How to cover the roof with slate
Some secrets of using the popular slate roofing material
Probably, in our time there is no person who would not know that asbestos is a mineral harmful to health. And nevertheless ... With the current abundance of roofing materials (just choose!), Slate, the basis of which is just harmful asbestos, remains one of the most demanded. Under Soviet rule, the popularity of slate was quite understandable: the widespread shortage of other roofing materials (except, perhaps, roofing material) did not leave the builders a choice - only these two. In order to be convinced of this, it is enough to look at the rural, garden and country houses of those times. Their roofs are almost everywhere - slate. Why is this harmful and obsolete material still in demand today? This is due to two reasons: the cheapness of the material and the ease of its installation. And since the overwhelming majority of Russians do not pay attention to the environment, this naturally applies to asbestos slate.
The slope of the roof under the slate roof ranges from 25 to 45 degrees: the steeper the slope, the lower the waterproofness of the roof. The lathing for the roof is made of bars with a cross section of at least 50x50 millimeters and boards of the same thickness, with a distance between the rafters up to 1 meter. Since every developer, of course, is interested in ensuring that the roof is operated without problems for as long as possible, then when installing a roof, it is also important what material is laid on the crate, on which the slate is laid on top.
Such a lining material is necessary in order to prevent snow and rain from entering the side slots in case of strong winds and blizzards. In addition, as a result of temperature fluctuations, condensation inevitably forms on the slate, which drips onto the ceiling. If you follow the traditional outdated technology, then glassine or roofing felt are laid on the crate under the slate. And since glassine "breathes" very badly, and roofing material does not "breathe" at all, they also become a source of condensation. In addition, practice shows that, being in a confined space under the slate, cardboard-bitumen materials begin to deteriorate intensively after 12-15 years, turning into crumbs over time.
The use of modern non-woven lining materials, such as Tyvek, TechnoNikol, Yutakon, Stafol Kon, anti-condensation films, and many others will significantly extend the service life of a slate roof. Modern lining waterproofing materials combine three properties necessary to maximize the life of the roof: air tightness - like polyethylene, "breathe" - like spunbond, do not let water through - like roofing felt.
It is clear that the cost of modern lining materials is much higher than the cost of the notorious roofing material and glassine. But here each developer must decide for himself: is it worth the candle? Slate roofing is laid in two ways: with displacement of sheets by one wave in each subsequent row, or more economical, but more laborious - displacement of each row relative to the other by half a wave and with cutting off the adjacent corners of slate sheets in order to ensure their snug fit to each other. friend.
Cutting corners is a very time consuming and tedious job. Twenty years ago, it was produced with an ordinary hacksaw for wood. This primitive method gave rise to not too even edges and not exactly the same corners of the joints. Now it is possible to use various disc cutting tools, such as the well-known "grinder". The order of stacking sheets without cut corners is shown in Figure 1. With cut corners - in Figure 2. The numbers show the sheet numbers. Each sheet is laid on the crate with an overlap of the previous row by 120-150 millimeters - depending on the slope of the roof. With an increase in the slope (steepness), the size of the overlap can be reduced, but leave it at least 70 millimeters.
The laid sheets are attached to the crate with 70-90 mm galvanized nails or screws. But both must be used with rubber seals or special washers, which reliably compensate for the deformation of the wood due to drying out, and the temperature deformation of the slate sheets themselves. Moreover, the slate sheets are nailed exclusively on the crests of the waves and in no case in the depressions, otherwise the roof leakage is ensured. For this, holes are pre-drilled on the crests of the waves that are 2-3 millimeters larger than the diameter of nails or screws. Hole punching is not permitted. The very fastening of slate sheets to each other and to the lathing is shown in Figure 3. The ridge and roof ribs are covered with ridge elements. For the installation of gutters, galvanized steel gutters are used.
Almost the same as in the case of the greenhouse net, but instead of it, a polypropylene cord or elastic band is used. Moreover, you need to tie up the greenhouse in the form of Z (between two parallel cords - one diagonally).
Quite a specific way, and therefore I will describe it in passing. Eyelets are a hole in the film reinforced with a metal or plastic ring. It is not suitable for ordinary film, only for strong and preferably with the addition of a cuff, which will not allow the eyelet to break through the material.
If you have your own interesting examples of attaching the film to the greenhouse - share with them in the comments.
We will send the material by mail
In the article, we will consider how to cover the greenhouse with a film with our own hands, we will tell you what methods of attaching a translucent material exist, what technologies help to quickly and correctly pull the film onto the shelter frame. After reading the material, everyone will be able to calculate the amount of materials needed and choose the most appropriate way to create a favorable microclimate for thermophilic plants.
Film, polycarbonate or glass: which is better
Even at the initial stage, it is important to decide what is the best way to cover the greenhouse with a film or covering material of a denser texture. The choice becomes much easier if the priorities are set correctly. When the greenhouse is assembled in the spring for growing seedlings, you can do with a film. She is the cheapest cover material that can be assembled in a couple of hours. One person can handle the job.
In winter, the film is removed, the ground is exposed, covered with snow, saturated with moisture. This has a beneficial effect on the ecosystem of the site. In greenhouses of a closed type, in the absence of heating, the soil freezes to the deepest layer, which causes the death of microorganisms, the vital activity of which improves the quality of the soil.
If you plan to use the greenhouse during frosts, you can cover it with polycarbonate sheets. This is a durable material, easily withstands wind and snow loads, reliably protects plantings from weather influences.
It is chemically inert, so it is allowed to use the whole range of chemical fertilizers inside such a greenhouse. The special structure of the material provides high thermal insulation characteristics, but it transmits little light, so the inside of the greenhouse has to carefully think over artificial lighting and then increase the cost of electricity.
In the hot season, there is a need to close the shelter from bright daylight. It greatly heats up the temperature inside the greenhouse, which is bad for plant growth. Anyone who understands how to cover a polycarbonate greenhouse from the sun easily copes with the problem of preserving the harvest. Reflective sheeting is usually used in such situations. It fits right on top of the building frame.
When the question is, how to cover the greenhouse besides polycarbonate, glass is usually chosen. This is the most expensive way of organizing plant growing during the cold season, but the most effective one. Usually it is used mainly for organizing year-round plant cultivation.
Its choice is considered impractical from an economic point of view, if the greenhouse "works" periodically, from time to time. In situations where the shelter is used from May to October, it is best to cover it with foil. This design has its own characteristics, understanding them allows you to get the most out of it.
The protective shelter, which is created with the help of a frame and a film, is used only for growing seeds, seedlings of garden crops. It absorbs the rays of the sun and converts them into heat energy. It is always a few degrees warmer inside the greenhouse than outside, even without additional heating. Its installation helps to form a microclimate favorable for the growth of garden crops. The shelter reliably protects crops from weather precipitation, strong winds, prevents the penetration of insects that can harm seedlings or adult plants.
In order for the greenhouse to work efficiently, during its installation, it is necessary to correctly calculate the amount of covering material. To do this, you need to make calculations and make the correct measurements. It is easier to solve the set tasks when the length of the frame and the width of the covering material are known.
On our website you can get acquainted with the most popular projects of summer cottages - from construction companies presented at the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
If the design of the greenhouse is of an arched type, the length of the canvas should be equal to the length of the arc. When the greenhouse has a pitched roof frame, the film is calculated taking into account the height of the walls and the length of the slopes. The resulting figure should be equal to the length of the film. To find out how many such pieces are needed in order to completely close the shelter, it is necessary to divide the length of the greenhouse by the width of the film. Since individual pieces are then overlapped, it is important to add 25 cm to the width of each piece (for allowances).
In order for the greenhouse cover to ensure the performance of its functions, it is important to pay attention to the following nuances:
- It is better to cut the covering material in place. It will be much easier to do this if you lay the roll next to the frame in width, and then throw it over the structure, pull it well on both sides, add 25 cm to the right and left to allowances, and only then cut the first piece.
- The second strip is cut in the same way. It is laid on top of the first overlap (25 cm) and fastened with construction tape.
- Cut as many pieces as needed to cover the greenhouse from start to finish.
- The ends are cut in the same way and also with 25 cm allowances.
- Doors and vents are cut out after installing and fixing the film.
Note! It is better to cut the film in calm weather, if the covering material sways and sags under the gusts of wind, it will not be possible to pull it properly.
Knowing how to cover a greenhouse with a film, it is not difficult to calculate the amount of covering material. But when buying it, it is important to look at what form it is sold in. The plastic wrap is standard width. It is equal to 150 cm. But some manufacturers sell rolls in the form of a sleeve. Before covering the greenhouse, you will have to cut it along one edge of the bend and unfold it.
On our website you can find contacts of construction companies that offer a service of installation of metal structures (sheds, greenhouses, etc.). You can communicate directly with representatives by visiting the Low-Rise Country exhibition of houses.
Characteristics of different films
When deciding how to cover the greenhouse, it is important to determine what functions it will perform: protect plantings from frost in winter or help seedlings in warmer seasons, ripen faster and bear fruit. Well-defined goals help you choose the right cover material.
Plastic wrap is suitable for covering greenhouses used during the warm season. It is removed for the winter, the frame is disassembled and re-installed in the spring. For such events, roll material with a thickness of 150-200 microns is most suitable.
Reinforced foil is ideal for those who want to set up a greenhouse once and then use it for three years without disassembling or removing the shelter for the winter. The density of this material is 150-200 g / m².
PVC film is a good choice for winter greenhouses. They help to grow plants even at -15 degrees below zero. During the day, the material does not allow sunlight to pass through, at night the film keeps heat well.
Frost-resistant film is used to create industrial greenhouses. It is able to serve for more than seven years, and does not stretch during the entire operational period. Easily withstands hail and is not damaged.
Gardeners, amateurs, studying the proposed range, often wonder what is the best way to cover the greenhouse. Experts advise using the first three types of film. They are inexpensive and can be used to quickly cover the greenhouse for growing a small amount of garden crops.
When cutting the film, its initial fastening is carried out using adhesive tape. It is impossible to leave the greenhouse like this: the first strong gust of wind will tear the cover. The correct choice of the type of fastening will help prevent this. It depends on what type of frame is used to create the shelter.
This might be interesting! Read the article on the following link on how to make a greenhouse.
Clamps and clips, for example, will help solve the indicated problem if the greenhouse frame is assembled using PVC pipes. They fix the film very tightly and do it without nails. Clips and clips are sold in specialized stores, but you can make your own from a plastic pipe. For this, workpieces with a length of 5 to 20 cm are cut with a hacksaw. Then the side part is cut off. It turns out a clip, you can see it in the next photo. To prevent the product from damaging the thin film, its edges must be sharpened.
Note! If a factory-made metal clip is used to attach the covering material, any thermal insulation material must be placed under it. It will not allow the heated metal to melt through the film on a hot day.
Not everyone knows how to attach the film to the greenhouse arches made of wood. The method of fixing the roll material is actually extremely simple:
- small wooden blocks 10 cm long are cut
- processed with sandpaper
- then wrapped in several layers with polyethylene film
- the first layer, the one that will come into contact with the greenhouse frame, is coated with rubber glue
- the bar is applied to the attachment point, and then, for reliability, is fixed with a self-tapping screw.
The presence of glue under the attachment point ensures a tight connection, which prolongs the life of the shelter. When there are no wooden slats at hand, they can be replaced by pieces of old linoleum or plastic tape, which is used for packing boxes. It is attached to a wooden frame with a construction stapler.
If you need to decide how to attach the film to the metal frame of the greenhouse created from the profile, you should use the following advice. It is better to fix the covering material with wooden bars, but they should be fastened with self-tapping screws not to the arc of the frame itself, but to the ends of the greenhouse, to its metal racks. When the greenhouse frame is assembled from reinforcement rods, the easiest way is to attach the film to it with office clothespins (these are used to fasten the sheets in the folder).
Slate laying technology
Also, the advantages of this material include the fact that the slate laying technology is quite simple, and qualified specialists are not required to install such a roofing material, anyone can do it on my own... Whereas roofing tiles or metal will require additional labor costs for trained workers.
Despite the lightness, the slate laying technology also has its own characteristics that must be taken into account if you need a high-quality roof. It is imperative to include steam and waterproofing, as well as insulation, in the design. On top of the multi-layer roofing cake, the slate should be laid directly. To support the roof, they use inclined beams - rafters, on top of which a crate is made, most often from wooden bars and boards, since slate itself is a light material. Roofing material is laid on the crate. Reinforced profile sheets are laid on a reinforced concrete lathing.
Slate laying begins with preliminary preparation of slate sheets. They look carefully for damage, fragments, cracks. The length and width of slate sheets are measured, holes for screws are drilled. The size of the sheets is adjusted to the size of the roof; if necessary, the slate can be easily cut off.
The slope of the roof slope must be within 12 to 45 degrees, the angle of the slope depends on how many slate sheets are needed, and what kind of slate laying technology will be used. Note that it is advisable to use slate roofing if the roof structure is simple.
Slate sheets are laid from the bottom up from the eaves to the ridge of the roof. With a large slope of the slope, the consumption of roofing material increases.
Slate is attached to the crest of the wave. The distance between the fasteners is at least 6 cm. The sheets are overlapped. Slate can be laid in two ways: offset sheet edges by one wave, offset sheet edges in all rows.
Fastening of roofing materials, slate
We fasten the asbestos-cement sheets to the crate with special "slate", or rather roofing nails. Unlike conventional ones, they have a widened head made of galvanized steel, resembling a button.
Drive the nail into the crest (highest part) of the leaf wave. We do not bend nails that have passed through the crate! It is not allowed to use long screws instead of nails!
The general view and elements of a simple gable roof covered with slate can be seen in the figure and photo. You can learn more about roofing from the relevant materials on the website. You can ask a question by following the link or in the comments.
Leave your tips and comments below. Subscribe to the newsletter. Good luck to you, and good to your family!
The width of the house is 10 m. I want to make not an attic, but a residential roof, cover with slate... The walls are new, I use a mauerlat and rafters 50 * 200. I am not an expert, I want to do it myself. Tell me step by step.
Dear Leo! Of course, we will not be able to paint the entire process of installing the rafter system, we would have to write too much, but the main points are as follows.
First, we decide on the type of roof. For the attic (the living space located in the attic is called the attic), a hipped roof (sometimes also called the attic) is better suited, the slope of such a roof first goes steeply, at an angle of about 70 degrees, and then goes into a flatter top. In cross-section, it has the shape of a pentagon with longer lateral sides. This configuration provides more interior volume than a conventional gable roof.
Rafters 50x200 are with a margin, 50x150 would be enough, with a step of the order of a meter. Mauerlat, i.e. the timber on which the rafters rest, take 80x150, or a little more.
The most important thing is to imagine exactly how the mating nodes will be executed - the support of the rafters on the Mauerlat, the upper knot (rafters and ridge beam). It is better to connect structures with inserts with additional fastening with metal elements (plates, corners, etc.), carpentry brackets are less reliable and inconvenient to work, besides, they chop wood. We fasten the metal with galvanized screws.
The sequence of work is as follows. First, we define the “theoretical” part, the presence of a detailed and well-designed project, as possible, is a prerequisite for the further normal functioning of the premises.
We begin installation with the installation of the Mauerlat (it is assumed that you have already completed the overlap of the first floor of the house), then we install the rafters on the Mauerlat.
The rafter truss is mounted in a "lying" position, so that the support "heels" of the rafters lie on the Mauerlat, at the attachment point, and then, already assembled, rises, turning 90 degrees. At the same time, the imaginary axis of rotation passes just through the attachment points, thus the truss immediately finds itself in the design position. Then, the rafter "pair" is fixed with temporary struts, the next one is installed, also nailed with a temporary strut (board) to the Mauerlat and to the already installed structure, and so on, until all the rafters are installed.
Next, we mount the ridge beam connecting all the rafters along the upper interface, and nail the crate. Since the roof will have an attic, we make the lathing "solid". Boards of 25 mm are enough, we lay them close to each other, if we use unedged ones, be sure to clean them of the remnants of the bark.
Further, we nail the hydro-barrier with an ordinary stapler. Finally, corrugated cement sheets, that is, slate. Then we hem the roof overhang with a wind board, install steel or plastic lining (aprons in the places where structures pass through the roof, for example, chimneys, ridge, gutters, etc.).
That's all. And already further, premises are arranged. It is up to you to decide how exactly to do this, whether to mount internal insulated walls in the attic, or whether the outer wall will be an insulated roof. As well as the design of the gables. Whether to make them from bricks, with insulation, or other material depends on the budget and preferences.
Pay particular attention to the places of passage through the roof of chimneys and ventilation ducts. And also to the node where the wall passes into the roof itself (roof overhang). These are the most "bottlenecks". They need to be accurately calculated and done as scrupulously and diligently as possible.
Do not be too lazy to treat all wooden parts with fire retardants (substances that prevent combustion), well, and antiseptics.
I wish you success in such a difficult but interesting business! :)
Installation of additional elements. Snow holders
After installing the corrugated board, it is necessary to install those additional elements that were not attached during the roof: ridge, ebb, corner strips, snow holders, etc.
Complementary elements for a roof made of corrugated sheets
Considering our climatic conditions with harsh and snowy winters, snow holders are an important element of the roof. Due to the high heat capacity of the profiled sheet, the lower layer of snow is flooded and there is a danger of its avalanche-like descent.
Installing snow holders with your own hands allows you to evenly distribute the load on the roof, ensuring safety and increasing thermal insulation due to the snow cover. Also, snow protectors protect the protective layer of the profiled sheet from damage by solid particles contained in the snow.
Snow holders will protect against snow from the roof in winter
Helpful advice!Considering the cost of snow holders, you can fix them not over the entire surface of the roof, but in the most important places: above the paths and entrances to the building.
Snow holders have different sizes and designs, the choice of which is determined by the average height of the snow cover of the area, as well as by the characteristics of the roof. It should be remembered that the installation of snow guards does not free the roof from the snow on a regular basis.
Based on the information received and the video materials presented, you can easily and quickly create a beautiful roof of your own house on your own.
Technology of laying euroruberoid on an old coating
For roofing with a complex configuration or a flat surface, roll materials are used. They are easy and quick to install. For the manufacture of ordinary roofing material, a paper base is used. But the Eurorubyroid is distinguished by excellent resistance to decay when exposed to moisture.
Euroruberoid can only be laid on a surface that is dry and clean.
The material can be laid on a concrete slab, a monolithic coating with a cement-sand screed. In no case should roofing material be laid on a sandy asphalt concrete composition. The base must be carefully prepared.
Euroruberoid laying technology:
- Roll out the roll starting from the bottom. You should also follow the water flow line and the slope line. Water must not enter between the strips of material.
- Try on the unwound strip. Stretch the strip well, avoiding the formation of folds.
- Fix one strip of euroruberoid with a heating pad, which melts the indicator film.
- Glue the edge of the heated strip.
It is important to pay attention to the place where the euroruberoid strips are adjacent to ventilation, parapet, etc. Hard-to-reach places must be closed with special mastic, which is distinguished by high adhesion. When installing a ceiling, it is also important to take into account the possibility of icing on the roof. If the roof has a large slope, it must be equipped with snow holders.
First of all, you need to make all the calculations. If you incorrectly calculate the required number of slate sheets, it may happen that at the end of the work one sheet will not be enough. In addition, the possibility of marriage should also be taken into account, because this material is fragile in comparison with ondulin or metal tiles. Therefore, in the first place, we recommend that you perform accurate calculations.
Knowledge of the size of the roof will help with this. So, measure the length of the roof, which must be divided by the width of the slate sheet. The resulting result is inconclusive, since the overlap in the vertical and horizontal directions should be taken into account. Therefore, you can safely add about 10% more to the required material. Similarly, measure the length of the slope and divide the sum by the length of the slate and similarly take into account the overlap and protrusion of the slope.
When you know how many sheets are needed for one vertical and horizontal row, it remains to perform a simple action, namely, multiply the number of rows by the number of slate sheets required in one row.
After the delivery of the roofing material to the construction site, you can proceed to other preparatory work related to the lathing.