Growing cherry blossoms
Obtaining planting material from varieties of cherries of national selection
Rooted coppice cherry crop has been known for a long time. For industrial orchards, cherry overgrowth culture is unacceptable due to the low reproduction rate and the risk of contamination of plantings with low-yielding forms, and in home gardening, with careful selection of high-yielding healthy plants, from which planting material is harvested, cherry overgrowth culture can occupy a certain place, especially with a lack of grafted planting material.
The well-known old varieties of cherries of national selection Apukhtinskaya, Vladimirskaya, Rastunya, Shubinka, Korostynskaya and others, growing in coppice form in the form of bushes, form root shoots that retain all the properties of the variety and serve as a replacement for mother trees. This growth is used as planting material.
Undergrowth stands have some advantages over grafted ones, but at the same time they are not devoid of a number of disadvantages.
The advantages include a higher winter hardiness of plantings. And when growing cherries in areas with critical winters, where there is a possibility of freezing of the aboveground part of the plants, mother trees can be restored at the expense of the shoots that have grown around them.
The disadvantages include the later entry of trees into the season of fruiting in comparison with grafted trees, clogging of the rows of the garden with the formed shoots, the uprooting of which requires additional labor costs. In addition, one should take into account the fact that in self-rooted undergrowth plantations there are often forms with an undesirable deviation from typical varietal characteristics (low yield, small fruits). Such forms can be discarded even before abundant growth. Therefore, to obtain planting material, shoots are separated only from the sampled, selected in advance during fruiting, fruitful mother trees, which are distinguished by valuable qualities of fruits and high frost resistance.
Shoots are dug up in autumn and early spring (but better in spring). It is not recommended to take the growth that is located close to the trunk of the mother bush, as it usually has an underdeveloped aerial part and root system. In addition, when digging it up, the roots of the mother plant are severely damaged. The best offspring are 1-2 years old with a developed aerial part and a well-developed root system. They usually grow at some distance from the crown of the mother tree in a sufficiently illuminated place.
The technique of harvesting root shoots is as follows. In the spring, at some distance from the growth (15-20 cm), the root coming from the mother plant is chopped alternately on both sides, leaving it in place so that it forms its own root system. The fact is that the growth is formed on the roots of the uterine bush and feeds on it, and the resulting growing roots develop poorly in it, which negatively affects the survival rate.
In the fall or next spring, when the shoots are well rooted, they are dug up and sorted according to the strength of the development of the root system. Suckers with a well-developed root system are planted in a permanent place, and with weak roots - for growing. With proper care after a year, they are also suitable for transferring to the garden.
A bush of overgrown cherry is formed as follows: from the offspring growing closer to the trunk, 3-4 of the strongest, developed in a less shaded place, are left to replace fruiting aging plants. All other offspring are slaughtered annually.
From this time on, pruning of the mother plant should be carried out in such a way that the new branches on the offspring left to replace the old parts have more space. These branches, replacing an old bush, first form in the same way as a young grafted tree. The only difference is that their crown will be more one-sided, since the lateral branches appearing on them need to be directed outward from the bush and into a freer space. Thus, the coppice cherry turns into a bush with uneven-aged plants coming from the ground. As the young left undergrowth of the bush begins to bear fruit, and the original crown grows old, the mother plant is cut completely to the surface of the soil. By this time, you need to start preparing a new shift, leaving again 3-4 strong root suckers and shaping and pruning them accordingly. Since there are plants of different ages in the bush, the nature of the pruning also changes in relation to each of them.
Thus, coppice stands can remain in one place for a very long time, although it is necessary to take into account the depletion of the soil and aging of the root system, which in turn leads to the appearance of gum flow and other diseases and reduces the yield. Therefore, after three shifts, the bushes should be uprooted and the planting should be transferred to a new place.
It should be borne in mind that in many grafted trees with age (about 15-20 years), when large skeletal branches begin to dry out and gum flow appears, shoots from the rootstock begin to grow vigorously from the root - wild. Such growth cannot be used as planting material, it must be cut out or used as a rootstock, for grafting cultivars on it.
In recent years, one of the most promising and accelerated methods has been used for cherry propagation - propagation by green cuttings. The particular value of this method lies in obtaining rooted genetically homogeneous plants that repeat the varietal characteristics of the mother tree and cause a long life span and high yield. The development of this method of propagation has opened up more opportunities for obtaining and using a native-rooted cherry culture. All shoots formed in self-rooted plants propagated by green cuttings can be used as planting material.
G. Aleksandrova Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Re-shuffling cherry blossoms
Pereshkolka is the process of growing seedlings from seeds or shoots for further selection. A specially allotted area in the garden area, where the growing of varietal shoots, the digging of cuttings takes place, is called a school (analogy with a school).
It is more expedient to dig out one-year and two-year-old shoots of the best self-rooted varieties for re-schooling in autumn (in October) or early spring (in mid-April). When excavating, it is necessary to keep everything from drying out, even the smallest roots. This is achieved by the fact that the roots are immediately dipped in a clay chatterbox and the shoots are added in the same hole from where it was just taken out or into another groove. Moreover, each offspring must have at least rudimentary roots. It is better to plant the shoots to be transferred to the beds. Shoots with healthy fibrous roots and a stem at least 6 mm thick. can be planted permanently in the spring as soon as soil permits. Autumn planting of cherry blossoms is not always successful.
The grown coppice seedlings in the garden bed are dug up in the fall and stored in the near-kopochny area until spring and planted.
The shoots under the uterine bushes are not dug out, as in the first method, but only separated from the uterine bush, cutting the connecting root with a sharp shovel. The work is performed in the following sequence: first, the trunk circle is dug up to a depth of 18-20 cm and applied to 1 sq. meter of 5-10 kg of humus or compost. Then the rhizome is cut off from the mother bush and the shoots are divided among themselves, without removing it from the ground. Rooted suckers are watered and cut to a third of the length. With this method, most of the growth by the end of the first season gives normally developed seedlings.
With proper care, cherries will give anxious, caring owners a good harvest of sweet, aromatic berries.
Growing cherry blossoms - garden and vegetable garden
It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Of particular value are vitamins, which are either almost absent or present in small doses in other products. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that complicated. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.
So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.
To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.
They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.
Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.
Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.
Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is unsuitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.
Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).
Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small onions 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).
Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.
Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.
Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.
Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but it is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).
Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.
The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.
The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.
When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.
The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.
Growing cherry blossoms - garden and vegetable garden
Lyubskaya. Distributed in almost all cherry-growing countries. The trees are small, up to 3 m in height, with a rounded or spreading crown and drooping branches. The yield is high, annual. Refers to bush cherries.
Fruits are large, up to 5 g, heart-shaped, slightly compressed from the sides. The skin is shiny, dense, dark red. The pulp is dark red, with colored juice, juicy, sour. The fruits are suitable for fresh use and are universal for all types of processing.
The variety is self-fertile, but it is strongly affected by coccomycosis. It is zoned in all regions of Belarus and is the main industrial grade.
Novodvorskaya. Bred at BelNIIKPO by E. P. Syubarova by sowing seeds from free pollination of the cherry variety Seedling No. 1. A tree of medium growth vigor, with a wide and dense crown. Winter hardiness of trees is good. The leaves are affected by coccomycosis.
Fruits weighing 4-5 g, oval. The skin is shiny, dark red, almost black. The pulp is dense, with strongly colored juice, sweet and sour taste. The stone is small, lagging behind the pulp. The fruits ripen in the second half of July, for universal use.
The variety is partially self-fertile, but the highest yields are obtained when planted together with the best pollinators: Griot Ostgeimsky, Vladimirskaya, Local sour cherry. The variety is zoned throughout the republic.
Seedling No. 1. Bred at BelNIIKPO by E. P. Syubarova by selection of seedlings from free pollination of Local sour cherry. A typical representative of the Amorel group. The tree is vigorous, with a round, compact crown.
Fruits are medium-sized, up to 3 g, flat-round, light red. The pulp is light yellow, juicy, sweet and sour, with colorless juice. The bone is small, free. Ripen in the second half of June. The fruits are used fresh.
Winter hardiness of trees and flower buds is high. The variety is resistant to coccomycosis, self-fertile, bears fruit well even in single-variety plantations. Since 1954 it has been zoned throughout the republic as an early dessert variety.
Early pink, Cupid, Ogonek, Darkie - varieties of felt cherries. They grow well in Belarus. They are small compact bushes. Fruits ranging in size from 3.5 to 1.5 g, on a very short stalk, pleasant sour-sweet taste. They ripen in July and are mainly used for dessert. Recommended for home gardening.
The cherry is beautiful at the time of flowering. It is also beautiful by autumn, when it is densely sprinkled with bright fruits.
But it's not just beauty. Cherry fruits contain sugar, pectin, organic acids (mainly malic and citric), tannins, vitamins C, B, PP, carotene, folic acid, minerals: potassium, iron, magnesium, especially copper in cherries, anticoagulants, which have a destructive effect on blood clots in blood vessels.
Cherries grow on the plots of many amateur gardeners, but not all of them bear fruit every year. This culture is very demanding. Successful cultivation of it depends on the correct choice of a place for planting, selection of varieties, careful care. Mistakes made when planting cherry trees not only reduce the yield, but also lead to premature death of the trees.
- First of all - brief information about the varieties.
Variety Vladimirskaya. Harvest from one tree - 5 - 6 kg. Ripening period is average, fruit weight 2.5 g. Good winter hardiness.
The variety is Lyubskaya. Harvest - 10 - 12 kg. Ripening later. Fruit weight 3.5 g. Average winter hardiness.
Moscow Griot variety. Harvest - 6-8 kg. Early ripening. Fruit weight 3.0 g. Average winter hardiness.
Zagorievskaya variety. Harvest - 6 - 8 kg. Ripening period is average. Fruit weight 4.0 g. Average winter hardiness.
The variety is youth. Harvest - 8 - 10 kg. Ripening period is average. Fruit weight 4.5 g. Good winter hardiness.
Prima variety. Harvest - 10-14 kg. Ripening later. Fruit weight 3.5 g. Average winter hardiness.
Turgenevka variety. Harvest - 8 - 10 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 4.5 g. Average winter hardiness.
Variety Zhukovskaya. Harvest - 4 - 6 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 3.2 g. Average winter hardiness.
Rososhanskaya black variety. Harvest - 6 - 8 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 3.5 g. Average winter hardiness.
The consumer goods grade is black. Harvest - 4-5 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 4.0 g. Low winter hardiness.
All proposed varieties grow well and bear fruit in the middle lane. The main varieties are Vladimirskaya and Lyubskaya. They complement each other well. Cherry Vladimirskaya - medium ripening, Lyubskaya - late. Vladimirskaya surpasses Lyubskaya in terms of the winter hardiness of the crown, the taste of fruits, but inferior to it in terms of the winter hardiness of fruit buds, yield and size of the fruit. Varieties Turgenevka and Prima are highly resistant to a dangerous disease - coccomycosis. Molodezhnaya attracts with its short stature, Zhukovskaya and Consumer goods black - with the dessert taste of fruits.
Most cherry varieties give high yields only when inter-pollinated varieties are planted. Varieties Lyubskaya, Zagoryevskaya, Molodezhnaya are self-fertile. They can grow and set fruit without pollinators, even in cool rainy weather. However, with cross-pollination, the yield is higher.
I will list the best pollinators by varieties: Vladimirskaya - Griot Moscow, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Lyubskaya - Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Griot Moscow - Vladimirskaya, Polevka Zagorievskaya
Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Zhukovskaya Griot Moscow, Vladimirskaya, Shubinka Consumer goods black —Griot Moscow, Vladimirskaya, Shubinka Molodezhnaya —Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Rososhanskaya black —Vladimirskaya, Consumer goods black, Zhukovskaya Prima —Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Vladimirskaya Turgenevka Consumer goods are black.
By the nature of growth and the type of fruiting, cherry varieties are divided into two groups - bushy and tree-like. Bushy varieties (Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya, Molodezhnaya) bear fruit on annual growths - shoots of the previous year. On very strong growths (40 - 50 cm and more), only growth buds are usually laid. With a weak growth (up to 20 cm), all buds, except for one apical, are fruiting, therefore, after fruiting, the branches are bare. Growths of medium length (25 - 40 cm) are most valuable, since both growth and fruit buds appear on them.
In tree cherries (Zhukovskaya), the fruits are scattered on bouquet branches - short shoots (1-3 cm) with a bouquet of fruit buds and one growth bud. Bouquet branches develop from lateral growth buds. During the season, these branches form a short growth, on which fruit and growth buds are formed again. Bouquet twigs bear fruit 2 - 4 years
Growing cherry blossoms - garden and vegetable garden
In early spring, immediately after planting, do the first pruning to balance the seedling above the ground and its root system. Cut out low-lying branches so that the tree has a trunk (bole) 25 - 40 cm high. Then cut out broken, weak and branching branches at an acute angle into a ring (without leaving a hemp). For subordination, cut the main branches of the crown and the central conductor to 1 / 3-1 / 4 of the length. Cut the upper, more developed branches more strongly. Leave the center conductor 20-30 cm longer than the ends of the upper branches. During the first year, the planted plants only have time to take root. They give weak annual growth, therefore, in the second year cherry do not trim. In the next two to three years, remove dry branches on the ring, broken, hanging to the ground and growing inside the crown. Leave some of the new lateral ramifications that form on the center conductor as future skeletal branches. Do not shorten young shoots, especially in bush cherries , so as not to cause thickening of the crown. The formation of the crown ends by the time of entry cherries into fruiting. The total number of skeletal branches in the formed tree cherries - 8 -10, in formed bush cherries - 10 15. When bush cherries enter fruiting, strive to maintain growth and prevent crown loss. If the length of the increments is 30 - 40 cm, limit yourself to thinning. Cut into a ring (without leaving stumps) thickening branches growing inside the crown and intertwining. Do not shorten annual shoots. This can lead to excessive thickening of the crown and drying out of the shortened shoots. If the length of annual growths is not more than 15 - 20 cm and the branches begin to become bare, carry out a rejuvenating pruning: cut the old branches into a strong lateral branch. If you want to raise a branch, cut it to a branch pointing upwards to lower it to a branch directed to the periphery.
Unlike bush cherries in arborescent trees, shortening of annual increments is permissible. Shorten last year's shoots 40-50 cm long to enhance branching and stimulate the development of strong bouquet branches from the lower buds. For older trees, do anti-aging pruning: Prune old branches into strong lateral ramifications. Do not shorten weak growths, this will not improve the growth of shoots.
When pruning heavily thickened trees, it is better to remove a few large branches rather than a large number of smaller ones. Do not be afraid of damaging the crop by pruning. Even a strong thinning does not reduce the yield, since fruit buds, as a rule, do not form in shaded places near cherries. Don't remove many branches in one year. If there is a lot of pruning, it is better to stretch it out for two to three years. Heavy pruning can significantly weaken the tree and cause gum leakage.
In nurseries cherry propagated by layering, green cuttings and grafting on the stock. The gardener needs to know how his seedlings were obtained. You can distinguish rooted cherries from grafted cherries by root suckers. The root shoots of grafted trees, when compared with an adult tree, have a different color of shoots and leaves (darker or lighter), a different shape, the size of buds and leaves (larger or smaller). Root growth of own-rooted cherry does not differ in appearance from an adult cherry.
After harsh winters cherry trees often have to be restored. In a grafted tree with significant crown death or complete death of the aerial part, leave two or three root suckers of different ages. Root shoots of grafted cherries are already wild shoots, they must be grafted. In the spring, usually at the end of April-beginning of May, inoculate 1-2-year-old root suckers without lateral branches, with both improved copulation. In the future, when side ramifications appear, begin to form a crown.
If the wilds have an already formed crown, cut off the skeletal branches and graft them with cuttings of the best varieties. Twist at a distance of 10-15 cm from the base of the branch using a side cut or improved copulation with a tongue. Prepare cuttings for grafting from autumn before the onset of frost. Store them up to weight in a snow pile or in a refrigerator tray. In the third year, the over-grafted branches begin to bear fruit. In the following years, they give higher yields compared to newly planted young trees. cherries .
Own-rooted (coppice) cherries in contrast to the grafted, the aboveground and root systems belong to the same cultivar. The offspring that have appeared near their own rooted cherry retain all the characteristics of the old mother plant. Therefore, in the event of the death of a significant part of the crown or the death of the entire aboveground part, the variety can be quickly restored due to overgrowth. Leave 2 - 3 most developed offspring, removing the rest on the ring to the mother's root. For the first two years, the offspring grow strongly and branch poorly. To enhance branching, shorten one-year growths by 1/3 to 1/4 of the length. Subsequently, shape and prune the plants in the same way as other seedlings.
Growing felt cherries
Before talking about growing felt cherries in the garden, we will devote quite a bit of time to the history of the origin and description of this plant.
Felt cherry is native to northern China and is widespread in the Far East. Felt cherry berries contain a lot of carbohydrates, organic acids, as well as vitamins, including ascorbic acid.
This type of cherry got its name due to the fact that its leaves below and bark are covered with short hairs, like felt. A shrub with a spreading crown and dark gray bark, the height of the bush is about two meters. Cherry leaves are oval, about 5 cm long and 3.0 - 3.5 cm wide, corrugated, the edges of the leaves are serrate-toothed. Berries - juicy drupe, red, about 10 mm in size, round or oval. The flowering of the shrub begins in April - May, lasts 10-14 days, and the ripening of the crop is 10-14 days earlier than ordinary cherry.