How to help the soil in the fall: 5 important things to do after harvest
Harvesting is not the end of gardening on the site. So that next year the plantings are pleasing with the quality and quantity of fruits, you need to take a little care of the soil.
Correcting acidity levels
After the end of the season, the degree of acidity of the land changes due to residual vegetation, fertilization and other factors. This indicator may increase or decrease. Research is best to maintain an optimal average for growing the desired crops.
To determine acidity, special test kits are used, and laboratory procedures are also possible.
To improve this characteristic, powdered, granular or hydrated lime for the garden is often used. Wood ash will also help in this matter, but it is used carefully, avoiding getting on the roots of plants.
Such components are introduced into a soil layer 20 cm thick.
You can reduce acidity with aged manure, pine needles and compost. Sulfur, aluminum sulfate in moderation will do.
Green manure grasses are planted to enrich the soil with nitrogen and other valuable components. When the greenery grows a little, the plot is plowed up and thus the vegetation is embedded in the soil. Legumes and cereals, crucifers, phacelia, amaranth are used as siderates. They are sown in September or late August.
After harvesting and collecting garbage, gardeners recommend completely digging up the area where crops grew in summer. Potato fields are best plowed.
The places for the beds are easy to process with a shovel.
This will turn the roots of the weeds outward and they will freeze over the winter. In the next season, the land will be lush, light, and weeds will not greatly interfere with the maintenance of the garden.
In autumn, when digging, you can bring in not rotted manure, as well as other top dressing. During the winter, they will rot and freeze, and in the spring the soil will be ready for planting new seeds.After sowing, mineral compositions can be applied separately, depending on the type of plant.
The basic rule for planning future beds is not to plant a crop after the predecessor that is susceptible to the same pests and diseases as the previous one.
This is due to the fact that small insects can quickly infect already familiar places and vegetation on them.
Simple autumn activities for the care of the site do not require much time and effort, but will ensure the yield for the next year.
Greenhouse work in autumn after harvest
Processing a greenhouse in autumn primarily involves basic cleaning. All plant residues must be taken outside and burned. Then you need to thoroughly close up all the cracks that have formed and fumigate the room. For this, it is optimal to use sulfur bombs.
Note! Lump sulfur can also be used, which must be mixed with kerosene before the procedure.
Sulfur checkers or homemade blanks are recommended to be laid out on tin sheets and spread out along the entire length of the structure. They should be ignited with extreme caution. It is necessary to act from the farthest corner of the structure and towards the exit. Then the door is closed as tightly as possible. In a sealed state, after such a processing of the greenhouse has been carried out, the room is kept closed for 3 to 5 days.
To disinfect 1 m³ of space, it is recommended to use 50-60 grams of sulfur. If smoke bombs are used, then 1 product weighing 300 grams must be lit in a 20 m³ greenhouse. This stage of preparing the structure for winter is necessary to destroy:
- bacterial infections
- insects and their larvae.
Greenhouse treatment in autumn: care after harvest
On a note! Sulfur is a toxic substance. That is why work with it is carried out at an air temperature of 10-15 degrees, in a respirator, special gloves and goggles.
If it is decided to fumigate with sulfur dioxide, then it is not recommended to do this in rooms with a metal frame, since the product provokes deformation and corrosion of the material.
Gardening in September: 5 important things to do
Serious pruning of trees and shrubs should be done in the spring. But now it is important to get rid of dry branches - most likely, diseases nest in them.
1. Clean up under the trees
This is very important - pests and diseases overwinter in them, which can again infect your trees in the spring. Especially carefully you need to collect foliage and carrion near trees that were sick this season with scab (and this is almost all apple trees in the Moscow region due to a rainy summer), powdery mildew.
2. Cut dry branches and feed trees
Serious pruning of trees and shrubs should be done in the spring. But now it is important to get rid of dry branches - most likely, diseases nest in them.
If autumn is rainy, then trees and shrubs do not need additional watering. But feeding is necessary - now the plants need phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: superphosphate, potassium sulfate, potassium chloride (it is advisable to use it only in the fall) or ordinary wood ash. The main thing is that after you add them to the soil, cover them with earth, at least walk with a rake so that there is a layer of soil on top of the fertilizers and be sure to water them, because plants consume nutrients only in liquid form.
3. Cultivate a garden strawberry bed
If you didn't manage to do this earlier, the beginning of September is the time to trim the whiskers (if you don't need them for the propagation of strawberries) and dry, yellowed leaves. There is no need to "shave" the bush at all: green leaves and buds are an important part of the future harvest. Before frost, the strawberry bushes will still have time to grow green leaves, which will help to overwinter, and in the spring they will lay a good harvest. Strawberries, like trees, now need to be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, because the end of summer - the beginning of autumn is the time when flower buds are laid, which means that the harvest is formed - 2018.
4. Sow green manure
Sow siderates on the freed up land - mustard, phacelia, wheat, rye. They will grow to cold weather, but will not have time to bloom. And in October, dig up the soil along with the plants. This will heal the earth and enrich it with organic matter. Perhaps this is the most important point of gardening in September. By the way, potatoes grow well after mustard, because its burning essential oils scare away the well-known potato pest - wireworm.
5. Take care of the colors
+ Roses can no longer be watered so that they have time to prepare for frost and stop growing. Tear off the lower leaves, pinch the upper young shoots. If September is too rainy, you can arrange a polyethylene canopy over them so that the trunk does not rot near the ground, otherwise the plant may die. Just do not wrap the bushes, leave the ends open.
+ At the end of September, you can dig up begonias, cut off the stems, dry the tubers well and put them in boxes, sprinkling with peat. Store in a cool place until April.
+ If autumn is dry, water the peonies regularly, and also feed them with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Unlike all other ornamental plants, propagation of peonies by dividing bushes is best done in September.
+ In mid-September, it's time to plant tulip bulbs. The optimum soil temperature for their better rooting is 5-7 degrees. If it rains constantly, this is good - the plantings no longer need to be watered. Early varieties can be planted under fruit trees if there is not enough space in the country. Tulips prefer neutral, light soil. If the soil is clay, then before planting it must be dug up with peat, sand or compost.
+ Do not squeeze the tulip bulbs when planting! Their bottom (the place where the roots develop) will be damaged and the plant will die. Tulips are planted in grooves or holes, the bottom of which is filled with loose earth. Planting depth depends on the size of the bulb. To determine it, use a simple formula: the height of the bulb multiplied by 3.
+ At the end of September, cut the peduncles of herbaceous perennials - bells, delphiniums, catchments, etc. It is important to cut the peduncles themselves, but not the leaves near the ground - from them, the roots continue to receive nutrition necessary to overwinter normally.
Transplant lilies and daylilies if they are sick
Summer residents near Moscow boasted this summer of the lush flowering of lilies and daylilies. They say that the July rains were nothing to them, but the warm August allowed them to open up in all their glory.
If on your site you still did not wait for beauty, perhaps your lilies had too much water. This is noticeable by the brown leaves, by the small flowers, which bloomed sluggishly and reluctantly. So, it is better to transplant your beauties to another place, along the way dividing the roots. In general, daylilies are long-lived, they can grow in one place for 10-15 years. Lilies need to be replanted more often - once every 5-7 years, dividing the bulbs.
After flowering, cut off the "tops" of the daylilies, carefully dig in the roots (the diameter of the daylilies roots can be up to a meter if the bush is old and large). Rinse thoroughly, you can use water with potassium permanganate to disinfect the roots from possible diseases. As a rule, it is visible with the naked eye where the intertwined roots can be separated - divide them into 3-4 parts and plant in a permanent place.
Lilies can begin to degenerate if there are too many babies on the corm. Also, carefully dig out the bush, inspect the bulb - if it is covered with small children, then they are the ones who draw on the main food, do not let the lily bloom luxuriantly. They need to be carefully separated and planted on a separate bed of "young animals".
10 most important things to do in the garden in October
1. Harvest the last crop... By the beginning of October, most garden crops already have time to bear fruit, but some plants continue to delight with a bountiful harvest even at this time. These include, for example, late-ripening varieties of white and Brussels sprouts, beets and carrots, as well as broccoli, root celery, leeks, horseradish, sweet potatoes and some others. If there is not enough space in your cellar, you may well leave crops such as horseradish, Jerusalem artichoke, parsnips and leeks in the garden until frost or even for the whole winter.
2. Finish preparing food for the winter. This point of the October program flows smoothly from the previous one. Right now it's time to pickle cabbage and freeze other vegetables.
3. Dispose of the rejected potatoes. Even if this year the potatoes have pleased you with a bountiful harvest, you will still come across spoiled specimens. Meanwhile, just one spoiled potato is enough to destroy a substantial amount of stored crops. To prevent this from happening, be sure to dry and sort all the harvested potatoes before storing them. You can find out how to do this correctly in our material.
4. Dig up the beds. Using a sharp shovel, dig up the ground to a depth of 15-20 cm. By doing this, you will prevent the wintering of pests and deepen the seeds of weeds. Not too dense soil can be loosened with a rake or a Fokin flat cutter.
5. Conduct soil cultivation against diseases. Even if this year nature was merciful to you and your plants did not suffer from diseases, you will still have to carry out preventive treatment for diseases. For these purposes, preparations based on copper are excellent, for example, Bordeaux mixture, Bronex, Abiga-Peak, Kuprolux, Kurzat, etc. If you are a supporter of biologicals, then in this case you will have to wait until spring.
6. Apply fertilizer. Simultaneously with digging the soil, you can also improve the structure of the soil and add the necessary chemicals. The main advantage of autumn fertilization is that during the winter all the chemicals will have time to be evenly distributed in the soil and therefore will bring much more benefit to the plants.
7. Prepare the greenhouse for wintering. Often it is this building that becomes a breeding ground for a variety of diseases, so it is very important to carry out its "conservation for the winter" correctly. Rinse and disinfect the frame and walls, replace or disinfect the soil, rinse and dry the irrigation system, do not forget to add fertilizers (30-40 g of superphosphate and 20-25 g of potassium salt or potassium sulfate per 1 square meter of soil.).
8. Prepare land for seedlings. The future harvest largely depends on the quality of the soil in which the crop is grown. If you usually prepare the soil for future seedlings on your own, October is the time to replenish the stock of garden land for the next season. And although there is no universal soil that would be suitable for all garden crops, there are certain rules for its preparation. You can learn about the requirements for soil mixtures for seedlings from our next material.
9. Conduct sub-winter sowing... In the process of digging a garden, be sure to remember to prepare the beds in advance for winter sowing of crops. In October, winter onions and garlic are planted, and parsley, dill, beets, carrots, sorrel and parsnips are sown. Sowing in winter makes the seeds more resistant to unfavorable weather conditions and allows you to achieve friendly shoots.
10. Close up the green manure. Sowing green manure is an effective and cost-effective way to restore soil fertility. They loosen the soil, enrich the soil with various useful substances, reduce damage from recurrent spring frosts, retain snow well and, in addition to everything else, prevent the growth of weeds. Mow the grown siderates and embed them in the ground. If this did not work out, it's okay - over time, the plants will fall to the ground by themselves.
Cherries continue to need regular feeding even after the end of fruiting. If the tree is not fed, it will not be able to accumulate enough nutrients in order to successfully overwinter. Timely fertilization will not only help keep the cherries healthy in winter, but will also ensure a bountiful harvest next season.
Having received the necessary dose of nutrients in the fall, the tree will be able to survive the winter without much difficulty, and in the spring it will be completely ready for the beginning of a new stage in its life. The main thing to remember about the autumn feeding of cherries is that at this stage the trees should not receive nitrogen.
High doses of this chemical element can provoke the growth of new shoots, and, as we know, young shoots will not only not help, but even harm the tree, which at the moment must prepare for winter, and not waste its energy.
The scheme for feeding cherries is largely determined by the age of the plant. For more information on what fertilizers and when cherries of different ages are needed, see our next article:
November - preparing the garden for winter
The last month of autumn requires the last effort before wintering. The southern regions have a mild climate, so most plants are not sheltered. But, this does not apply to all grape varieties, some should be insulated. The vine is removed from the trellises or supports, laid out on wooden pallets or in dug trenches in the soil. After that, the vine is wrapped with a film or earth.
If the trees do not need insulation, they should be whitewashed with lime.It is necessary not only to protect against rodents, but also from the bright spring sun rays. They can cause burns and cracks in the bark. Also, whitewashing plays the role of a kind of protection from sun exposure. On warm winter days, the rays tend to warm up the bark, and in the evening the temperature drops, provoking freezing of the tree shell. What can cause the death of seedlings.
In colder regions, fruit trees need to be insulated with spruce branches or peat, and from above, wrap the trunk with burlap or other air-permeable material.
From above it is recommended to wrap it in a circle with a netting. She will not allow rodents to feast on the bark in the winter cold. Do not use film or other non-woven material for wrapping. It does not allow air to circulate, which provokes the drying out of the bark. As a result, various fungal diseases develop. In the garden during this period, you can plant any vegetable crops. Low temperatures will prevent the seedlings from growing, but they will go through a natural process of stratification. This will allow the sprouts to gain immunity and get sick less in the future.
The work with flowers is coming to an end. Perennial plants are cut for the winter under the base. The roses are cut to such a level that they can be covered. Bulbous plants are covered with spruce branches, moss or sawdust.
There is a complete completion of all work. The last days have been set aside for cleaning up all the affairs and complete shelter of all trees for the winter. Thus, the autumn months are no less busy period for farmers than spring or summer. The main thing is to prepare a garden and a vegetable garden for the coming winter and the future fruiting period. If you do not follow the basic procedures for rich fruiting, you can not wait.
More information can be found in the video:
We clean up the garden in the fall. Gardening in autumn
In addition to the fact that in the garden more often than in other areas, you need to deal with autumn leaf fall, you will have to perform many other actions.
Since fallen leaves are a valuable compost material, they should not be burned. Prepare recesses or special boxes and dump foliage there for further organic fertilization.
Do not rush to remove the fruits of late varieties of apples and pears until they are fully ripe. Their ripeness is determined by the color of the grains, they should be brown. In order not to damage the fruits, they must be removed, and not crushed. The crop is immediately stored in a cool place after harvest. Bunches of grapes are treated in the same way.
What to do in the garden in autumn, when all the fruits have already been harvested? In addition to harvesting and harvesting, attention must be paid to all trees and bushes. Without proper care, they can freeze or become sick and die, which will reduce future yields.
Autumn is the time for planting fruit seedlings, transplanting trees and shrubs, but only after they have shed their foliage. Also, in the autumn period, the division and digging of layers of gooseberries, currants, yoshta, raspberries, blackberries are carried out.
The grapes are processed from pests, cut and insulated at the base for the winter.
On young trees that have not yet borne fruit, pinch long shoots in order to accelerate lignification.
It is necessary to cut off dried and diseased tree branches, as well as clean the trunks from dead bark and moss.
Berry bushes and fruit trees are deeply dug around. This process will provide moisture and oxygen to the root system, and will help locate and destroy the habitat of harmful insects.
Then, for a successful wintering of fruit trees and shrubs, the soil near the root zone is loosened, shed well and insulated with foliage, peat or mulch. The trunks of young trees, up to 4-5 years old, which are still poorly hardened and may not withstand frost, must be insulated with burlap or fleece.
Whitewashing is an additional protection against frost and garden pests, as well as the final stage of work in the garden in autumn and preparation of trees and shrubs for wintering.