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Growing dahlias in the North-West of Russia

Growing dahlias in the North-West of Russia


Perhaps, now there is no such garden in which in the summer and at the beginning of autumn bright multi-colored balls of dahlias would not please the eye. But this wonderful plant has a number of subtleties and secrets of cultivation. We will now talk about some of them, touching upon the entire cycle of work - from preparing tubers for planting and to digging them up before the arrival of cold weather.

Some varieties of dahlias wake up early and very actively after winter dormancy. True, they will bloom earlier. It is very good if at the end of March the tubers only show "eyes" - buds; then they can be kept at rest for another 3-4 weeks, and then put on vernalization (similar to potatoes). But in the conditions of a city apartment, it is very difficult to give peace at the end of March for another 3-4 weeks - it is warm in the apartments!

And then the only way to preserve the variety is to start grafting. As they say, every cloud has a silver lining, because cuttings allow the tubers to rejuvenate and protect the variety from degeneration. Once every 3-4 years, it is imperative to heal the variety using the cuttings method. Plants grown from cuttings retain all varietal characteristics, have great vitality, allowing you to get a full-fledged flowering bush, and by autumn - a good compact tuber that has not accumulated "diseases of its parents".


The technique for grafting dahlias is simple:

1. Place the uterine tuber in the light to "green" the sprouts. This gives them further vitality.
2. A sprout with a height of 4-7 cm should be carefully cut off at the root collar with a sharp disinfected knife and immediately put into water no deeper than 1.5-2 cm. It is good for these purposes to use small dark pharmacy bubbles.
3. If the sprout is very long, like a lace, do not be upset, do not throw it away - it also wants to live and will be grateful for the life presented to you: cut it into separate segments of two internodes and put it in the water. In this case, two stepsons will go from the sinuses of the second internode at once, which will be the trunks of the bush.
4. A few days later, a callus-ring thickening will appear around the cut, from which roots will develop in the future.
5. When the root tubercles are clearly visible, the cuttings can be planted in the ground. The ground should be fluffy and warm. You can use a standard microsteam to prepare the mixture with the addition of sand and fine sawdust in a ratio of 3: 1: 1. Sawdust must be steamed in advance so as not to add any mushrooms, rot, etc. to the mixture. At home, cuttings should be planted in small containers - glasses and boxes of yogurt, sour cream, milk. So it is more convenient to look after them and transport them in the future.
6. For several days, keep the planted cuttings covered with transparent glasses or jars (suitable for mayonnaise). But so that the cuttings do not suffocate, they must be opened at least once a day for airing.
7. Proper watering is very important for cuttings, because they do not tolerate stagnant water - they will rot. But underwatering can also weaken them. Cuttings need a constant regime - they should not experience stress. 8. When the cuttings are well rooted, you need to remove the shelter. With this technology of cuttings, lunges are 5-30%.

You can use growth substances such as heteroauxin, then rooting occurs faster and there are fewer attacks.

When the time comes to plant the tubers in the ground, cuttings can also be planted, only all the dressings for them should be twice as weak. It is even better if the cuttings grow for the first year in clay pots - this contributes to the compactness of the future tuber. Everything was taken out to the dacha, the time has come for planting - this is from 5 to 15 June, that is, after return frosts.

True, you can "stick" the tubers in covered greenhouses so that they do not wither. Dahlia transplants are tolerated at any "age", naturally, with abundant preliminary watering and careful selection of a tuber with a clod of earth. Dahlias grow well and bloom in 1-2 stems, therefore, the excess must be removed.


Planting dahlia tubers

A hole with dimensions of 30x30x30 cm is filled with 2-3 kg of rotted manure, compost: 15-20 g of complete mineral fertilizer and 70-100 g of ash. All this must be thoroughly mixed, spilled with water and the tuber must be planted without deepening it. It is good to immediately poke a stake for a garter.

Top dressing

The first top dressing serves to build up the vegetative mass, since nitrogen should prevail in it. It can be 15-20 g / bush of ammonium nitrate or 10 g of urea. It is better to do all dressings in liquid form. In terms of time, this is the end of June. The second top dressing goes to the laying of buds and flowering - this is slurry (1: 3: 3) weed infusion (1: 6), you can add superphosphate (in the form of an extract). This feeding is carried out two weeks after the first, i.e. until July 15. The third dressing should promote flowering and ripening of tubers:

- slurry, herbal infusions
- superphosphate 15-20 g
- potassium sulfate 15-20 g

Solution consumption - about 10 liters per 3 bush. This is the last feeding, and in terms of time - the beginning of August. At the end of August, before frost, it is recommended to sprinkle a little superphosphate, ash around the bush and sprinkle the plant to a height of 15-20 cm. This will protect the neck from frost.

Throughout the growing season, dahlias require careful garters due to the fragility of the stems. It is recommended to remove all the leaves from the bottom to a height of 40 cm and break the stepchildren from the ground to this level - so that there is good ventilation of both the soil around the bush and the bush itself. Then you will have beautiful plants and healthy tubers suitable for winter storage.

The flowering of dahlias depends on all of the above factors; but for yourself you must decide the question - either the bush will bloom profusely, or you need flowers for cutting: in the first case, when the peduncles are formed, the central bud is removed, but the other two will bloom earlier; and if you need a flower for cutting, then, on the contrary, they remove both side buds, thereby lengthening the peduncle of the central bud. But summer comes to an end. The frost was severe and the dahlias were completely blackened. This is a signal to dig up tubers. This is where the main work begins. They delighted you with their bright colors, now it's your turn to take care of them.


Digging and preparing for storage

1. When digging up the tubers, cut off the stems and gently undo the tuber. Sampling should be done only with a pitchfork or a shovel, in no case pulling the stems. If you tear them off or damage the neck, the tuber will not be stored, the neck will rot. This procedure is best done in dry weather.

2. Thoroughly rinse the tuber, dry in the breeze for 4-8 hours, depending on the weather, carefully cut off all thin (thinner than a pencil) roots.

3. Divide the root by the number of stems; cut the stems with a garden saw to 1 cm. It is necessary to divide the tuber into parts (sections) so that there are 1-2 "eyes" on each section. This should be done with a sharp knife, having previously outlined the boundaries of the cut. Places of cuts should be greased with brilliant green, or rubbed in with crushed coal. Of course, this creates a lot of waste, but the game is worth the candle!

4. All received delenki are marked with a felt-tip pen, chemical pencil or a special pencil-marker. Then, for 7-10 hours, the cuttings are left to dry the incision sites.

5. In a water bath it is necessary to warm up the paraffin, it would be nice to add 10-20% of the wax; and then very quickly dip the delenochka into it, first with one end, and then with the other. The diapers are covered with a thin and durable paraffin "stocking", which will protect them from drying out for 5-6 months.

6. Each piece should be wrapped in newspapers and tightly packed in a cardboard box, in which they will be stored until spring, either on the window or at the balcony door, i.e. in any cool place in your apartment. It is important that the temperature is approximately constant, without sharp fluctuations, and the lower the temperature, the longer the rest period. The optimum storage temperature is 2-6 ° C. In this way, I process dahlias of all varieties, making exceptions for the profusely blooming ones - Exotic, Cherrio, Salmon Raise, which I do not divide in the fall, but wax whole.

At first glance, this technology is gimmicky. But it gives a high safety of the planting material. Naturally, tubers stored as a whole, and even in a good cellar, in the spring have a greater viability than delenki. But the tubers must be divided in the spring. So the chances of the shares will be equal. Good luck!

And here is a description of the varieties of the most popular dahlias this year:

Evelyn. White with a lilac center. Spherical, 8 cm, bush height 110 cm. Little leafy, universal purpose.

Barbara. Raspberry pompom, 5 cm, bush height 110 cm, universal purpose, good in arrangements, blooms profusely.

Nute d'Eme Donna Anna. Cactus, black and red, blooms profusely, 15 cm, bush height 120 cm, medium leafy, universal use.

Laurie Day. Bright lilac with a pink tint, 8 cm, bush height 110 cm, blooms profusely, universal use.

Bonnie Blue. Bright lilac spherical, 8 cm, bush height 110 cm. It blooms profusely, universal, unpretentious.

Hope. Pure pink with a silvery shade, spherical, 7 cm, bush height 110 cm, little leafy. Universal purpose.

Cherrio. Juicy crimson with a silvery tip, cactus-like, blooms profusely. Universal purpose.

Triumph de Paris... Orange-yellow, nymphaean, 10-12 cm, bush height 130 cm. Universal use. In memory of Franz Vodyak. Bright orange with a darker center, chrysanthemum-like, 18 cm, bush height 110 cm. Good for gardening and cutting. Blooms profusely.

Golden Charm. Delicate yellow (chicken), nymphaean, 15-18 cm, bush height 110 cm. Universal use.

Lucky Nable. Dark lilac, spherical, 14 cm, bush height 120 cm. The bush is powerful, blooms profusely. Universal purpose.

Phantom. Bright purple with white tips, 18-20 cm, bush height 140 cm, decorative, universal.

Rosella. Pink-silver (like Lotus), nymphaean, 12 cm, bush height 130 cm, blooms very profusely. Universal purpose.

Zane. Bright crimson with a white border. Collar, 10-12 cm, bush height 140 cm. Universal use.

Read also:
Growing annual dwarf dahlias

V. Shevchuk, florist
Photo by the author


Dahlias

Dahlias are one of the few fast growing flowering plants with the most varied color and shape of flowers. For their cultivation, they choose sunny places, protected from cold and strong winds. Plants are not grown in low and swampy areas. The site chosen for the dahlia must be illuminated by the sun for at least six hours a day. The planting distance depends on the height and shape of the bush of a particular variety.

Depending on the variety and age, dahlia tubers may differ in size and type, but all planting cuttings should be dense, elastic, not wrinkled and not dried out, thickened roots (tubers) - firmly connected to the base. But by themselves, well-preserved tubers do not germinate without buds. Therefore, the standard planting division of hergin should have a small piece of last year's stem, turning into a root collar with slightly hatched buds, and 2-4 nodules.

If you are buying dahlias for the first time, then it is better to choose already sprouted tubers. Very large root tuber nests should not be purchased and planted without dividing. In such plants, many thin shoots are formed, a lot of greenery, all the strength is spent on vegetative growth, while the flowering worsens and the inflorescences become smaller. In addition, over time, diseases accumulate in tubers that have not been shared for a long time, and in the fourth year the plant dies during winter storage.

Dahlias are thermophilic plants and in the open field they are planted in well-warmed ground when the threat of frost has passed. Tubers purchased in advance can be germinated along with seedlings of vegetable crops in greenhouses, hotbeds, or simply in pots on light windows. In the conditions of central Russia, grown dahlias are planted in open ground from June 1 to 10. Planting earlier requires shelter from the spring frost.

Dahlias grow on any soil, but humus-rich garden loam, pH 6.5-6.7, is optimal for them. Good for dahlias and fertilized sandy soil. The site intended for dahlias is dug up in the fall, and dug up in the spring. The tuber is planted in a hole in depth equal to the bayonet of the shovel. Put in the hole, if required by the soil, rotted manure, 20-30 g of superphosphate. Before planting in open ground, the tuber is planted in pots on a windowsill or in a greenhouse. Previously, no more than two buds should be left on each tuber, in the future, the remaining shoots are broken out so as not to weaken the growth of the main ones. When properly planted, the root collar should be 2-3 cm below the soil level. After planting, the plant is tied to a solid support 1-1.3 meters high. Pinching (stopping growth) should be carried out after the formation of 4-5 pairs of leaves.

For earlier flowering, it is necessary to regularly remove the appearing stepchildren - lateral shoots growing in the leaf axils. Starting from the fourth pair of leaves, side shoots are left to form a bush. Low grades do not stepchild. To obtain a larger number of inflorescences suitable for cutting, the main shoot is pinched above the fourth pair of leaves, the formed upper lateral shoots - above the second. The central bud is removed, which leads to lengthening and hardening of the peduncle, and an increase in the size of the inflorescences. If the inflorescences have not been cut, then they are removed as soon as they begin to fade.

Top dressing is carried out no earlier than 5-7 days after planting, after abundant watering, with an interval of 10 days. Since September, watering and feeding are stopped. Dahlia are dug in late September - early October, depending on the weather, immediately after the complete death of the aboveground part from severe frosts. Before digging, the stems of the plants are cut at a height of 3-4 cm from the root collar. Reproduction: cuttings, dividing the tuber and very rarely grafting.

Of the pests on dahlias, there is a slobbering penny, aphids, flower beetles, slugs. Diseases: viral mosaic, powdery mildew, bacterial cancer, gray rot.

During the winter they are stored in boxes (80x50x60 cm) lined with thick paper. At the bottom, earth is poured with a layer of 3 cm, tubers are laid out in rows on top of it and completely covered with a layer of earth. On top, you can lay another layer of tubers covered with earth. The filled drawer is closed by the raised edges of the paper.

There are several options for storing tubers in winter:

  • On shelves in the subfloor at a temperature of 3-6 ° C and a relative humidity of 70%. To avoid air stagnation, turn on the fan for 20-30 minutes three times a week.
  • Cellars and cellars with a temperature of plus 1-7 ° C and a relative humidity of 80-100%. In such conditions, the planting material dries out less and does not germinate ahead of time.
  • Dry and cool rooms, such as basements with a temperature of 1-10 ° and a humidity of 50-80%. Filling all the voids, disinfected tubers are covered with sand, crushed peat, coniferous sawdust, vermiculite or perlite.
  • In dry and warm rooms (apartment, heated cellar), tubers should be placed in small plastic bags, sprinkled with very dry insulating material (perlite, vermiculite, peat). The filled bag is tied tightly.
  • In the basement, a place is fenced off and a flooring is made of boards. Plants dug in dry weather are placed in coniferous sawdust without drying. The aboveground part is cut to a height of 35-40 cm. If the plants were dug up in rainy weather, the sawdust is not moistened.

Low-growing varieties are suitable for creating ridges, borders, arrays.Most of the varieties are used in free compositions and group plantings, in a single one they are spectacularly abundant or large-flowered. Varieties with long and strong peduncles are used for cutting.

Dahlia garden classification

Intensive breeding work carried out in many countries of the world for two centuries has led to the creation of a huge number of dahlia varieties - now there are already several tens of thousands of them. They are so diverse that it became necessary to classify them in garden.

In Brussels in 1962, an international classification was developed and adopted, which replaced the old national ones. According to this classification, all varieties of dahlia are divided into 10 sections, groups or classes: 1 - non-double, 2 - anemone, 3 - collar, 4 - peony, 5 - decorative, 6 - spherical, 7 - pompon, 8 - cactus, 9 - semi-cactus , 10 - transitional (mixed). To one or another section, varieties are ranked according to the characteristics of terry, structure and shape of inflorescence and shape of petals.

In 1983, the main botanical garden of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published a new classification in the reference edition "Flower-ornamental plants" edited by V. N. Bylov: on the basis of which dahlia varieties are combined into 12 classes. 1 - single row, 2 - anemone, 3 - collar, 4 - peony, 5 - straight cactus, 6 - cactus with curved petals, 7 - spherical, 8 - pompom, 9 - decorative, 10 - nymphaean, 11 - mixed, 12 - semi-cactus.

Currently, botanical species are not used in culture, giving way to varieties of hybrid origin combined under the name: Dahlia cultural, or variable (Dahlia × cultorum Thorsr. Et Reis.). More than 15,000 varieties are known.


Gold in our garden

More and more often on our wonderful site you can find stories about the successful cultivation of various exotic fruits and vegetables. A lot of seven-day and seven-day workers tell how they grow watermelons, grapes, cherries and other pepino with luffa in various corners of our vast Motherland, and where the climatic conditions are completely unsuitable for these plants.

So I decided to try growing corn this year. What is so exotic about it, you ask. Yes, actually, nothing like that, except that I was going to grow it in the North-West. The growing season for maize is 90 to 150 days. At the same time, the optimal temperature for growing it is from 20 degrees, and it loves the sun very much, it will not grow in the shade. Of course, it can be grown as a screen to cover plants from the winds or to feed animals. But I had another goal - to get the cobs of gold grains. My daughter loves boiled corn very much.
I chose Megaton F1 corn with a ripening period of 85-90 days, as it was stated - super sweet. To speed up the process, I sowed the seeds in peat pots, while sowing very late - in mid-May. The seedlings appeared very amicably - out of 10 grains, 8. At the beginning of June I planted pots with sprouts 10-12 cm high in the ground. The process began. Caring for this plant is simple - timely weeding and hilling. Look at which giants are above 2 meters.

Unfortunately, August let the month down - there was very little sun, a lot of precipitation and quite cool. As a result, the ears are not fully ripe.
Of course, it was possible to eat them, but the taste was not enough. However, even so I can confirm that the variety is really sweet, which is very pleasing.

I made 2 mistakes in cultivation, in my opinion, of course. Although experts may disagree with me, there are only two. The first mistake is sowing the seeds late. The second is the rationing of the cobs on the stem, or rather its absence. If I had removed the second ear, the upper one, when it was small, the plant would have had enough strength to ensure that one, the first ear, received enough nutrition and matured. I even asked a question on the site - is it possible to accelerate the ripening of corn or ripen it, like tomatoes, for example. But after walking around the Internet, I realized that rationing is the only way.
Check out the beauties we gathered last week! My daughter ate with great pleasure! And how many emotions were there when we were "breaking" corn in the garden!

It has already been decided - I will repeat the experiment on growing corn next year!
Do you like corn?


How to grow dahlias in the country: soil preparation

Preparing the soil for dahlias is carried out in advance. During autumn digging, compost and humus are introduced into it at the rate of 3-5 kg ​​per 1 m3. In the spring, mature compost with the addition of wood ash is scattered over the entire area and the soil is loosened with a rake. If you did not have time to do this preparation, fertilizer can be applied to the planting holes before planting.

Dahlias are demanding on the soil.It must be fertile, permeable, with a good loose structure, well-drained, so that water does not stagnate in it. Stagnant water can lead to decay of roots and tubers. In this case, you will not be able to save the dahlias for planting next year.

The reaction of the soil should be neutral or slightly acidic. Too acidified soil is corrected by liming - the introduction of slaked lime. If the soil has an alkaline reaction, it must be acidified - add a small amount of peat.

It is very important that the groundwater is not too close to the soil surface. This will also lead to rotting of the underground part of the plants. Water should not rise higher than 60-70 cm from the surface.

In the process of growing dahlias in the country, keep in mind that these plants greatly deplete the land, since the formation of tubers requires a lot of nutrients and moisture. Therefore, it is undesirable to plant them for two years in a row in the same place. You should also not alternate over the years on the same site with dahlias with asters. These plants are very close, prone to the same diseases. Their alternation will lead to the accumulation of the pathogens of these diseases in the soil.

If the soil has low permeability, it can be corrected by introducing coarse river sand, gravel, fine screened coal slag and other materials that increase permeability. To improve the structure of the soil and increase its fertility, any organic matter is added to it.


How to germinate dahlias

Dahlias will bloom earlier if germinated before planting in the garden.

To do this, bring the dahlia tubers into a warm room. If you find fungal diseases, clean up the sore spots, treat them with brilliant green or colloidal sulfur powder. Divide carefully into divisions (2-3 eyes for each). Delenki can be planted in containers with soil or germinated by spreading out in a bright place and periodically sprinkling with water. Optimal conditions for germination are +22. +27 ° С and humidity 60%. If these conditions are met, germination occurs within 40-45 days.

The higher the room temperature, the less time it takes for the tuber roots to germinate. During germination, fluctuations in moisture are undesirable. At a moisture content of more than 60%, the roots will begin to grow actively, which may damage them during planting. At lower humidity, the tubers themselves may dry out.


Dahlias - photo, cultivation and care

  • Full photo

Dahlias photo

Full photo

Dahlias photo

Dahlias, photos of which can be seen so often today in photo albums of gardeners, in their wild form in India were previously used for food. The Indians did not eat the flowers themselves or their leaves and stems, but the tubers of these flowering plants.

In Europe, since 1787, this beautiful flower began to be used for decorative purposes, decorating flower beds with it in their gardens, planting in massifs or group plantings.

Give your dahlias a well-sunlit place, protected from wind blowing, but with good air circulation, and they will delight you with lush and bright blooms. At least these plants should receive six hours of sun per day.

In lowlands, on highly waterlogged soil, dahlias should not be grown. If you do not have a normal place in the garden, then you will have to raise the level of the flower beds for planting dahlias.

It is recommended to loosen the soil around the dahlia bushes after each watering, make sure that there are no weeds. When buds form on the plants, loosening is stopped and the soil is mulched with peat or humus.

In order for dahlias to bloom magnificently, the photos of which will later delight you in albums, you need to form their bushes. It is necessary, firstly, to break out the lateral stepsons in the leaf axils, and, secondly, to remove those shoots that grow from the root collar. If this is neglected, flowering will begin with a strong delay and will be weaker.

Around October, you will need to start harvesting dahlia tubers for winter storage. The best place for wintering will be basement conditions with a temperature of + 4-8 degrees. You can place the tubers in slightly damp sand or peat.


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