The sacred ficus (Ficus religiosa) or the religious ficus is an evergreen tree of the mulberry family (Moraceae) from the genus of ficus, sometimes shedding part of its foliage. Found in India, southwest China, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Indochina.
Description of sacred ficus
In its natural environment, this strong tree can grow up to thirty meters in height. It has strong, thick branches, a lush crown and large leathery leaves. The edge of the leaf plate is straight or slightly corrugated, and the length of the leaves can vary from 8 to 20 cm. Their distinctive feature is the presence of a thin elongated tail at the tip of the heart-shaped leaf. The bluish-green surface of the leaves is clearly lined with light veins with a yellow or cream shade. The length of the petioles can be equal to the length of the entire leaf.
The sacred ficus is able to bloom throughout the year. Spherical syconia - paired pseudo-fruits, ripening, become dark purple. Thanks to them, the tree is called the sacred fig, but these fruits are not suitable for people, bats, insects and birds feed on them.
The life cycle of a plant begins as an epiphyte, in a leaf litter in a hollow, in a crevice, on tree branches. From there, it begins to lower aerial roots that rush to the ground. When rooting, they become a fairly strong trunk, creating a strong frame for the plant and acquiring the shape of a banyan tree.
Ficus religious has an amazing quality. If it is contained in a very humid environment, then the tips of the leaves are covered with drops of water, it seems that the ficus "cried". This process is called guttation - the plant brings excess moisture to the surface.
The sacred ficus is also called the Bodhi Tree or simply Bo, as well as the tree of enlightenment, Pipal. In countries where Buddhism is professed, it is called sacred and worshiped. According to legend, Prince Siddhartha Gautama many years ago practiced meditation under such a tree and was able to achieve the highest enlightenment - he became a Buddha. Buddhists consider this tree as a symbol of good luck; it is tied with silk ribbons of different colors and is certainly planted near a Buddhist temple.
Caring for sacred ficus at home
Caring for sacred ficus at home does not require much effort. It is unpretentious, looks neat enough, is often found among amateur flower growers. To get a strong and healthy plant, you need to be guided by simple rules.
Location and lighting
In dire need of lighting, will grow well in intense but diffused light. Can grow well in slightly shaded areas. With a lack of light, the leaves become lethargic and capable of falling off. The best location for ficus will be a window that faces west or east. On warm days, you can apply it in direct sunlight.
The plant is very thermophilic. In an apartment, if the air warms up to more than 15 degrees in winter and up to 25 degrees in summer, the ficus can feel comfortable. A sharp drop in temperature and drafts can be detrimental to the plant. In cold weather, do not leave it near heaters and batteries, protecting it from hot air currents.
It is necessary to water the ficus abundantly and systematically, as it rapidly consumes moisture. Waterlogging or stagnation of the liquid should not be allowed in order to prevent root rot. The soil should not dry out completely, only the top layer is slightly dried. Sufficiently soft water for irrigation (room temperature) is certainly defended. It is important for ficus leaves to regularly wipe with a dampened sponge or spray.
It is desirable that the air humidity in the rooms is slightly higher than usual, but this is not at all necessary. Such conditions are best suited for the well-being of the sacred ficus. If the plant is large, then simple ways to increase air humidity will not work. In a room with excessively dry air, it is good to put a device like an "artificial fog generator". And in a house with an artificial reservoir, it is better to place the plant near the water. Foliage can also indicate unsatisfactory humidity - it will begin to fall off.
In a flower shop, you can easily find a ready-made soil mixture for these plants. If possible, it is not difficult to prepare it yourself. The soil should be loose, with the addition of nutrients with a pH of 6-6.5. For this, peat and coarse-grained sand, sod and leafy soil are mixed in the same amount. The pot should be chosen spacious, of course with a hole in the bottom, so that there is no stagnation of excess moisture. You can protect yourself from acidification with a reliable drainage layer.
For fertilization, the application of mineral and organic substances is alternated. The main criterion for choosing a top dressing is a large amount of nitrogen and potassium. Typically, the plant is fertilized twice a month. More often in spring, less often in winter. Universal fertilizers will help improve the visual appeal and accelerate the growth of ficus.
The sacred ficus belongs to fast-growing plants; in just a year, a young seedling can grow into a two-meter tree. Therefore, young plants are often transplanted 1-2 times throughout the year, most often in May or June. If the tree has grown too large, then it is no longer transplanted, but only the upper layers of the soil mixture are replaced every year.
Pruning and shaping the crown
To form a neat plant crown, it is necessary to regularly and often prune. Ficus is cut off at the beginning of the growing season, until intensive growth begins. The tips of the young shoots are pinched.
There is another way to form an unusual original crown. Young ficuses have sufficient flexibility and elasticity. By installing a special frame, the shoots of the plant are set in the desired directions.
A well-known variant of the formation of trunks is the plexus of young shoots in a pigtail. For this purpose, several specimens are planted in one pot at once.
Breeding methods for sacred ficus
Religious ficus reproduces quite simply and successfully with the help of seeds. This method is most often used by flower growers. It is important to sow seeds strictly according to the instructions on the package. The first seedlings usually hatch after a week.
Propagation by cuttings is also suitable, but most often the cuttings cannot take root.
Diseases and pests
Often the plant suffers from the appearance of scale insects, aphids, thrips, a common mealybug. As soon as the pests have been identified, the plant should be urgently treated with special chemicals. When carrying out processing, it is important to be extremely careful so as not to get poisoned.
Diseases in ficus appear due to improper care. If something was done wrong, then the plant can lose all foliage. It should be remembered that the ficus leaves will fall off on their own, upon reaching the age of three. This means that such loss of foliage can be considered a natural course of events.
A relatively small number of ficus varieties are grown under domestic conditions. The most popular among amateur flower growers is invariably "grandmother's" ficus. This ficus is very for busy people. Ficus rubber-bearing mass has advantages: it grows quickly, is resistant to diseases and pests, adapts to different rooms, while not losing its decorative effect.
Personally, I have three houses varieties of ficus... They grow very intensely and quite quickly reach significant rubbery.
Maintenance and care in room conditions
Sacred ficus is quite common among our amateur flower growers. Pipal is grown as a potted plant and is decorated by Buddhists on Bodhi Day (December 8). The main thing to consider for its successful cultivation is great need for light.
Soil composition. In the purchased soil, it is necessary to add sod land and sand (3 parts of peat land, 1 part of sod land, 1 part of sand). The transplant should be carried out in the spring and summer as the volume of the pot is filled with roots.
Watering moderate, as the soil dries up. Prefers light overdrying over abundant watering.
Top dressing universal fertilizer in the spring-summer period.
Pruning tolerates well, and often just needs it to maintain the shape of the crown. It is held in late winter and early spring.
In winter it is advisable to place the plant in bright light, lower the temperature to +18 0 С, reduce watering, spray often.
In summer it is advisable to provide the ficus with a place in the open air under direct sun (carefully monitoring the level of moisture in the substrate). On hot days it is necessary to spray frequently.
Pests... At home, sacred ficus is very susceptible to damage by spider mites, so you need to humidify the air more often. It can also be affected by the scale insect, mealybug.
Reproduction... Easily propagated by cuttings. Rooting lasts 2 to 4 weeks.
Ficus rubber care
Priming rubber ficus prefers fertile and porous. It is advisable to add sod land, leaf humus, sand to the purchased peat land.
Transplant young plants are needed every year, in spring or early summer, as the entire clod of earth is filled with roots. Ficus responds very well to handling in a larger pot and begins to grow actively.
In room conditions, rubbery ficus should receive a lot of light (bright diffused light is optimal). Can put up with some shading, but in this case, the growth rate drops sharply. If the plant has stood for a long time in a dark place, its lower leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off. Plant warmly, tolerates heat quite well, but requires frequent spraying on hot days. In summer, a temperature of + 25 ... + 28 o C. is desirable for him.
In winter, in a lack of light it is necessary to lower the temperature of the content to + 16 ... + 18 о С and reduce watering. Provide frequent spraying in rooms with central heating. The minimum temperature threshold for this plant is +13 o C, but withstands a short-term drop to +5 o C. It does not tolerate cold drafts, especially on wet soil, which can cause the leaves to become covered with brown spots and crumble.
Watering neat, moderate, after drying of the substrate by 1-2 fingers. With waterlogging, excessive leaf fall is observed. Usually, before leaf fall, the edges of the leaves are covered with brown spots, this serves as the first signal of danger.
Ficus leaves must be kept clean, periodically wiped with a damp cloth to restore their gloss, clean the stomata, and allow them to breathe and photosynthesize normally.
Pruning... With growth and aging, the lower leaves gradually die off, the trunk becomes bare. To give more foliage and contain the plant in a certain size, it is necessary formative pruning, optimally - at the end of winter. If you carry out a slight pruning and cut off only the top of the shoot, the ficus will not branch, only one of the uppermost buds will wake up. To obtain a lush, branched bush, you must cut off at least 5-6 upper internodes.
There is another way to force the rubber plant to give lateral shoots. The trunk is tilted as much as possible and fixed in this position. In this case, the dominance of the apical kidney is replaced by the lateral one, which turns out to be the highest. The crown will stop growing, this lateral bud will wake up and begin to grow, after which you can return the plant to its original position.
Reproduction... The apical cuttings remaining from pruning can be rooted and young specimens can be obtained. Ficus rubbery easily propagated by cuttingsespecially with bottom heating. Before rooting, it is necessary to hold the cut of the cutting under running water until the release of milky juice stops. You can read more about rooting cuttings in the article Cutting indoor plants at home.
Reproduction is possible air layering... To do this, a vertical incision 0.5 cm long is made on the stem under the leaf and a match is stuck into it, after dusting it with Kornevin powder. A bunch of wet sphagnum moss is tied on top, covering it with a film. When, after a few months, the roots become visible through the film, the cuttings are cut off below the formed root system and planted in a separate pot.
Rubber ficus, with proper care, is a fairly persistent and durable plant, can live up to 50 years. Brown spots on the leaves, yellowing of the leaves and excessive leaf fall are the result of improper watering (too dry or too wet), cold drafts, and lack of light. It is a little susceptible to diseases and pests, but it can be attacked by scale insects, false scale insects, thrips, mealybugs, aphids, spider mites. Plant protection issues are discussed in detail in the article Houseplant pests and control measures.
Inedible trimming when caring for ficus
maintenance For a decorative form, the ficus needs ordinary, but not pruning, but crown-forming. A slight trimming of the top of the expected plant will not give an effect. The ficus of branching not instead of and, will begin the expected tillering, only the uppermost lateral bud will begin to develop, the plant will be one-sided.
Significance of the pruning period
- The most acceptable for the formation of the crown of the ficus is early spring - rubber pruning, when an active vegetation begins.
- Significant pruning of the central stem during this period will contribute to the awakening of the axillary stems of which, lateral shoots will develop from the buds.
With pre-winter (late or winter) pruning, only usually the topmost bud (the first cut off after the top) wakes up. The plant will take on one-sided and lose its decorative form. Pruning in the late period is performed only when urgently needed.
- Always use a sharp, sanitized tool for trimming.
- Cutting height approximately 10-15 cm (3-5 leaves) from the top of the stem
- If the stem to be cut is thin, the cut is made with a straight bud above
- If the stem is thickened, the cut is made at an angle of 45 degrees. The beginning of the cut with the kidney is above, the end is at the level of the base of the next
- buds when pruning lateral shoots, the cut must be performed on the outer bud, so as not to thicken the lateral
- the bush and other shoots are cut off without which, fungal diseases usually begin to develop on the hemp, putrefactive
- remove the milky juice on the cut, and treat with a napkin finely crushed charcoal with any or an antifungal solution (you can use biofungicides trichodermine-M, phytosporin or others)
- after healing of the beginning and sections of the growth of lateral buds, the plant is better, transplanted by the transshipment method. After circumcision, at least 3-4 weeks should pass
- milky juice At. Poisonous work requires gloves and protective types.
Ficus is one of the most common indoor plants. Belongs to the mulberry family. Homeland of ficuses: Asia, Africa.
Despite the wide variety of shapes, types, colors, all ficuses have similar requirements with the content:
1.it is necessary to protect plants from drafts,
2.waterlogging of the soil can lead to decay of the roots and base of the stem,
3. it is necessary to protect the plant from direct sun (ficuses of variegated forms are more photophilous and tolerate direct sun, but need light shading).
Ficuses are propagated by cuttings. From a shoot, you can get as many cuttings as there are leaves on it. The propagation stalk should consist of one leaf with an intact eye and half of the lower internode without an eye. After cutting the cutting, it is immersed in warm water to stop the release of milky juice.For better rooting, a cut or split is made at the bottom of the cutting (for a cutting with hard wood, crosswise, for a cutting with soft wood, one cut). It is better to root the cuttings with soil heating and cover the cutting with a plastic bag.
For all ficuses, such a soil mixture is best suited - 2 parts of leaf, 1 part of peat soil and 1 part of humus. Ficuses do not like when they are planted in dishes much larger than their root system, so they are transplanted when the roots are supposed to fill the entire pot or tub. At the same time, they grow quite quickly, therefore, the soil during transplantation should be nutritious, in addition, fertilizing fertilizing is carried out in spring and summer (they respond well to fertilizing with organic fertilizers). Ficuses can also be fed with fertilizers from the “Palm” series. Old specimens of large ficuses are transplanted very rarely - after 5-6 years. But every year you can replace the top layer of the earth with a new one. You should also replace the top layer of the earth if a white crust appears on it - a salt deposit.
Bengal ficus (ficus benghalensis) or banyan tree resembles rubbery Ficus, but leathery leaves 20 cm long are velvety, and the tips are drawn into a "dropper". In nature, this tree is of huge size, but at home, with good care, it will reach the ceiling in several years. In old age, lateral branches are able to form aerial roots, which, after rooting in the ground, turn into additional supporting trunks. This feature helps the Bengal ficus (like some others) to start life in clusters of leaves on the trunks of other trees, sometimes at a height of 5-6 m above the ground, and reaching the ground, form its trunk and “strangle” the host tree, shading its leaves with its crown.
Location: Keep it sunny, but avoid direct sun through the glass. In winter, ficus tolerates temperatures up to 12 ° C.
Reproduction: cuttings, air layering in woody species.
Pests: spider mites, scale insects, thrips.
Audrey - the leaves are narrower (about 10 cm wide), up to 20 cm long. There are small white dots on the leaf blade. Beautiful in a composition of several plants of the same size.
Krishnae - with very beautiful funnel-shaped leaves. The funnels are formed by overgrown tops of the lower part of the leaves, bent towards the midrib. The leaf blade of Krishna's ficus can hold up to a glass of liquid. An ancient myth says that this form was given to the plant by Krishna himself when he needed a goblet.
Ficus benjamina is a small-leaved relative of Ficus rubbery, although they are not at all similar to each other. The branches of Ficus Benjamin droop, which gives the plant a certain special appeal. Ficus Benjamin is a tree symbol of the capital of Thailand, Bangkok. The bark is gray with small streaks. Variegated varieties are the most attractive. Very often, when grown for decorative purposes, 2-4 plants are planted together, then their trunks are woven into a pigtail or plait or lattice. As they grow, the trunks grow together and form a decorative trunk. Now this type of ficus is the most common in indoor cultivation. Used in bonsai culture.
Temperature: moderate, in winter not lower than 10 ° С.
Lighting: a bright place with protection from direct sunlight is best. Variegated forms need a lighter and warmer place than forms with dark leaves.
> Watering: moderate, does not like waterlogging and drying out of the soil. Room temperature water, soft. Top dressing with fertilizers from March to August in two weeks.
Air humidity: the leaves must be regularly sprayed, especially in summer with boiled or purified water, so that limescale does not form on the leaves.
Transplant: carried out in the spring, when the roots begin to crawl out of the pot.
Reproduction: apical cuttings.
Anastasia is a common variety with leaves like Starlight, but differs from it in a light green rather than a white leaf edge.
Barok - leaves are light green, twisted.
Buclee - leaves slightly curled inward, up to 6 cm long. Sometimes, during long-term cultivation in room culture, the leaves become less curled.
Bushy Prince - leaves bright green, buttery
Curly - leaves of arbitrary shape, elongated and twisted in a spiral, the color of the leaves can be either completely green or completely white. Mostly the colors are combined.
Danielle - leaves are dark green.
De Gantel - leaves are white with green.
Denylight - dark green leaves with light green interspersed.
Dominica - white leaves with a lot of green
Exotica are green leaves with a slightly wavy edge.
Eldorado - leaves with pronounced white blotches all over the leaf. This is the most variegated variety.
Ester - yellow leaves.
Golden King - green leaves with a yellow jagged border.
Golden Monique - light green leaves interspersed with dark green with pronounced wavy edges.
Gold Princess - lettuce green leaves.
Irene - leaves are dark green with a white edging, the leaf is wide and rounded, slightly curled inward.
Kinky is a dwarf variety with variegated (light green-yellowish-white) leaves along the edge of the leaf.
Laquia -leaves are green with white.
Midnight Lady - leaves with a very dark color.
Monique is an elegant ficus tree with dark green leaves.
Natascha are small green leaves.
Nikole is a dwarf variety with variegated (light green-yellowish-white) leaves along the edge of the leaf. Differs from Kinky in a large amount of white interspersed
Nina is a dwarf variety with a thin white edging along the edge of the leaves. Very similar in shape to the leaves of Natascha
Pihanna - has elongated, pointed leaves.
Profit - the leaves are green and white.
Reginald - leaves are light green with dark green blotches.
Safari - This variety resembles Natascha with a leaf color like Eldorado
Samantha - gray-green leaves with a narrow border.
Salt and Pepper - similar to curly ficus, only the leaves are not twisted and the green color is more intense and dark.
Starlight is a common variety with leaves like Kinky, but with more white around the edge of the leaf than Nikole.
Vortex - has variegated twisted leaves.
Wiandi- beautiful winding trunk
Ficus binnendijkii is a very shade-tolerant ficus with smooth, dark green, leathery leaves up to 25 cm long and up to 3.5 cm wide. Homeland is the tropical forests of Indonesia. Suitable even for growing on northern windows and in the back of the premises. The edges of the sheet are slightly bent upward. The petiole is up to 4 cm long. The bark of the trunk is light gray or brown with white strokes.
Temperature: moderate, optimal within the range of 22-25 ° C, in winter it is possible to keep it at lower temperatures around 16-18 ° C, with limited watering. In case of sudden changes in temperature, it can shed leaves.
Lighting: likes bright diffused light or light partial shade. With a lack of light, the shoots will be excessively stretched. Direct sunlight can cause burns in hot weather.
Watering: in summer, moderate, the topsoil should dry out well, in winter watering is limited, allowing the earth to dry out.
Air humidity: the leaves are sprayed in summer in hot dry weather or in winter when central heating is on. It is useful to arrange a shower for the plant, while covering the ground from water ingress.
Fertilizer: fed from the end of February to September once every two weeks with fertilizers for decorative deciduous plants.
Transplant: young plants are transferred annually in spring into a larger pot (the guideline is that the roots will fill almost the entire volume). An important condition is good drainage to the bottom of the pot. Adult specimens are transplanted every 2-3 years, you can add fresh fertile soil on top annually. The soil for ficuses should be loose and nutritious. Keep an eye on the acidity of the soil (pH 5.5-6.5), ficus does not tolerate alkaline substrates.
Reproduction: cuttings, which are rooted in water in good light, as well as air layering.
Formation: Binnendeck ficus requires regular pruning in order to maintain a compact, beautiful shape. Experienced growers grow ficus in the form of a stem or braiding the trunks of several plants with a pigtail.
Alii - the leaves are green, narrow, the trunk is brown with white strokes.
Amstel Gold - leaves of a very spectacular color on a light yellow-green background scattered areas of green in different shades, from dark green to light green. This variety needs more intense lighting. With a lack of light, the leaves lose their decorative color.
Amstel King - leaf up to 7 cm wide, brown trunk with white strokes.
Amstel Queen - a variety with an intermediate leaf width between Amstel King and Alii
Variegata - yellow-green leaves. Photophilous.
Ficus is rubbery.
Ficus rubbery Ficus elastica has several varieties that differ in the shape and color of the leaves. The varieties with yellow spots and stripes on the leaves are especially effective. With good care, rubber ficus should give 1 new leaf in 1 week from spring to autumn, while the old leaves should not turn yellow and fall off.
Temperature: preferably moderate, not lower than 18 ° C. They like to “keep their feet warm” - do not put the ficus pot on a cold windowsill, marble or tiled floor, etc. In a room with temperatures above moderate, the leaves begin to hang down.
Lighting: all varieties of rubber ficus prefer a bright place, protected from direct sunlight. Variegated forms need a lighter and warmer place than forms with dark leaves.
Watering: moderate, does not like waterlogging of the soil. Water at room temperature, well settled. Top dressing with fertilizers from March to August in two weeks.
Air humidity: Leaves should be regularly wiped with a damp sponge to remove dust and plaque.
Transplantation: carried out in the spring, when the roots cover the entire earthen lump, young plants are transplanted after a year or two, adults after 3-4 years.
Reproduction: by cuttings of the apical shoots in a mini-greenhouse.
Abidjan - The leaves are very wide. Young plates are dark red, almost beetroot color. Over time, this color partially disappears and the leaf acquires a more green color.
Belize - leaves are wide, leathery, glossy with a pink tint and large spots of white yellow, gray-green and dark green with a pronounced pink-red midrib.
Black Prince - very large and wide leaves, like Decora, up to 30 cm long and 18-20 cm wide, dark red-green in color with a pronounced central red vein.
Brazil - Leaves with gray-green, yellow-green, light green spots and cream edging.
Burgundy - leaves are large, dark green above, light green-cream below with a central red vein on the top of the leaf and light green on the bottom. The bark of young shoots is dark red.
Decora - green leaves.
Decora Variegata - green leaves with an uneven white border.
Doescheri - leaves are narrow, up to 20 cm long and up to 12 cm wide, creamy yellow-green in color with a pink tint.
Melany is a short ficus with small dark green leaves, sometimes with a reddish tint on top and dull green underneath.
Robusta - leaves are wide, green.
Schriveriana - leaves up to 25 cm long and up to 18 cm wide, yellow-salad green.
Sylvie - leaves are wide, oval with a continuous creamy yellow border around the edge of the leaf. Center of the plate with dark and light gray-green spots. A light yellow-green central vein is clearly defined. The petiole is greenish pink.
Tineke - leaf edge with irregular cream and gray-green spots. The central vein is creamy. The cap is pink. Leaves length up to 25 cm, width up to 15 cm.
In ASTROLOGY, it is considered a Capricorn plant.
Ficus tiny, dwarf - Ficus pumila has two varieties: Ficus pumila var. minima and Ficus pumila var. macrophylla. Minima has small leaves, no more than 1-1.3 cm in length, while macrophylla has larger leaves. Origin Taiwan, Philippines, Japan, Southeast China, Southeast Asia, Vietnam.
In the spring, this variety of ficus should be pruned to form a crown. The plant can be grown by wrapping around a poles wrapped in moss. Can be grown in hanging baskets as ampelous. It does not bloom in rooms, but in greenhouses, like many ficuses, it forms syconia - small spherical inflorescences that resemble berries.
Temperature: in summer at 15-23 ° С, in winter at least 7 ° С. Its variegated forms are more thermophilic.
Humidity: daily spraying of plants with water at room temperature is required, especially in winter with central heating. The plant will grow well in a kitchen or other humid environment.
Lighting: the plant is shade-tolerant, only its variegated forms are photophilous.
Watering: in the summer, regular 2-3 times a week, the soil should not dry out, the plant requires abundant watering. In winter, watering should be reduced to 1 time per week.
Reproduction: top cuttings 8-10 cm, with two or three pairs of leaves, very easily rooted just in water.
Pests and diseases: affected by mealybugs, scale insects, spider mites. The leaves turn yellow and fall off due to waterlogging of the plant. The leaves dry out if there is not enough watering for the plant.
Curly - leaf blades with a pure white or slightly yellowish, narrow or wide strip of irregular shape along the middle (central) vein.
Green Sunny - green leaves.
Sunny - along with the green color, the plates have an intermittent creamy-white border.
White Sunny - green leaves with a wide, continuous creamy white border.
Snowflake - the leaves are similar to Sunny, but there are branches with completely white leaves devoid of chlorophyll pigments. A very rare variety!
Oakleaf - leaves are thin, tough, rough, dark green, shaped like oak leaves, hence the name of the variety "Dubolistny".
Quercifolia - the leaves are smaller than those of the previous variety.
Variegata - on light green leaves, there are blotches of pale yellow, whitish-gray spots and stripes, the shape and size of which are different.
Ficus is lyre-shaped.
Ficus lyre Ficus lirata - is distinguished by its large leaves, similar in shape to an inverted violin. Unlike other representatives of ficuses, this plant is more demanding in terms of keeping conditions. If you do not maintain conditions close to natural, then the tree can respond by dropping foliage. The leaves of this ficus reach a length of 50-60 cm. This plant loves loneliness, you should not put it close to other plants. Like all ficuses, it is shade-tolerant. This type of ficus is picky about high humidity in the room.
Temperature: moderate, in winter not lower than 12 ° С.
Lighting: Bright place, protected from direct sunlight.
Watering: Moderate, the soil should dry out slightly before the next watering. Water at room temperature, well settled. Top dressing with fertilizers from April to August in two weeks.
Air humidity: leaves must be periodically sprayed and wiped with a sponge.
Transplant: carried out in the spring, when the roots fill the entire pot.
Reproduction: apical cuttings, for better rooting with heated soil and covering the cuttings with a plastic bag, as well as air layers.
Compacta and Bambino are miniature varieties with smaller densely spaced leaves (up to 25 cm long).
Columnaris - predominant growth in height, hence the name - Ficus "Columnar".
Little Fiddle is a low plant up to 150 cm with leaves up to 20-25 cm.
Phyllis Craig - with a compact crown and large leaves up to 35 cm long
Ficus Dull (Ficus retusa) is an evergreen tree that grows both in humid forests at an altitude of 1100 m above sea level, and in the savannas of Asia and Malaysia. Begins life as an epiphyte and continues as a banyan tree. Powerful aerial roots adorn the trunk. The bark in adult plants is grayish-beige, in young plants it is brown with white strokes. Leaves are green, leathery, glossy, up to 8 cm long and up to 4 cm wide.Their tips are slightly elongated, but there is no drip tip. Are located on the escape in a spiral.
Beautiful and unpretentious ficus, widespread in indoor culture, in winter gardens, greenhouses.
Location: light-loving plant, but diffused sun is preferable in summer.
Temperature: in summer can be placed outside. However, the optimum content is at 17-22 ° C.
Watering and humidity: spraying with boiled water, moderate watering.
Reproduction: easily cuttings in the spring and summer. It reproduces well with air layers.
Shaping: Regular pruning to create a fuller crown.
Compacta is a compact crown due to very short internodes. The trunk is light brown with gray strokes. On the outside, the leaf blade is dark green, leathery, glossy, the inside is bright light green, up to 6.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Dense foliage and low growth rate make this ficus widely used in bonsai art.
Panda - For the young, yellowish-green leaves that appear at the end of winter, received the name "golden ficus". The leaf blades can reach 6 cm. Suitable for creating bonsai.
Variegata is a variegated variety widely used for indoor decoration.
Banyan tree (Bodhi, Buddha tree). Sacred ficus - Ficus religiosa. An evergreen from India and Ceylon is distinguished by strong grayish branches with heart-shaped leaves 8-12 cm in size, having smooth edges and a long drip tip. Leaf veins are clearly visible. Inflorescences in the form of a pot give inedible fruit, which, when ripe, acquire a purple color. A small tree that grows in India and on about. Ceylon, distinguished by large expressive leaves with yellow veins. At home, it reaches a height of 1-2 meters, suitable for bonsai cultivation. Since the plant has large leaves, its minimum height in bonsai should be 50 cm. The Hindus and Buddhists consider the tree sacred, because the Buddha attained enlightenment under its crown. The Pepul tree is found in every temple garden in Ceylon, where, according to legend, in Anaradhapura in 288 BC. e. it was planted for the first time. The fruit of the tree has an antibacterial effect due to its high serotonin content. (Serotonin) Among Hindus and Buddhists, the tree is considered sacred, because under its crown the Buddha attained enlightenment. The Pepul tree is found in every temple garden in Ceylon, where, according to legend, in Anaradhapura in 288 BC. e. it was planted for the first time. The fruit of the tree has an antibacterial effect due to its high serotonin content. (Serotonin)
In astrology, it is considered a plant of Sagittarius.
Ficus is triangular.
Ficus triangular - Ficus triangularis is an easy enough plant to grow with little difficulty. The plant does not like drafts and sudden changes in temperature. In order to form the crown, it is necessary to regularly shorten the shoots. Homeland - West Africa. Indoors, it most often reaches a height of up to 1 m. It blooms profusely and bears fruit at home, forming syconia - small spherical brown inflorescences about 2 cm in size, resembling a berry.
Temperature: in summer: + 20 + 25 ° С, in winter not lower than + 16 ° С.
Humidity: high. It requires daily spraying of plants with water at room temperature, especially in winter with central heating. In winter, it is better to put the plant away from radiators. Grow in a pallet with damp expanded clay.
Lighting: bright diffused light. in summer, the plant must be shaded from direct sunlight.
Soil: fertile, loose, good drainage is necessary, the best option if its lower layer is expanded clay, and the upper layer is sand.
Watering: in the summer, regular moderate watering 1-2 times a week, before the next watering, the soil should dry out well. In winter, watering should be reduced to 1 time in 10-12 days; waterlogging should be avoided.
Fertilization: from spring to autumn, every 2-3 weeks with liquid fertilizer, alternating organic and mineral.
Transfer: In February-March, as the plant grows.
Reproduction: by apical cuttings, in a mini-greenhouse. It also propagates with the help of air layers and seeds.
Diseases and pests: Affected by mealybugs, aphids, scale insects, thrips. Leaves can fall off only from very strong stress.
Natali Trinova - differs in larger green leaves.
Variegata - triangular leaves 8 cm long by 8 cm wide, variegated. This color is very common in some varieties of Ficus benjamina. Ficus triangularis cv. The 'Variegata' needs more intense lighting than the previous variety and the species with uniformly green leaves.
Ficus Reed - Ficus lingua is a rather rare species of ficus. It got its name from the shape of the tongue-shaped leaves. Homeland - the forests of Angola, Liberia, Cameroon, Congo.
Ficus Reed is an evergreen tree with shiny leathery soft leaves up to 5 cm long and up to 2 cm wide. Petioles about 1 cm long. Fruits are paired, smooth, round, from yellow to reddish-yellow in color. Beautiful and unusual ficus. At the tops of the shoots, young leaves are covered with light brown stipules, which, after leaf opening, are preserved on the plant for some time. The bark of young shoots is smooth and green, quickly lignifies, acquiring a rich brown color and a rough surface.
Location: moderately light-loving plant.
Temperature: throughout the year within the range of 17-22 ° C.
Watering, moisture: moderate moisture of the substrate, regular spraying with boiled water.
Formation: It is necessary to shorten vigorous shoots from January to June.
There are many varieties of ficus. Most of these are perennial shrubs or trees, sometimes lianas, which are capable of reaching enormous sizes. Under natural conditions, ficus reaches a height of up to 30 meters, and its leaves - up to 1 meter.
As an indoor ornamental culture, ficus is a beautiful evergreen tree. Depending on the species, ficus leaves differ in shape and size: they can be oval, elongated-oval, pointed at the end, diamond-shaped, heart-shaped, on long or short petioles. As a rule, ficus leaves are shiny, smooth, harsh (dense), with solid edges.
Ficuses are very stable in indoor conditions, undemanding to lighting, however, in strongly shaded places, their internodes lengthen, the branches stretch towards the light, and the plants become sparsely leafy. Withstand high air dryness and temperature.
Ficuses are watered evenly throughout the year, increasing watering only in summer. Lack of moisture leads to yellowing and leaf fall, which threatens the complete death of small-leaved species.
Excessive watering and frequent turning towards the light source also causes leaf fall and decay of the root collar.
In summer, it is recommended to shade the ficus from the scorching sunlight. Drafts and cold air are also harmful to him.
Ficus leaves should be regularly washed and sprayed with water. In winter, it is advisable to reduce the room temperature to 12-15 ° C.
They are transplanted annually, preferably in early spring, into a fairly dense soil mixture, consisting of two parts of deciduous and one part of sod and greenhouse lands with the addition of sand, rotted cow dung or bone meal, with a pH of 6.5-7. For ampelous small-leaved species, the amount of sod land in the mixture is reduced.
The appearance of brown spots on the leaves is a sign of root disease. The plant should be immediately transplanted into fresh soil, removing all damaged parts of the roots and covering the wounds with crushed charcoal.
The transplanted plants are immediately heavily watered, then very carefully (but often) sprayed the crown for two weeks.
Ficus good drainage is necessaryso that there is no stagnation of water, leading to decay of the roots.
Propagated by ficus and apical cuttings. The cut tops of the shoots with two leaves are placed in a bowl of water (25-30 ° C) until the milky juice ceases to stand out from the stem. Cuttings are rooted in water or wet sand. After rooting, the cuttings are transplanted into a small volume of dishes with a mixture of equal parts of sod, humus, deciduous soil and sand. Drainage is pre-laid in the pots.
Young plants need to be fed every 10-15 days with mullein solution.
If necessary, when the roots cover the entire earthen lump, the ficus is transferred into a larger dish, without destroying the old earthen lump, and fresh soil is added to the pot.
Young plants are transplanted annually in spring, and old specimens are transplanted once every two to three years. However, even if the plant is not transplanted for two to three years, the topsoil still needs to be renewed with a fresher substrate.
Ficus is distinguished by its rapid growth, but rather weak branching. In order to create a beautiful tree with a branchy crown, you need prune shoots.
After reaching a meter in height, the top of the plant is cut off, due to this, growth in height slows down, and lateral shoots are formed from the buds located below on the trunk. After 2-3 years, the tops of the lateral shoots are cut in the same way. This technique helps to form a beautiful crown in the ficus.
Many types of ficus are common as decorative leafy crops: ficus Karika, ficus dwarf, ficus elastic, elastic ficus variegated, ficus Bengal, ficus lyre, creeping ficus, sacred ficus, ficus Parcella, ficus rusty, triangular ficus, cherry ficus, arrow-shaped ficus.
Dwarf ficus originally from China. Climbing plant, clinging with suction cups. The leaves are small, dark green in color (older specimens have larger leaves). Overdrying an earthen coma, like excess water in the soil, is very harmful to the plant.
Ficus elastic in natural conditions reaches a height of up to 30 m. The leaves are elongated-oval, leathery, smooth, dark or bright green.
Ficus elastic variegated less common than elastic ficus. This species is picky about lighting, watering and humidity. The color of the leaves is very unusual - spots of golden (yellow or white) color are scattered over the surface of the entire leaf. The plant is afraid of direct sunlight, drying out of the earthy coma and excess moisture in the soil, requires frequent spraying and washing the leaves with water.
Ficus lyre... The leaves resemble a violin in shape, very large (50-60 cm in length), hard, leathery, dark green, located on petioles 20-25 cm long.
Ficus sacred grown near temples in India and the island of Sri Lanka. When the atmospheric pressure changes, drops are formed at the ends of the leaves (sap release). This phenomenon is called "the cry of the sacred tree." The leaves are heart-shaped with a long, drawn tip. The surface of the leaves is slightly leathery, shiny, light green in color. Cuttings are twice as long as the leaves. Reproduction by cuttings is very difficult.
Ficus Parcel - a beautiful tree with large (15-18 cm in length) leaves of a wide oval shape, slightly pubescent with hard hairs. The color of the leaves is very unusual - there is a scattering of yellowish-green, light or white splashes on the leaf plate, due to which the leaf takes on a "marble" appearance. It grows slowly. Afraid of the bright sun. Warm and moisture-loving.
Ficus rusty - a tree with a beautiful dense crown. There are many aerial roots on the lower part of the trunk. The leaves are wide, elliptical, underneath covered with tomentose red-brown pubescence. Large apical buds (up to 5 cm) are also pubescent, due to which they acquire a bright pink color.
Ficus triangular has small rounded-triangular shiny dark green leaves. It is very difficult to reproduce by cuttings. Reacts poorly to pruning. Requires moderate temperature (15-18 ° C), moderate lighting, moderate watering.
Ficus cherry - a low plant with elongated oval, pointed leaves. The upper surface of the leaf blade is smooth, shiny, the lower one is pubescent. Fruits in bright orange fruits,