root nutrition, extract minerals and water from the subsoil layer, convert the energy of solar radiation into chemical bonds of 253 organic substances, saturate the air with oxygen, water vapor, form a large number of spores, pollen.At the same time, the heterotrophic population of the soil (bacteria, fungi, some animals), processing dead organic matter - fallen parts of plants, returns mineral salts and carbon dioxide to the abiotic environment. substances, all living things play an equally important role. Therefore, the continuous movement of substances in biogeocenoses is called the biological cycle of substances. In the biological cycle of substances of any biogeocenosis, other neighboring natural communities are certainly included. All together they create a global biological cycle. substances of the biosphere. In the biological cycle of substances, green plants play a primary role: it is they who transform the energy of solar radiation, form organic matter, thereby ensuring the life of other organisms. Bacteria, fungi, lichens and animals also actively participate in the biological cycle of substances, consuming organic substances and breaking them down into inorganic ones, which are then returned to the environment. Without this, the long existence of plants on Earth would be impossible. Ш Life on our planet is impossible without plants. At the same time, bacteria, fungi, lichens and animals provide the conditions for plant life. Plants have a significant impact on the environment: they enrich the atmosphere with oxygen, change the climate, regulate the water regime, participate in the formation of soil, create organic substances are the basis of nutrition and energy reserves for all heterotrophic organisms. In cities and industrial centers, plants purify the air from gases, soot and dust, protect from noise. Plants are widely used by humans. They provide him with food, vitamins, medicines, technical raw materials and much more. Intensive use of plants and natural communities obliges a person to take daily care of them, to preserve their natural wealth Plants and natural communities are the main asset of our planet, which humanity must preserve for future generations and the existence of life itself on Earth. 254 1. Explain why plants are considered the basis of the cycle of substances. 2. As in plant life, Is there a relationship between living and inanimate nature? 3. Describe the relationship of plants with representatives of different kingdoms of wildlife in natural communities. 4. How does the biological circulation of matter in the biosphere arise? 5. Using Internet resources, prepare a report on the role of plants in the biosphere. Let's summarize. What did you learn from Chapter 9, Natural Communities? Answer the questions 1. What components are included in the structure of the biogeocenosis? 2.What functions does the cycle of substances perform in the ecosystem? 3. What is the significance of its tiered structure for a natural community? 4. What are the features of plants living in the uppermost layer of the biogeocenosis? 5. What determines the sustainability of a natural community? in. Why are agrocenoses unstable? ^ 7. What are the features of plants living in the lowest layer of the biogeocenosis? 8. Do the living conditions of organisms in the natural biogeocenosis differ from the conditions of their living in the agrocenosis? 9. What are the reasons for the change of biogeocenoses? 10. What is the role of man in the change of biogeocenoses? Complete tasks A. Complete the statement by choosing the correct answer. 1. The totality of different types of living organisms in natural communities is called: a) agrocenosis b) phytocenosis c) biogeocenosis d) biosystem. 255 2. The natural community does not change due to: a) fire b) change of seasons c) invasion of insects d) introduction of new species. B. Which statements are correct? 1. Natural community - a set of organisms and environmental conditions. 2. Rastengs of different tiers live in different conditions. 3. Change of a natural community is its overgrowth. 4. The city park is a natural biogeocenosis. 5. Biogeocenosis is an ecosystem. 6. Swamp and meadow are natural communities. 7. The structure of the biogeocenosis is its tiers. 8. All natural communities are sustainable because they exist for a long time. 9. In the tiers of the natural community are placed leaves, flowers and fruits of plants. Discuss the problem in class • Can natural communities exist without fungi and bacteria? • Why does a large number of species in a natural community ensure its sustainability? • Why are plants considered the basis of the cycle of substances in biogeocenosis? Express your opinion • What will happen to the natural community if all flowering plants bloom in all its layers at the same time? • Why are natural communities - birch and aspen forests - not considered indigenous? • If agrocenoses are unstable natural communities, then why does man create them? Your position • How can you contribute to maintaining biodiversity and protecting nature? • Why does modern man need knowledge about natural communities? 256 Conduct Observation and Conclusion 1. Select any natural community in the area where you live. Observe to identify the relationship between living organisms inhabiting it and environmental conditions. List the species composition of the community. Specify the features of the environment. Determine if the given natural community is sustainable. Make a conclusion about the relationship between animate and inanimate nature in the natural community. Record your observations in a notebook. 2. Find early flowering plants (two or three species) that grow in different environmental conditions. Determine their life form, species, pollination method, adaptability to a particular pollination method. Describe the natural conditions for early flowering of these plants. Draw a conclusion about the changes in plants in spring and their adaptability to environmental conditions. Draw up your observations in the form of a table in a notebook. Learning to Create Projects, Models, Diagrams 1. Make a poster or drawing in defense of early flowering plants in your region. 2. Make a list of natural communities near your home (or school). 3. Create a project for one of the summer assignments. Themes of the projects 1. Creation of a reforestation project on an abandoned arable land. To do this: ^ a) use in the project some seeds from the proposed ones (spruce, pine, birch, mountain ash) b) determine the timing of the work c) outline a list of possible temporary natural communities d) set the stages of forest renewal e) indicate approximately the date of appearance of this indigenous forests f) make an approximate list of types of work at the stages of forest cultivation g) make a list of professional specialists who are needed to carry out the work on forest cultivation. 2. Creation of a poster for mushroom pickers about the danger of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms. 257 Summer Activities While studying botany, you learned a lot about plants, their diversity, their importance in nature and in human life. But all this knowledge you received mainly in the classroom, as well as from books, films, TV shows, the Internet.In the summer you can directly conduct observations in the study of plants, since on the territory of our country summer is the period of their active life. Observe the life and variety of forms in the amazing plant kingdom, and study organisms in their natural surroundings. But just be sure to remember: the kingdom of plants is the kingdom of living beings, and they must be treated with care, taking care of everyone. What should be studied in nature? Choose any topic that interests you. 1. Diversity of the flora. Take a closer look at the plants that surround you in the city. What kind of plants are they? Try to determine their systematic affiliation, life forms: trees, shrubs, grasses. Look at the condition of their trunks and crowns, what species bloom, what flowers and fruits they have, who pollinates them and who then feeds on their fruits. 2. Variety of herbs. Pay attention to herbs. Are those that grow near your house annuals or perennials? How do they reproduce and what contributes to this? 3. Spore plants. When you are out of town, in a forest or in another natural community, going there for berries, mushrooms, or just for relaxation, pay attention to spore plants. See how varied and beautiful the green mosses are. Pick one or two shoots of each species. Make a moss collection for yourself or for school. 4. Annual shoots. Near your house, using one or two plants as an example, conduct a study and determine: how the growth of annual shoots is going, what is the length of the annual growth, how they are located in the crown, what insects visit them. Create your own observation diary system so that you can compare the state of plants from early summer to autumn. 5. Floristic miniatures. Get involved in making beautiful floral miniature crafts. Collect and dry, flattened, beautiful leaves, shoots, flowers, inflorescences, fruits AND CONS. Create a composition in the form of a picture, a gift card, or a bookmark for a book. They will be useful to you for gifts to friends. 6. Visual aids. Produce visual aids, for example, on the following topics: Leaf variety, Leaf vein, Leaf damage, Garden weeds, Conifer cones. Use adhesive tape to collect a collection of spores of various mosses, ferns, and cap mushrooms for the school, write them down. 7. Investigation of the flowering process of herbaceous plants. Find insect flowers and wind-pollinated flowers. Compare them with each other. Observe which insects visit these flowers, how the plants attract them. Notice how flowering plants behave in sunny and cloudy weather, on cool mornings, and on hot afternoons. Record this in your observation diary. Re-read your notes later - you will see how many interesting things are in wildlife, in nature next to you. 259 Glossary of terms Autotroph (from the Greek autos - "self", trophy - "food") is an organism capable of independently converting inorganic substances into organic ones. For example, plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water using the energy of sunlight. Agrocens is a natural community created by man: a field, a vegetable garden, a garden and a plantation. Crimson algae are red algae. Bacteria are the kingdom of living organisms, represented mainly by unicellular organisms with a fairly simple cell structure. Bacteria do not have a formed nucleus, so they are classified as prokaryotes. A very ancient group of living organisms. Biogeocenosis (from the Greek. Bios - "life", ge - "earth", koipos - "common"), or a natural community - an interacting set of various organisms and conditions of the abiotic environment. Biology is the science of living nature. A biosystem is an interacting complex of living organisms that manifests itself as an integrity. Botany is a scientific area of ​​biology that studies the structure and life of organisms in the plant kingdom.Vacuole is a cavity in the cytoplasm, bounded by a membrane and filled with a fluid - cell sap. A species is the main structural unit in the system of living organisms. The name of each species consists of two words: the first - shows belonging to the genus, and the second - the specific species itself, indicating the difference between this species and other species of the same genus. Algae are a large group of predominantly aquatic unicellular and multicellular plants. The body of the algae is represented by the thallus (thallus); on this basis, algae are often called lower plants. Air (carbon) nutrition (photosynthesis) - the formation of organic matter from carbon dioxide and water in the light with the participation of chlorophyll. Upward current - the flow of water with dissolved minerals through the wood through all plant organs from the roots to the photosynthesizing and evaporating organs, mainly to the leaves. 260 Gamete (from the Greek. Gametes - "husband" gamete - "wife") is a reproductive cell (egg, sperm, sperm), which ensures the transmission of hereditary information from parents to descendants. Gametophyte is a plant on which gametes (sex cells) are formed. Heterotroph (Greek heteros - "other", trophy - "food") - an organism that feeds on ready-made organic substances. Heterotrophs are bacteria, fungi, animals and some plants (parasitic, insectivorous). Gymnosperms are the most ancient division of seed plants. The formation of the ovum and its fertilization occurs inside the ovule, which is located openly (unprotected, that is, bare) on the scales of the cones. The seeds that develop from the ovules serve the propagation and dispersal of plants. Mushrooms are the kingdom of living organisms, represented by unicellular and multicellular organisms. Fungal cells have a formed nucleus, so they belong to eukaryotes. Wood is a conductive tissue in plants, along which water with mineral salts dissolved in it moves (ascending current). It is characterized by annual growth in length and width. Life form - the external appearance of plants and animals, reflecting the adaptability of organisms to a complex of abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. There are life forms: trees, shrubs, shrubs and grasses. The ovary is an enlarged part of the pistil of a flower that contains the ovules. One or many ovules can form in the ovary. The embryo is the embryo of a new plant. It develops from a zygote formed as a result of the fusion of gametes. The embryo sac is the central part of the ovule of a flowering plant in which the ovum develops and double fertilization occurs. The germ is the sexual generation (gametophyte) in higher spore plants (lyre, horsetail, and fern). The germ develops from the spore and forms the male and female genital organs. Zygote (from the Greek zygotos - "connected together") is a fertilized egg. It is a cell formed during fertilization by the 261 fusion of male and female gametes. Contains hereditary information from both parents. Zoospores are mobile spores of many algae and some fungi that serve for asexual reproduction and dispersal. Artificial selection is the selection that humans make. Artificial selection laid the foundation for the creation of cultivated plants and plant breeding. Cambium is a single layer of educational fabric located between wood and bast. Due to the division of cambium cells, the stems and roots of gymnosperms and dicotyledonous flowering plants are thickened. A tuber is a modified underground shoot, the stem of which grows and accumulates reserve nutrients. Serves for vegetative propagation. Growth cone - the apical zone of the shoot tip, folded by special cells of the educational tissue. The root is one of the main vegetative organs of plants, serving to attach to the substrate and absorb water and mineral nutrients from it.Lateral root - any root extending from the main root during its branching. The main root is the root that develops from the embryonic root during seed germination. Adventure root - a root that develops from different vegetative parts of the plant, but not from the root (from the stem, leaves, buds, etc.). The basket is a simple inflorescence with an extended main axis in the form of a conical or saucer-shaped platform, on which flowers (sunflower, dandelion, aster) sit tightly next to each other. The root system is the collection of roots of one plant. Consists of the main root, lateral and adventitious roots. Distinguish between fibrous and tap root systems. Root cone - a thickened modification of lateral or adventitious roots, serves for the deposition of reserve nutrients, vegetative renewal and reproduction. Rhizome is an underground modified shoot, which serves to deposit reserve nutrients in the stem, for vegetative renewal and reproduction. 262 Root (mineral) nutrition is a set of processes of absorption, movement and assimilation of dissolved chemical substances necessary for the life of a plant. Root hair - a cell of the surface layer of the root in the absorption zone. It has an elongated shape, reaching several millimeters in length. Root cap is a protective formation of the growing part of the root tip. It consists of several layers of cells and has the shape of a cone-shaped cap. A root crop is a thickened modification of the main root, which serves to deposit reserve nutrients. A moss boll is an organ of a bryophyte plant that develops from a zygote. Moss spores form in the capsule, therefore it is called sporophyte. Liana is a modification of a terrestrial leaf shoot, unable to maintain an upright position and rising upwards along some kind of support. By the method of attachment to the support, curly and climbing (clinging) vines are distinguished. The leaf is one of the main vegetative organs of higher plants, occupying a lateral position on the shoot axis (on the stem) and performing the functions of photosynthesis, evaporation and gas exchange. Distinguish between simple and complex leaves. Lichen is an organism formed by the symbiosis of a fungus and algae. Bast is a conductive tissue in vascular plants, which is a collection of cells along which organic substances formed in the process of photosynthesis (descending current) move in a plant. Together with wood, it forms a conductive system that unites all the organs of the plant. The bulb is a modified shoot with a short, flattened stem (called the "bottom") and fleshy scrub-like leaves in which nutrients are stored. Serves for vegetative renewal and reproduction. Internode - a section of the stem between two adjacent nodes of the shoot. Mossy - department of higher spore plants. Distinguish between monoecious and dioecious perennial low-growing grasses. Most of their tissues are poorly developed, there are no roots. 263 Downward current is the flow of dissolved organic substances formed during photosynthesis through the conductive bast tissue through all plant organs: from the leaves to all other parts of the plant (roots, buds, flowers). Metabolism is the totality of all the transformations of some compounds into others that take place in the body, their movement between various cells, tissues and organs, as well as between the body and the external environment. Metabolism connects all organs of the body into a single whole. Pericarp - the outer part of the fruit, formed from the walls of the ovary. Performs various seed protection functions. Perianth - a set of integumentary leaves of a flower that surround and protect the stamens and pistil. Distinguish between simple and complex (double) perianth. Fertilization is the fusion of the nuclei of the male reproductive cell (sperm, sperm) and the female (egg), resulting in the formation of a zygote, which gives rise to a new organism. Pollination - delivery of dust particles (pollen grains) on the stigma of the pistil (in flowering plants) or on the ovule (in gymnosperms).Distinguish between cross-pollination and self-pollination. An organ is a part of the whole organism that performs a specific function. The main organs of higher plants are the root and shoot. An organism is a living integral system (biosystem), consisting of interconnected organs, the relationships and structural features of which are determined by the functioning of the organism as a whole. Fern-like - the division of higher spore plants. Unlike other higher spore plants, they have a stele-shaped conducting system of stems. The pistil is the main part of the flower involved in the formation of the fruit. Consists of ovary, column and stigma. Plauniforms - the department of higher spore plants. Evergreen herbs, less often dwarf shrubs. One of the most ancient groups of higher plants. The fruit is the reproductive organ of flowering plants that develops from a flower and contains seeds. The function of the fruit is to form, protect and spread seeds. The shoot is one of the main organs of higher plants, consisting of an axial part - a stem, lateral parts - leaves 264 extending from it, and axillary parts - buds. Shoots are vegetative and generative. Angiosperms, or flowering - a department of higher plants that have a flower. They are characterized by double fertilization. The seeds are enclosed in the fruit. A bud is a rudimentary shoot of higher plants. Buds are vegetative and generative (floral), lateral and apical. Natural community see Biogeocenosis. Prokaryotes are organisms whose cells do not have a well-defined nucleus. All bacteria, archaea and cyanobacteria (or blue-green algae) belong to prokaryotes. Pollen is a collection of pollen grains (or dust particles) that serve for sexual reproduction of seed plants. The pollen tube is a tubular outgrowth of a pollen grain (dust particles), through which spermatozoa are delivered to the egg. Development is a qualitative change in the structure and life of a living organism and its parts. Reproduction is an increase in the number of individuals of a certain species. A necessary property of living organisms that ensures the prolongation of the existence of a species. There are two types of reproduction - asexual and sexual. Asexual reproduction - reproduction that occurs without the participation of germ cells and fertilization. Distinguish between vegetative reproduction, reproduction by spores and cell division in two. Vegetative reproduction - the propagation of a plant by the vegetative parts of its body (root, shoot: stem, leaves, buds). Sexual reproduction - reproduction in which the nuclei of the female and male germ cells merge. Rhizoid is a filamentous root-like formation in mosses, lichens, some algae and fungi, which serves to fix the thallus on the substrate and absorb water and nutrients from it. Growth - an increase in the mass and size of an organism and its individual organs. Cell growth is carried out by stretching it. The growth of a multicellular organism occurs due to an increase in the number and mass of cells. The stigma is the upper part of the pistil of a flower, which receives pollen when pollinated. 265 Saprotroph (from the Greek sapros - "rotten", trophy - "food") - an organism that feeds on organic matter of dead organisms (rotting remains of plants, fungi, carrion, droppings). The cotyledon is the first leaf (one, two or more) of the germinal shoot formed in the seed of the plant. It has a large thickened appearance, it contains reserve nutrients necessary for the germination of the seed. The ovule is a multicellular formation of seed plants from which the seed develops. Symbiosis - various forms of coexistence (cohabitation) of organisms of different species, usually bringing mutual benefit. Lichen is a symbiosis of a fungus and algae or cyanobacteria, mycorrhiza is a fungus and a higher plant. Thallus, or thallus, is a vegetative body of algae, lichens and some bryophytes, which is not dissected into organs and does not have real tissues. Change of a natural community is the replacement of one natural community by a qualitatively different natural community. Inflorescence is a shoot (or a system of shoots) bearing flowers.Depending on the degree of branching of the shoot, simple and complex inflorescences are distinguished. Sperm is the male reproductive cell of higher plants, which does not have organs of movement (flagella). Motile spermatozoa are more commonly referred to as spermatozoa. Spore is a specialized cell of plants and fungi that serves for reproduction and dispersal. Stem - the axial part of the plant shoot, consisting of nodes and internodes. Bears leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. Thallus see Thallus. The stamen is the male reproductive organ of the flower; it consists of a filament and an anther. A node is a part of the axis of a plant shoot, on which a leaf, an axillary bud, and sometimes adventitious roots are formed. The stomata is a specialized formation of the skin (epidermis) of plants, consisting of two guard cells and an stomatal gap between them. Through the gap, gas exchange is carried out, necessary for respiration and photosynthesis, as well as the evaporation of water. 266 Photosynthesis is the process of formation of organic substances from inorganic ones in the cells of green plants (and cyanobacteria) with the participation of light energy. Horsetail - a department of higher spore plants. Grasses with articulated stems, in the nodes - whorls of small leaves. Chloroplast is a membrane body of plant cells, which contains a green pigment - chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the green pigment that plants use to capture energy from sunlight and carry out photosynthesis. A chromatophore is a special body of an algal cell, which, like chloroplast, contains a pigment that provides photosynthesis. Flowering, see Angiosperms. The receptacle is the axis of the flower, on which the sepals, petals, stamens and pistil are located. The peduncle is the section of the shoot between the coverlet and the flower. Cyanobacteria is an autotrophic (phototrophic) prokaryotic organism, traditionally called blue-green alga. Carries out photosynthesis with the release of oxygen. Belongs to the kingdom of Bacteria. The cytoplasm is the main part of the cell, enclosed between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. The calyx is the outer part of the double perianth, usually green, and serves to protect other parts of the flower. Consists of sepals. Evolution (from Lat. Evolution - "deployment", "development") - the irreversible historical development of living nature, a gradual change in the properties of organisms over time. The characteristics acquired in the course of evolution ensure the survival of the organism in the conditions of its environment and are passed on from generation to generation. Endosperm is a nutrient tissue that develops in the seed of plants. Used by the growing embryo. Eukaryotes (from the Greek. Eu - 'good', 'completely', karyon - 'nucleus') are unicellular and multicellular organisms in whose cells there is a formed nucleus (separated by the nuclear membrane from the cytoplasm). These are plants, mushrooms and animals. Ephemer is an annual herb that does not live long, from two weeks to six months. Usually found during the short wet spring in deserts or semi-deserts. 267 Ephemeroid is a perennial herb that blooms in early spring. In summer, aboveground shoots die off, only underground storage organs with renewal buds - bulbs, tubers, rhizomes - remain. The nucleus is the most important part of the eukaryotic cell, which regulates its vital activity. Contains DNA molecules that contain hereditary information. The ovum is a female reproductive cell. Tiering is the spatial and structural division of the strata of the biogeocenosis (ecosystem) into tiers. There are tiers in space (aboveground and underground) and in time (different time participation of species in the life of the community). Answers to the final tasks Chapter 1 Tasks: A. 16, 26 B. Vegetative reproduction Chapter 2 Tasks: A. 1c, 26 B. 1. Kidney. 2. Dispute Chapter 3 Tasks: A. 1d, 2a, For B. Semen embryo C. 1. Pericarp. 2. Seed. 3. Kidney G.1 - c, e, 3 2 - a, 6, d, f, g Chapter 4 Tasks: A. 1. From the descending current. 2. B. will die 1a 26 Za, 6, in V. 1. Zygote. 2. Sepal. 3. Pollination G. 1 - a, d, d, k, l, n 2 - e, f 3 - 6, c, 3, i, m Chapter 5 Tasks: B. 1d, 2d, 36, 4c Chapter 6 1 , 3, 5, 6, 9 ^ Chapters 7, 8 Assignments: A. 1c, 2a, For, 46, 56 B. 1, 4, 5, b, 7 Chapter 9 Assignments: A. 1a, 26 B. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9 269 Table of contents Preface. 3 Chapter 1. Introduction. General acquaintance with plants. 5 § 1. Science of plants - botany. 5 § 2. The world of plants. 10 § 3. The external structure of plants. 15 § 4. Seed and spore plants. 18 § 5. Environment of life on Earth. Environmental factors. 22 Chapter 2. Cellular structure of plants. 30 § 6. The cell is the basic unit of living. 30 § 7. Features of the structure of the plant cell. 33 § 8. Vital activity of the plant cell. 36 § 9. Tissues of plants. 39 Chapter 3. Plant organs. 45 § 10. The seed, its structure and meaning. 45 § 11. Conditions for seed germination. 53 § 12. The root, its structure. 56 § 13. The value of the root in the life of the plant. 60 § 14. Diversity of roots in plants. 63 § 15. Escape, its structure and development. 65 § 16. Kidney, its external and internal structure. 68 § 17. Sheet, its structure. 72 § 18. The value of the leaf in the life of the plant. 75 § 19. Stem, its structure and meaning. 80 § 20. Modifications of the shoots of plants. 84 § 21. Flower, its structure and meaning. 88 § 22. Flowering and pollination of plants. 93 § 23. Tslod. The variety and meaning of fruits. 96 § 24. The plant organism is a living system. 101 Chapter 4. Basic processes of plant life. 107 § 25. Mineral (soil) nutrition of plants. 107 § 26. Air nutrition of plants - photosynthesis. 111 § 27. The cosmic role of green plants. 114 270 § 28. Respiration and metabolism in plants. P7 § 29, The value of water in the life of plants. 121 § 30. Reproduction and fertilization in plants. 124 § 31. Vegetative propagation of plants. 129 § 32. Use of vegetative reproduction by humans. 132 § 33. Growth and development of the plant organism. 136 § 34. Dependence of the growth and development of plants on environmental conditions. 138 Chapter 5. The main departments of the plant kingdom. 145 § 35. The concept of plant taxonomy. 145 § 36. Algae, their meaning. 149 § 37. Variety of algae. 154 § 38. Division Mossy. General characteristics and significance. 157 § 39. Plaunas. Horsetails. Ferns. General characteristics . 161 § 40. Gymnosperms Division. General characteristics and significance. 167 § 41. Department of Angiosperms. General characteristics and significance. 172 § 42. Families of the class Bipartite. 177 § 43. Families of the class Monocotyledonous. 184 Chapter 6. Historical development of the plant world on Earth. 193 § 44. The concept of the evolution of the plant world. 193 § 45. Evolution of higher plants. 198 § 46. Diversity and origin of cultivated plants. 201 § 47. Gifts of the New and Old World. 205 Chapter 7. The Kingdom of Bacteria. 212 § 48. General characteristics of bacteria. 212 § 49. Diversity of bacteria. 215 § 50. The value of bacteria in nature and in human life. 218 Chapter 8. Kingdom of Mushrooms. Lichens. 222 § 51. General characteristics of mushrooms. 222 271 § 52. The variety and significance of mushrooms. 227 § 53. Lichens. General characteristics and significance. 231 Chapter 9. Natural communities. •. • • • 238 § 54. The concept of a natural community. 238 § 55. The adaptation of plants to living together in a natural community. 242 § 56. Change of natural communities. 247 § 57. The diversity of natural communities. 250 § 58. The life of organisms in nature. 253 Tasks for the summer. 258 Glossary of terms. 260 Answers to the final tasks. 269