Detailed description of the Maaka bird cherry variety
Bird cherry is an amazingly beautiful tree, the flowering of which is associated with the perception of spring. But, many gardeners do not plant it on their plots, believing that this plant attracts all kinds of parasites, even contributes to their reproduction and settlement in the garden. In this article, let's take a closer look at the description and rules for caring for the Maak bird cherry.
In fact, the opposite is true, the leaves and inflorescences of the tree secrete a large amount of phytoncides, which are deadly poison for most harmful microorganisms and small insects, such as ticks, midges or mosquitoes. That is why, if you leave a large bouquet of bird cherry in the room, people get a headache.
Also do not forget about the tasty and healthy berries that this tree gives... They can be used to cook jam, compotes, use as a filling for baking, or simply eat, provided that the planted variety is edible.
At the moment, summer residents have access to about twenty varieties of this wonderful plant, both with edible fruits and ornamental, including the Maak bird cherry.
Description bird cherry variety Maaka
The bird cherry, known to gardeners as Maaka, was first described in detail by the world renowned botanist Franz Ivanovich Ruprecht for the Austrian Botanical Society in 1857. BUT this variety got its name from the surname of the Russian naturalist and researcher Richard Karlovich Maakwho described it during his travels in the Far East, the Ussuri and Amur valleys in 1855-59.
In nature, this tree, quite unlike the bird cherry growing in Siberia, is found along the banks of rivers and streams in China, Korea, and in Russia - in the Far East.
It is impossible not to notice such beauty - fluffy emerald leaves, light yellow shoots and white flowers scattered over the crown in spring, or bunches of berries black with a purple tint at the end of summer. The bark is especially impressive - from golden-bronze to brown, shining in the rays of both the sun and the moon, peeling off in transverse stripes, which creates the appearance of a shaggy, translucent fringe.
Height of a tree in the wild reaches 16-18 meters, but trunk – 40 cm in diameter. This bird cherry blooms in late spring, with small flowers collected in elongated brushes.
During flowering, it is better not to approach the plant, because throughout the day in the crown there is a hum from the bees arriving for nectar. The Maak bird cherry is internationally recognized as one of the best honey plants, which is indirectly confirmed by the bees who adore it. Therefore, having planted this variety in the garden, it makes sense to think about your own hive.
By mid-July, drupes ripen. The bunches are very beautiful, but the fruits themselves are inedible for humans, due to strong bitterness and very coloring pulp. But, if you still take a chance and swallow a couple of berries, in addition to the long purple color of the tongue, you can get a good laxative effect.
Bears are very fond of eating the fruits of the Maak bird cherry. Therefore, if the garden is located near a nature reserve or hunting grounds, it does not hurt to exercise discretion in the middle of summer.
Birds and squirrels are very partial to ripe drupes, and hedgehogs very quickly disassemble fallen berries.
The tree is extremely interesting not only for its external originality, but also for its universal characteristics, which allow this species to feel great in almost any summer cottage in the middle lane.
Bird cherry Maak:
- frost-resistant, easily tolerates subzero temperatures up to 40-45 degrees;
- not very demanding on soil, grows on any land, but looks most impressive where it is planted on well-moistened sandy loam.
- not susceptible to droughts, only a seedling needs watering in the first year of planting, but even then not always;
- calmly suffers temporary flooding and lingering rains;
- can grow in the shade, but feels much better in an open sunny meadow;
- leaving comes down to formation of the desired crown shape;
- indifferent to haircuts, transplants, tiled, iron or asphalt pavement over the root system;
- possesses very rapid growth;
- propagated by seeds, but will not mind breeding with cuttings.
Indeed, a completely versatile variety.
These qualities attracted the famous breeder Michurin in Maak's bird cherry, when he and his employees worked to improve the characteristics of the cherry. During the first crosses, many hybrids were obtained, of which in further work only the results of combining bird cherry with steppe cherry and the previously bred garden variety Ideal were used... Introduced to the botanical world and gardeners, the finalized species of hybrid trees are known under the general name of cerapadus, that is, cherry turtles.
Characteristics of the Maaka variety
Prunus maackii, or Padus maackii, as in Latin accepted in botany, this variety of bird cherry is called, has the following characteristics of interest to the gardener:
- tree height on average reaches 10-11 meters;
- straight shoots, "Erect", pubescent with alternate leaf arrangement;
- oval leaves, simple with jagged edges and pointed apex;
- inflorescences racemose;
- flowers are white, on average in 1 cm, five-petal, with a rich aroma;
- bears fruit with berries inedible for humans, in the ripening state - red, in the ripe stage - violet-black, lilac.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among the indisputable advantages of planting bird cherry on your own summer cottage, the following can be distinguished:
- unpretentious to the composition of the soil;
- does not require careful maintenance;
- scares away midges, mosquitoes and ticks;
- does not need wateringexcept for the first year of life;
- has unlimited potential when creating landscape compositions;
- fast growth;
- grows both in bright sun and in the shade.
The fallen leaves of this tree are rich in nitrogen, lime and potassium. This allows the fox to be used for good humus and improves litter.
The disadvantages of planting this tree in the garden include such moments as:
- photophilous tree, the minimum distance between seedlings should be 5 meters, and if bird cherry is determined to live in the shade, then more;
- abundant root growth;
- inedibility of drupeswith which the Maaka variety bears fruit;
- opportunity to get headaches with a long stay next to a flowering tree;
- attracting bees, bumblebees and wasps during the flowering period, which is extremely dangerous for allergy sufferers.
It is not difficult to choose a place for Maak's bird cherry, it will look great and take root well in any corner of the garden. If there are wet places on the site, for example, due to the close approach of soil, then the tree will perfectly dry such a surface.
From an aesthetic point of view, this plant is combined with almost everything in the world, looks great both in a group of plantings, for example, when alternating with shrubs along the borders of the site, and independently, against the background of lawn grass, in a corner near outbuildings.
This variety is not very capricious, it tolerates transplanting well, quickly adapts and takes root in a new place, therefore, there are no special tricks when planting a tree. General guidelines should be followed, such as:
- prepare the landing pit, it is not necessary to particularly deepen and get carried away with fertilizers, especially organic ones, their excess can destroy the seedling;
- optimum seedling height 70-75 cmif the planting material is higher, it is better to shorten it;
- when planting two or more plants, which is good for cross-pollination, the distance between them should be 5-6 meters;
- in the pit you need distribute roots and fall asleep, watering abundantly;
- soil around planting mulch a little.
Bird cherry is planted in early spring or late autumn; during spring planting, the soil should already thaw.
It is easy to care for bird cherry - in the first year or two of its life on the site, the tree needs to be watered periodically, it is also important to pay attention to the formation of the future crown in the first years of plant growth.
When the first lateral shoots appear, it is advisable to leave 4-5 of the most developed and looking in different directions... The same will have to be done with the branches growing on them. The upper shoot must be pruned in order for the lateral ones to develop as much as possible. It is better to process the cuts with a garden pitch.
This will take several years. In an already mature tree, if desired, you can thin out the crown.
As for all kinds of dressings, it makes no sense to make them more often than once every couple of years. If there is a desire, then you can make a little mineral dressings before the flowering bird cherryto make it longer and more abundant.
Diseases and pests
Any bird cherry, including the Maaka variety, is resistant to various pests. But this does not mean that the tree cannot get sick at all.
The most common ailments that overtake this plant are fungal diseases. The fungus infects:
- branches and leaves;
- bark and trunk.
Diseases of the fetus
Drupes (popular name for this variety of bird cherry berries) are ill in the form of deformation, the so-called "pockets". The fungus affects the fruit, as a result of which the ovary grows, that is, the fleshy part and the bone almost does not develop.
Infected drupes take the form of brown, large, swollen formations with empty cavities inside - pockets. The development of infection leads to a loss of yield and a violation of the decorative attractiveness of the tree.
To protect against this fungus, you need to destroy the damaged fruits, and the tree itself must be treated with agents containing copper. It will also require treatment of the damaged plant in the spring, before bud break.
Diseases of leaves and branches
This disease develops mainly in forests and parks, but can also visit gardens. The fungus that causes this trouble lives in spruce cones.... From where it migrates to the leaves and branches of bird cherry.
In June, brown or purple spots form on the foliage, the same formations on the branches. By the end of summer, the tree completely loses its aesthetic appeal.
As a fight against this disease, bird cherry is sprayed with vitriol, look for the source of the fungus - spruce and destroy all the cones on it.
Clasterosporioses, or spotting
Expressed in the fact that in June or in the first half of July, the leaves are covered with brownish-brown spots with a bright crimson border... With the course of the disease, these spots fall out, and the tree gives the impression of being eaten by insects.
Towards the end of summer on foliage brown round through spots with a yellow pad on the upper part are formed... This yellowish formation is the sporulation of the fungus. With a strong development of the disease, the entire leaf is covered.
In the middle of summer on the leaves orange angular spots appear, up to 10 mm in diameter... Flat, brightly colored. With the development of the fungus, they can merge, occupying a significant leaf area. This disease is common in Siberia and the Far East.
It is characterized by the appearance of round grayish-purple spots with indistinctedges flowing into the color of the sheet. It can appear throughout the summer and very quickly cover most of the crown of the tree.
As a fight against all types of spotting, fallen leaves are destroyed, and the crown of trees is treated with a Bordeaux mixture or foundation several times during the summer season.
Moniliosis, or monilial burn
An unpleasant disease in which the fungus infects flowers, foliage, shoots and drupes. In the spring, the branches begin to dry out, acquiring a bright brown color., then the same thing happens with leaves and shoots.
The fungus grows very well in high humidity, making the tree look similar to the one affected by the fire.
To prevent and protect against this disease, the damaged areas are cut and destroyed., and in the spring, before flowering, the tree is treated with Bordeaux liquid. Re-spray it after flowering and in the fall. Be sure to destroy fallen leaves.
Diseases of the trunk and bark
Cytosporosis or cytospore necrosis
When affected by this fungal infection, tree bark dies off in rings on the trunk and branches... Inside these areas, a cluster of small red cones tightly adjacent to each other is clearly visible - this is the sporulation of the fungus.
This necrosis usually affects plants weakened by something and can kill the tree.
There are no effective measures to combat this disease; gardeners usually cut off damaged areas and destroy them., and the zones of development of the fungus on the trunk are cleaned, washed with soap and copper, disinfected and covered with garden var.
On the tree, there are areas with an escaping liquid - gum. It is an amber-colored, gummy, gummy substance. It usually accompanies other diseases, such as spotting, moniliosis, cytosporic necrosis, as well as mechanical damage to the bird cherry trunk, frosty sunburn, which, although very rare, also occur. The disease leads to the death of shoots, branches, and sometimes the bark of the tree.
Fighting this infection means curing the bird cherry from the underlying disease. and pruning of dead branches and shoots with their subsequent destruction.
Brown root rot
The disease begins due to the activity of the tinder fungus Schweinitz, that is, simply rot. The fungus develops in the central part of the root system and directly on the trunk of the tree... At the same time, velvety large mushrooms grow on it at the base of the bird cherry.
Old and weak trees are most often affected. In forests, forest parks, urban plantings. It is extremely rare in the garden.
Of the rot that settle in bird cherry, the most common fungi-pathogens are:
- plum tinder fungus;
- sulfur-yellow tinder fungus;
- purple tinder fungus;
- false tinder fungus.
The danger of such a disease is that sooner or later the tree will fall. There is only one method of struggle:
- saw cut;
- burning a hole.
Bird cherry pests
Bird cherry is very resistant to all kinds of pests, but some still make their way through her phytoncide defenses.
The most common insects that overtake the Maak bird cherry and harm it are:
These are all insects that feed on the sap of foliage, buds, shoots, branches and trunk. The most frequent guests and inhabitants of the tree are coccids, leaf flies, plant bugs.... Most of them infect other trees in the garden, for example, an apple or plum tree, and then they get to the bird cherry.
- caterpillars of butterflies;
- sawfly larvae;
- the larvae of leaf beetles and the beetles themselves;
- hawthorn and bird cherry moth.
Some caterpillars, of the same hawthorn moth, weave peculiar nests from leaves, in which they live and feed.
The larvae of this type of pest feed and grow inside the leaf, leaving hollow veins in it, different in shape and color. They move to bird cherry from apple trees.
Galls in the form of white or pink horns up to 4 mm long create mites - gall and felt. They are very rare on bird cherry, only in the presence of heavily infested trees nearby.
Stem pest insects
These are xylophagous insects, that is, bark beetles and woodworms. About twenty different species live on bird cherry, but they only affect old, dying or diseased trees.
The main way to combat all these pests is chemical. The affected tree must be treated twice with such means as:
With a very strong infection, a third spraying may be required, but, usually, after the second, all insects have already died.
Nature itself provides a good way to deal with caterpillars. Frosts in early May kill insects that have already become active by this time. Therefore, some gardeners do not even realize that a colony of caterpillars was supposed to settle on their favorites.
Preventive measures include thinning the crown, pruning old branches, whitewashing the trunk and base of the branches, and, of course, careful monitoring of the condition of the bird cherry neighbors in the garden plot.
Maaka bird cherry is an amazingly beautiful tree with a number of decorative and useful properties. Despite the fact that its fruits are inedible for humans, they are perfect for making medicinal decoctions and infusions.that can solve many bowel problems.
When choosing bird cherry for your garden, you should pay attention to this completely unpretentious tree, which will ideally fit into any landscape composition, create a shadow over the recreation area and scare away mosquitoes from it, as well as create a lyrical mood for the owners of the garden.
Rarely what the tree boasts such disease resistance, ease of survival, unpretentiousness to soil and weather, undemanding care, rapid growth and unique external beauty, like the Maak bird cherry.
Bird cherry: what it looks like, when it blooms, in what month, photo of berries, tree
Bird cherry is a fruit tree common in most regions of Russia in the temperate climatic zone. Produces delicious berries that can be frozen, dried or used for homemade preparations. Some varieties are highly decorative. They can be used in single plantings, to decorate alleys and create hedges.
- What does the description of the bird cherry plant look like
- Bird cherry is a tree or shrub
- Bird cherry is a berry or fruit
- What family does the bird cherry belong to?
- Bird cherry tree height
- Where does bird cherry grow
- When and in what month the bird cherry blossoms
- How many bird cherry blossoms
- Fruiting timing and yield
- Cherry berry taste
- Types and best varieties of bird cherry
- Cherry varieties with delicious fruits
- Sakhalin black
- Dense (Plotnokistnaya)
- Self-fertile (Samoplodnaya)
- Cherry varieties for Siberia
- Black shine
- Siberian beauty
- Purple candle
- Red tent
- Late joy
- Bird cherry propagation
- How to grow bird cherry from a stone at home
- Bird cherry propagation by cuttings in spring
- Vaccination of bird cherry
- Reproduction by layering
- What can be grafted on common bird cherry
Description of common bird cherry
The bark is dull, with lenticels, gray color. The foliage is oblong, pointed and wrinkled, with brown glands. Inflorescences are small, collected in a brush, white. They contain nectar.
Bird cherry fruits are characterized by:
- black shiny color
- the presence of one bone
- bittersweet taste
- strong astringent property.
They are odorless and fully ripen in late summer - early autumn. Bird cherry is growing very rapidly. Can live up to 150 years.
Characteristics of the Maak bird cherry
In Latin, Bird cherry Maack has two names: Prunus maackii and Padus maackii. This type of bird cherry is of interest to both amateur gardeners and experienced botanists. It has its own characteristic features:
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Bird cherry (Padus mahaleb)
She comes from Europe, often a multi-stem tree. This bird cherry is widespread in the southern regions, where it is called antipka, magalebka or magalepka. But the British call her cherry Saint Lucie.
Bird cherry magaleb, ffrom the author
- height up to 10 m, width up to 8 m
- leaves are round, shiny, up to 6 cm long
- flowers are white, very fragrant, collected in few-flowered corymbose brushes up to 5 cm long bloom in April-May
- fruits - black small bitter drupes.
It begins to bloom and bear fruit from 3-4 years.
Bird cherry magaleb on the right in the upper part of the spring composition, ffrom the author
Winter hardiness: withstands -25. -27 ° C. Extremely heat and drought resistant. It develops normally in lighted areas and dry fertile soils. Propagated by seeds. Does not give root offspring. Long lasting. You can create beautiful hedges from it, as it tolerates a haircut well.
Types of bird cherry
The bird cherry genus unites about 20 species. Among them, the most famous are:
Bird cherry ordinary. Most often found on the territory of Russia. Grows quickly, resistant to frost, loves moist soil. The culture is planted for harvesting fruits or landscaping areas.
Bird cherry Antipka. A short tree with a spherical crown. The leaves are rounded, the flowers are small, white, growing in brushes. Used for landscaping in the southern regions. Drought tolerant but suffers from spring frost.
Bird cherry Virginia. Found along rivers and bodies of water in North America. It resembles the common bird cherry. Its main difference is the smaller buds that are distant from the shoots. The tree is up to 15 m high. In autumn, the leaves become brightly colored. The fruits are round, as they ripen, they change color from red to black. The pulp is juicy and edible.
Virginia cherry berries in the photo:
Bird cherry Maak. It grows in the Far East, Korea and China. The tree reaches 17 m, has a pyramidal crown and reddish bark. Flowers are collected in long clusters. The fruits are small, round and inedible.
Bird cherry Fine-sawed. The plant is native to the Far East. The tree is tall, with a spreading crown, up to 25 m high. In summer, the leaves are light green, in autumn - brown and purple. Bird cherry with large pink and white flowers. Fruits are black, elongated, unsuitable for food.
The best varieties of bird cherry
The best are considered decorative varieties of bird cherry, bred by domestic and Western breeders:
Colorata. A small tree and shrub up to 6 m high. Young plants have purple leaves, and adults have green leaves with purple veins. The flowers are very showy, pinkish, growing in drooping racemes. The fruits of the bird cherry are black, suitable for human consumption.
Tenderness. It produces small flowers of bright red color, collected in large brushes. Bird cherry variety Tenderness is a frost-resistant shrub up to 3.5 m high. The crown is thickened, pyramidal in shape. Flowers with a pleasant delicate aroma. The fruits are sweet and medium in size. Variety Tenderness is resistant to frost, grows well in the shade.
Gull. The tree grows up to 4.5 m in height. The flowers are large, white. Inflorescences racemose, up to 15 cm long. Flowers have a strong aroma. The leaves are elongated, green. The crown is spreading and thickened. The tree tolerates moderate frosts well.
In memory of Salomatov. A frost-resistant hybrid, brings a high yield in the early stages. About 40 kg of berries are removed from one tree.
Captivity. A tree with a few large double flowers. The flowering period is longer than that of other varieties. Outwardly, the flowers resemble small roses. The variety is unique due to its double petals.
Cherry varieties for Siberia
Siberian breeders have been interested in the culture for about 40 years. In the course of the work, the best Russian uniforms were selected. They were crossed with Virginia and other North American species. The result is hybrids that are resistant to Siberian conditions.
Black shine. Early fruiting hybrid. The tree reaches a height of 6 m. The crown is dense, in the form of a pyramid. The tree is self-fertile; a pollinator is required to form a crop. Fruits are black, with a glossy surface, collected in dense clusters. The taste is good, sweet and sour.
In the photo - the fruits of the bird cherry variety Black Shine:
Siberian beauty. Tall tree, reaches 7 m. Leaves are green, turning purple by autumn. Fruits are black, weighing 0.7 g. The taste is good. The variety is suitable for the decoration of the alley, as well as for single plantings.
Purple candle. Medium-sized tree with a lot of shoots. The variety got its name due to its narrow pyramidal shape, reminiscent of a candle. In spring and summer, the foliage is dark green, by autumn it becomes reddish. Average flowering, brushes up to 15 cm long.
Dawn. Virginia variety that blooms and ripens early. The tree is not tall, no more than 3 m. Self-fertility is partial, the yield increases when there is a pollinator nearby. The fruits are dark red with tart notes. The yield is up to 10 kg of berries.
Red tent. The tree reaches a height of 4 m. The crown is dense, spherical. Inflorescences up to 17 cm long. In autumn, the leaves acquire a purple undertone, but less pronounced than that of the Siberian Beauty and the Purple Candle. The berries taste good.
Cherry varieties with delicious fruits
Berries are consumed fresh and are widely used in cooking. They are used to prepare compotes, infusions, decoctions, and baking fillings. Therefore, for gardeners, good fruit taste is of great importance.
Sakhalin black. A variety of early fruiting, up to 7 cm high. Leaves and inflorescences are large. The pulp of the fruit is greenish. The berries have a pleasant sweet taste, light tart notes are felt.
Dense. A versatile early ripening variety. Medium sized tree. Fruits weighing 0.6 g, slightly flattened. The skin is tender, easily removed from the berries. Berries have a sweet and sour tart taste, are rich in sugars, acids, pectin, vitamins.
Self-fertile. Medium early fruiting hybrid. The tree is large and grows quickly. Fruits weighing 0.7 g, black color. The taste is sweet and sour, pleasant, slightly tart. The variety does not need pollinators to form ovaries.
Late joy. Medium-late fruiting hydride. Berries have a universal purpose. The tree is large, quickly grows shoots. The fruits are one-dimensional, round, with a delicate skin. The pulp is yellow, sweet and sour.
Bird cherry Maak
On the territory of our country, there are 20 species of bird cherry. One of the most popular species of this plant, often used in landscaping, is the Maaka bird cherry. This tree got its name in honor of the Russian explorer of the Far East and Siberia R.K. Maack.
In the wild, it is most often found in the Far East. Abroad, this plant grows in the north of China and Korea. It grows in dark coniferous, deciduous and coniferous-deciduous mountain forests.
This plant can be found in the valleys of mountain rivers on drained, fertile soils.
The Maak bird cherry can grow as a multi-stemmed or single-stemmed tree. A distinctive feature of this tree is that it grows rather quickly. Bird cherry is propagated by seeds. This plant does not tolerate dry soil, therefore, in park plantings, it must be watered abundantly during the heat, preventing the soil from drying out and compacting around the trunk.
It grows best in single plantings as it is sensitive to shading. Even in partial shade conditions, this tree loses its decorative effect, although in good lighting it retains its decorative effect almost until old age. The tree tolerates cutting and replanting well. Bird cherry Maak is resistant to urban conditions, perfectly tolerates gas pollution.
The tree is wind-resistant, so it is recommended to plant it where strong winds often blow. Due to its wind resistance, this plant is often used in landscaping and protective plantings almost throughout the country. It is recommended to plant it in single and rare plantings, as well as to create park alleys.
Taking into account the light love of the Maak bird cherry, trees should be planted at intervals of 5 m.
It has a characteristic feature - papery thin films peel off across the trunk, which is a bit like the peeling of some types of birch. The bark acquires this feature only in good lighting conditions.
In taiga, dark forests, the color of the trunks of this bird cherry is not so bright and sometimes becomes almost olive.
Leaves are shiny, oblong, elliptical, with an elongated tip, reaching 13 cm in length. The leaf has jagged edges. In spring, the leaves are light green, and in summer they turn dark green. In autumn, the crown of the Maak bird cherry becomes bright yellow or yellowish-red. This tree sheds its foliage rather quickly in the fall.
Small, black, rounded fruits (up to 0.5 cm in diameter) ripen at the end of July. The fruits are inedible drupes, bitter, since they contain a lot of amygdalin. Bird cherry Maaka bears fruit since 7 years of age. The tree is very hardy.
This plant tolerates frosts down to -40 ° С, therefore it is suitable for growing almost everywhere. This plant is propagated most often by sowing seeds (they remain viable for 3 years) before winter. Seeds are sown to a depth of 4 cm. 2 g of seeds are sown per 1 running meter.
For reproduction, seeds are used that are fully ripe, cleaned of impurities and dried in a dryer (up to 50 ° C) or in the sun.
There is one more hybrid of this bird cherry - "Patsoderus". Domestic breeders have bred an ornamental variety of bird cherry Maak - "Snowdrift".
Under natural conditions, this bird cherry gives a hybrid with Maksimovich cherry.
This plant is remarkable in that it is not susceptible to attack by various pests and diseases. The fruits are used as an astringent.
The fruits contain: carotene, tannins (0.48%), vitamin C, organic acids (0.57%), micro- and macroelements (iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, copper, manganese, zinc, selenium). The fruits and bark of the tree are used for dyeing wool, fabrics, leather in brown-red and green colors.