Growing gumi - multiflorous sucker
A relative of the sea buckthorn - the multiflorous oak - appears in the northern gardens
In recent years, a new original plant, gumi, has begun to appear on the garden plots of the European part of Russia. But, given the noticeable warming of the climate and the value of the plant's fruits, there is no doubt that gumi will win more and more new supporters.
What is this curiosity?
Gumi - a relative of sea buckthorn. This plant belongs to the Lokhovy family. Gumis (Japanese name) grown by enthusiastic gardeners are referred to as the multiflorous oak tree.
The homeland of gumi is central China, it grows in Japan, it is found in South Sakhalin (it was introduced there during the occupation of the island by the Japanese).
The multiflorous oak tree is a tree-like shrub 0.8-1.4 m high. The leaves are rather large, dense, bright green, with a silvery-metallic sheen on the back.
The plant is monoecious. One bush can also bear fruit, but several plants need to be planted to better guarantee pollination. Gumi flowers are elongated, bell-shaped, with a pleasant strong aroma, attract many pollinating insects. The fruits are bright red, covered with silvery dots. On the bush, they hang on thin long stalks, which significantly, in comparison with sea buckthorn, facilitates harvesting. The fruits are cylindrical, about 2 cm long, 1 cm in diameter.
Inside the fruit is an oblong bone with a grooved surface. The fruits are sweet with a pleasant peculiar taste. Fresh fruits are wonderful as a dessert, frozen ones will pleasantly diversify the table in winter, dried ones are good for decoctions and infusions. Jam, compotes, jellies, juices, and wine are prepared from the fruits of the multifloral sucker.
As established by scientists, gumi is a multivitamin plant that is not inferior in its useful properties to sea buckthorn. According to the data of the GBS RAS, gumi fruits are characterized by an exceptionally high content of amino acids, contain a lot of leucine and proline. In total, 17 amino acids have been identified in gumi fruits, including 7 essential for humans. A decoction of the leaves is used for colds. The Japanese consider gumi to be the fruits of longevity and youth.
The plant blooms in late July - early August. The multiflorous oak tree is planted on elevated southern slopes or near buildings, where more snow accumulates, since it is more drought-resistant than sea buckthorn. Gumi, like sea buckthorn, has a superficial root system. This is associated with increased requirements for soil preparation and mulching.
Gumi does not grow well on acidic soils. Therefore, before planting, it is better a year before it, it is necessary to calcify this area. Given that the root system of this plant is located much wider than the crown of the bush, especially on light soils, local cultivation of planting holes is not enough. On heavy, clayey soils, where verkhovodka is the main type of moisture, the creation of large planting pits with loose soil is especially undesirable, since they will act as wells where water from the surface accumulates. Thus, the root system will constantly be in conditions of excess water and lack of oxygen, which leads to oppression of the plant.
Soil preparation begins at least one year in advance. Continuous liming reduces acidity, promotes better mineralization of organic matter, fertilizers. With an average acidity of the soil, 300-500 g of lime materials are consumed per 1 m2. After 4-5 years, liming is repeated. For continuous digging, organic fertilizers (manure, compost) are applied at the rate of 15-20 kg / m2, on heavy soils, sand is added - 10-20 kg / m2, on sand - a possible amount of sod land.
When digging the soil, it is necessary to carefully remove the rhizomes of perennials - creeping wheatgrass, dreamy, dioecious nettle. If the soil is heavily infested with wheatgrass and flushing, 2-3 times during the growing season, the soil is treated with a pitchfork - to a shallow depth with a sample of rhizomes. The preparation of planting holes for spring planting begins in autumn, and for autumn planting - at least two weeks before the soil settles and the initial period of decomposition of organic matter passes. On light soils, they dig a hole 30-35 cm deep (for one and a half bayonets of a shovel) and fill them with a mixture of rotted manure or humus and site soil 1: 1.
On clay soils (due to the above reasons), a surface layer of soil is prepared for planting. At 1 m? 200 g of double superphosphate are introduced and all this is carefully dug up. Superphosphate is indispensable for the normal functioning of nodule bacteria on the roots of gumi. Gumi consumes little nitrogen, and the removal of potassium is insignificant. When planting, the seedling is buried 3-5 cm and the soil is immediately mulched.
Top dressing begins in the third year. The first is carried out in April over the snow with nitrogen fertilizers: ammonium nitrate (20 g / m2) or urea (15 g / m2). Nitrogen fertilizers dissolve easily, with water they penetrate into the soil and by the beginning of plant growth they find themselves in the zone of the active part of the root system. In May and June, two dressings are carried out: one with full mineral fertilizer, and the other organic (infused and diluted mullein, or green fertilizer).
But since July, the introduction of nitrogen is limited and superphosphate is introduced (10-15 g of double superphosphate). When using simple superphosphate, the dose is doubled. Potash fertilizers are applied at the same time - 10-15 g / m? viburnum salt or 50 g of ash. In the fall, repeat the same top dressing. All this is done to prepare the plants for winter.
Here, in the Leningrad region, Viktor Sitnik is successfully engaged in the cultivation and reproduction of the multiflora sucker. Back in 1969, in Ukraine, in Lvov, he planted a small rooted cut. By the way, this plant still grows well and bears fruit there, despite the shade. And since 1983 he has been growing gumi near Mgoy (50 km from St. Petersburg). The plants grown and propagated by him are resistant to our climatic conditions.
The only requirement that the gardener adheres to is that the branches of the plant must be gradually bent to the ground from September, so that they eventually end up under the snow in winter. He does not recognize any additional cover. Everything is done as when sheltering raspberries and Japanese quince. Under the snow, the plants calmly tolerate frosts at -35 ° C. Uncovered branches freeze, but then quickly recover in summer. To the statement that gumi sometimes freeze out, Victor replies that apple trees, cherries, plums and other crops also sometimes die in our climate, but no one refuses to grow them.
In addition, this gardener believes that gumi is a wonderful fruit and ornamental plant with a brilliant future, that is, it has excellent decorative properties, generous and stable yield of tasty and medicinal berries. It is unpretentious, requires minimal maintenance, is not damaged by pests, is not affected by diseases, the crop is easily and quickly harvested. The bush is very decorated during the growing season.
Unlike sea buckthorn, gumi does not give offspring. Begins to bear fruit from 4-5 years of age. And at 15-20 years old it gives up to 20 kg of berries. Trimming it is minimal. From the age of ten, broken and intertwining branches are removed from the plant, and from the age of fifteen, rejuvenating pruning is carried out. Gumi is propagated by seeds (serious stratification is needed), layering, cuttings, dividing the bush.
The climate is warming now. And, apparently, soon many gardeners will begin to actively cultivate gumi in their gardens.
Y. Gavrilov, florist
Narrow-leaved oak: steppe date (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
This species can often be found in the steppes. Residents of the southern regions of Russia call its fruits dates - ripe drupes taste like dried palm fruits. Gourmets give a more detailed description - they highlight the shades of cinnamon and wheat flour. However, their consistency is mealy, you can't eat much, but eating is the thing! Fruits begin to ripen in September, becoming sweeter closer to October.
Loch narrow-leaved - a beautiful tree with a spectacular red-brown bark and unusual silvery leaves. It looks great in the company of green and golden conifers: thujas, junipers, spherical fir trees. But it is better to use him as a soloist - the plant can reach 5 m, however, the crown can be cut to any height.
The narrow-leaved loch is very useful. First, it improves the soil. This wonderful quality is known in legumes, on the roots of which special nodule bacteria live - they assimilate nitrogen from the air and enrich the earth with it.
The roots of the sucker are exactly the same! Thanks to them, the tree can grow on any, even the poorest soil. It was planted on sand, salt marshes, practically in stones - and everywhere it takes root.
Secondly, the narrow-leaved oak tree increases the productivity of fruit trees and berry bushes. It's incredible, but true. During flowering, it exudes a strong vanilla aroma. The narrow-leaved oak tree smells even stronger than roses, lilacs or mock orange. Bees flock to him from all over the area, at the same time pollinating other flowering plants.
Thirdly, this tree protects the garden from pests. Birds love him very much. They eat fruits with pleasure, build nests in the crowns. The sucker has rather large thorns, and the birds, having climbed deep into the branches, are protected from predators. Birds, as you know, in addition to berries, eat a lot of harmful insects. so that the garden where the sucker grows will be healthy.
How to care for narrow-leaved sucker
There is no need to water the plant - the roots go deep into the ground and will always be able to get moisture for themselves. And he does not need feeding either - the plant will feed itself. Formative pruning is not necessary for the tree, only sanitary. The place he will like is sunny, sheltered from the wind.
Narrow-leaved oak is propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering.
Popular varieties with photo of berries
Interestingly, neither in Japan nor in China is gumi an object of breeding work. In Russia, on the contrary, it is carried out quite actively - varieties are being developed that are better acclimatized in our conditions. The State Register has registered 7 varieties, here are some of them.
The Krillon variety is suitable for growing in any Russian region.
The result of the work of Sakhalin scientists. Winter-hardy, fruiting later, but generous.
Taisa shrub is easier to care for
The variety was created in the suburbs, specifically for this climatic zone. The bush is winter-hardy, not spreading. Small berries ripen early.
Shrubs of the Sakhalin variety are practically not susceptible to diseases and are extremely rarely damaged by pests
The bush is highly decorative: it easily forms a spherical crown, flowers are pale pink. The berries are sweet with sourness.
Moneron has a stable yield and is frost-hardy.
The variety is one of the most productive. The shrub has sweet, slightly tart berries of medium ripening.
The Yuzhny variety is distinguished by its large and juicy fruits with a tart sweet taste.
Large-fruited variety - if in the previous ones the weight of berries averaged 1.5 g, then in Yuzhny it is already 2.3 g and even more. The variety is frost resistant.
Growing gumi - multiflorous sucker - garden and vegetable garden
The new culture - the multiflorous goose, or gumi, is a representative of one of three genera of the sucker family very close to each other: sea buckthorn, sucker and shepherdia. In total, about 40 species are known in the genus sucker, of which in the CIS (in Central Asia and the Caucasus), narrow-leaved, oriental, silvery and edible suckers have become widespread as a fruit plant.
The multiflorous oak tree is cultivated mainly in Sakhalin. His homeland is Japan and China. In the last 20-30 years, the cultivation of gumi in Ukraine (only in the amateur culture) has attracted more and more attention.
Fruits containing, like all loch, biologically active substances, have medicinal properties and are recommended for gastrointestinal diseases, improve blood circulation, and have a tonic effect.
Loch fruits contain 15% dry matter, 9-14% sugars, 0.004-0.008% vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 0.05% pectin substances, 0.4% catechins. Found also salts of phosphorus, potassium, calcium. Loch leaves are also characterized by a high content of ascorbic acid, especially in July - 0.25%. Ascorbic acid is also found in flowers - up to 0.15%.
Features of biology. Gumi is a small shrub 1 - 1.5 m high. The leaves are elliptical at the top, whole-edged, the leaf blade is silvery-green above, with a fluffy bloom, the bottom has dark brown scales. The flowers are bisexual, drooping, regular in shape, very fragrant, attract many pollinating insects. Fruits are oblong or oval, with blunt ends, densely covered with silvery-white dots, 1-2 cm long and weighing 1.5-2 g. Fruit color changes from green to yellow and red as it ripens. According to different people, the taste of gumi resembles the taste of apples, grapes, cherries, currants, bird cherry. The fruits are very tasty when fresh. For preparation for future use, it is recommended to use them ground with sugar, preferably with the addition of any sour fruits, since the gumi fruits are very sweet.
Vegetation begins in the second half of April, flowering - in mid - late May, fruit ripening - in late June - early July. Gumi is not a winter-hardy crop. The basis for high productivity of plantations is the correct choice of a place for planting. Gumi is planted in places protected from the wind. Lowered places are also not recommended for planting due to the accumulation of cold air there, and in the spring - stagnant melt water. In high places, where the snow is blown away by the wind, the sucker freezes. For the winter, the branches are bent to the ground and carefully covered with burlap or thick paper; a permanent snow cover must be provided on top.
Loch multiflorous is characterized by high early maturity of buds. During one growing season, plants form two or even three orders of branching. As a result, branched annual shoots are formed, and the crown thickens unnecessarily.
The generative buds of the multifloral sucker are fully formed already in the year of the bookmark. Plants have a very short dormant period of 30 days, after which they are ready to resume the growing season. An important biological feature of the root system of the multiflorous oak, like shepherdia, sea buckthorn, is the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen with root nodules.
The flowers are bisexual, drooping, regular in shape, very fragrant, attract many pollinating insects. The plant is an excellent honey plant. Fruits vary greatly in shape (from round to cylindrical), weight (0.7-2.1 g), taste (from sweet to sour and tart) (Fig. 77).
|Fig. 77. Loch multiflorous or gumi|
Planting and leaving. At the age of 10, the diameter of the crown of the sucker reaches 2-2.8 m, so the seedlings are planted according to the 4 X 2 m scheme.
Plants are planted in pits with a diameter of 35-40 cm, after filling with fertilizers: 10 kg of manure mixed with the top layer of the earth, 200-300 g of superphosphate. The aboveground part of the seedling is cut off before planting, leaving branches 25-30 cm high to obtain a branched bush in the first year. The root collar is deepened by 4-6 cm. After planting, the seedlings are watered abundantly. Caring for the multifloral sucker is similar to caring for sea buckthorn, however, it is more demanding on soil fertility, moisture, light.
Loch requires regular loosening and watering. In subsequent years, when cultivating the soil for each square. m of the trunk circle, 10-12 kg of humus or compost, 100 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt are introduced.In the first 10 years, they are limited to sanitary pruning, remove frozen, dried and broken shoots. In the future, the bushes are partially thinned out and rejuvenated. With good care, the yield of fruits from a 5-6 year old bush is 6-8 kg.
Varieties and forms. Within the species, the sucker multiflorous plant varies sharply in habit, in particular, the shape of the crown (from pyramidal compressed to strongly spreading), the perimeter of the shoots, the shape and color of the leaves, the size and taste of the fruits. Forms with early and late maturing buds have been identified.
Pests and diseases. The plant is resistant to pests and diseases.
Cultivation of planting material. Loch multiflorous reproduces by seeds, layering and dividing the bush. Seeds (bones) differ from seeds of other plants - with grooves, elongated, in the form of "sticks", narrowed towards the ends.
Seed propagation is the easiest and most affordable for amateur gardeners, and although the seedlings do not repeat the characteristics of the mother plant, deviations are often in the direction of useful properties.
After harvesting the fruits, two days later, the seeds are washed from the pulp and stored until stratification in paper bags in a cool room. In October, they are mixed with wet river sand or sawdust (also wet) and kept buried in the soil at a depth of 20-30 cm until sowing. In winter, this place should have a snow cover of up to 1 m. A month before sowing, the seeds are dug up, scattered together with substrate in a thin layer on plastic wrap and constantly moisten. Sprouted seeds are sown in greenhouses, hotbeds or boxes in the apartment. With good care during the summer, seedlings grow 30-50 cm high. For the winter, they are carefully covered or, after a dormant period (30 days after the onset of stable negative temperatures), they are transferred to a heated room for growing. When 3-4 shoots grow on the seedlings, and the length of the roots reaches 20-22 cm, the plants are transplanted to a permanent place in the garden.
Breeding methods for gumi (multiflora sucker)
You can propagate gumi on your own in several ways:
Loch multiflorous is quite simple and quick to propagate with the help of green cuttings. Shoots are cut for them from 10 to 20 June. At this time, a growth of 20-30 cm long has already formed on the shoots. Each cuttings should have from 1 to 2 pairs of leaves. Before planting, they are placed in a solution of substances that help the formation of roots (indoleacetic acid or indolylbutyric acid).
Cuttings are planted on beds with a layer of sand 4-6 cm high and placed at a distance of 7 cm from each other. With the onset of the autumn months, young bushes will have from 5 to 8 shoots about 4 cm long.
Since the branches of this culture lying on the ground develop roots rather quickly, it is not difficult to get new plants from cuttings. To do this, not very deep grooves are made on the surface of the earth, in which low-lying shoots are laid and covered with earth with a layer of 10 to 15 cm. At the same time, the end of a branch about 30-40 cm long is left free. By autumn (after 3 months) many roots 5-15 cm long appear on them. Rooted shoots are separated from the bush next spring and planted in a permanent place.
Also, this culture can be propagated using seeds, which are sown on prepared beds in the fall (before the onset of the first frost). This method is well suited for those who are passionate about plant introductions and are trying to adapt this southerner to colder climates.
Perhaps this is all that I wanted to tell about the reproduction of gumi. And, as you can see, there is nothing difficult in obtaining your own planting material, you can easily propagate the multifloral sucker on your own. Good luck in the garden!(3 estimates, average: 4,67 out of 5)
A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
In Japan, the fruits of the multiflower sucker (gumi) are traditionally considered the berries of health and longevity, because in addition to vitamin C, they contain essential amino acids. In the same row, in addition to gumi, there are akigumi (umbrella sucker) and nava-sirogumi (prickly sucker).
Navashirogumi is a subtropical plant and is practically not grown in our country. Loch umbrella is known in the south of Russia as "Abkhazian barberry", sheferdiya. Under these names, it has been grown there for a long time. In the west, it has varieties, including yellow-fruited.
I grow non-varietal gumi, last year I got 6 kg of berries from three bushes. It is difficult to find varietal plants here, and, as far as I know, no one has the official right to sell them. In this regard, my advice: do not chase expensive varieties (besides, they may be dubious from private owners), but buy gumi plants on the market - various gardening fairs allow you to purchase inexpensive seedlings.
Usually gumi hibernates under the snow, although in severe winters it can be seriously frozen. The plant has a superficial root system, and this is very handy, since groundwater is close to my site. To insulate the roots and a favorable water regime, I pour a layer of mulch around the bushes.
In my opinion, the biggest difficulty with growing gumi - forming a bush.
If it is not cut off and allowed to grow freely, gumi forms a high and, moreover, strongly thickened crown, which is almost guaranteed to freeze in winter.
I grow gumi in stanza form. For the winter, I incline the young branches to the ground, pinning them with slingshots and covering them with spruce branches (a familiar gardener wraps them in plastic wrap with air bubbles). In bushes with large, abundantly fruiting branches, it is convenient to put a low (about 0.5 m) fence - in the summer the fruiting branches lean on it, and in the winter I carefully tuck them under the fence.
In the spring, I again pull out and cut the bush, removing the shoots broken by the snow, and under their weight they contribute to the formation of the stanza crown, so I leave them. In summer, the crown height of gumi barely exceeds 1 m with branches up to 1.7 m long. These main branches live in my area for only 3-5 years, since they accumulate damage, despite the fact that the wounds heal without problems.
Fruit gumi ripen at the same time as early blackcurrant varieties. Theoretically, they can hang on the bush for a very long time, but a massive attack on them by wasps made me urgently harvest.
Contrary to the data, gumi berries are poorly stored in the refrigerator, becoming moldy faster than others. I didn’t like them when frozen.
I did not find any recipes for their preparation. Having improvised, he poured some of them with honey, some covered with sugar. After that, they told me that before pouring the honey, the berries should have been dried to prevent fermentation. For the same purpose, I put some rum on top of the cans. The billet with sugar did not try to ferment.
Since autumn 2009 I have been growing and akigumi.
Its flowers are very similar to the flowers of gumi, but they are collected in a brush, and it blooms for a longer time. Akigumi ovaries for a long time (from the end of May to the third decade of August) are the size of an apple seed and only then begin to grow. Perhaps their maturation and development is associated with the length of the day. My ripening began after the 20th of September and continued until the end of October. However, only about 40 fruits ripened.
It grows, but does not yet bear fruit in my garden and shepherdia. This plant does not tolerate any shading. The cultural form of the narrow-leaved sucker - jida - I acquired from Sergey Lazurchenko from Samara. There, the jida grows and bears fruit, but in the conditions of my site it grew very poorly. Now I am testing the seedlings.
In the photo above: 1. Gumi berry. 2. Akigumi blooms. 3. Fruiting Akigumi