Detailed description of the apple variety Golden
In terms of popularity among fruits in our country, apples are in first place, due to its taste and high content of substances useful for the bodyin, as well as the presence of a variety of varieties (both summer and winter). One of the favorite varieties for many winter varieties is the Golden apple tree. We will talk about it in our article.
Description of apple variety Golden
The variety was bred by accident when unintentionally crossing the varieties Grimes Golden and Golden Reinette in 1905... This happened in the garden of a farmer Mullins (Clay County in West Virginia), which is why the apple tree was originally called Mullins Yellow Sapling. Since 1914 after the breeder sold the tree and distribution rights to Stark Brothers Nurseries and Gardens, it was sold as a supplement to Red Delicious.
Today it is the most popular apple variety not only in the United States, but also in other European countries, where whole tree plantations have been created, allowing these fruits to be grown on an industrial scale.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any plant, apple trees of this variety have a number of advantages and disadvantages. The first characteristic can include such indicators as:
- Quite high frost resistance and drought resistance;
- High yield and productivity (with proper care over 1 cent from a tree);
- Early maturity - the first crops can be harvested from 2-3-year-old trees;
- Full ratio of quality and taste indicators fruits with world standards, as a result of which they are widely used in the food industry, cooking and conservation;
- Long-term storage capacity subject to the right conditions, otherwise the fruits will begin to wither;
- High stability to the effects of a large number of various pests and diseases;
- Frequent use in crossing with other varieties to obtain hybrids. Examples of breeding are such hybrid varieties as Priam, Freiberg, Korey, etc.
The second is characterized by the following indicators:
- The tendency to be affected by diseases such as powdery mildew and scab;
- With a large crop overload, decrease in size in fruits;
- Availability periodicity in obtaining a high yield;
- Demanding care and soil fertility;
- Reduced yield with the "aging" of the tree.
Characteristics of trees and fruits
Description of the tree
As for the trees themselves, they belong to the category of medium-sized plants with a crown changing in shape, depending on their age. So, young apple trees are cone-shaped, and fruit-bearing ones are the most rounded with intertwined branches and foliage... A bountiful harvest can cause the branches to sag, making the trees look like willow. The shoots are distinguished by their brownish color with green veins from the color of the trunk, which has a dark gray color. They are not very thick, slightly pubescent and slightly cocked and have oval lentils, rather large and densely scattered.
Golden has wide oval leaves with rounded bases and slightly elongated tips.... They are smooth to the touch with edges, serrated, slightly pubescent, have long petioles and lanceolate stipules. The foliage is bright green.
As stated earlier the first harvests can be obtained as early as 2-3 years after budding... During the first few years, abundant yields are guaranteed, then they will depend on climatic conditions, on quality care and the use of fertilizers.
The trees of this variety are self-fertile, so the apple varieties Simirenko and Idared can be ideal pollinators for them.
Description of fruits
They are characterized by such indicators as:
- The size - apples are both medium and large, depending on weather conditions (for example, Kuban apples often reach up to 170g.);
- The form - fruits are round-conical, chiseled with a dense, dry skin, which becomes slightly rough under favorable conditions for growing;
- Color - from golden light green to yellow, in places a slightly pinkish tint may appear due to exposure to sunlight;
- Taste - sweet and tender;
- Structure - has a closed cup with openings at the bottom of the sepals. The fruits are distinguished by long stalks of medium thickness and protruding above a deep funnel. The apples are equipped with a narrow, deep and even saucer and a small axial cavity that does not communicate with the seed chambers. The pulp is very juicy, dense, greenish, which eventually becomes creamy.
It is recommended to harvest at the end of September.... Fruits can be stored until mid-spring under proper conditions. For example, in rooms with low humidity levels, apples will start to wilt.
For the best preservation of all useful and marketable qualities, this variety must be planted in gardens with tinning.
Although breeders have conducted experiments, on the territory of Russia, such Golden apples are grown in the southern regions, since severe frosts can freeze the plant even with proper insulation. However, it is possible to find apple trees of this variety in the gardens of the Moscow region and the middle zone of our country.
Planting trees is carried out using a semi-dwarf rootstock according to the 4 * 4m scheme. Preliminarily, they find out the indicators of the level of groundwater, since the recommended depth of their occurrence should be a mark of 2.5 m. In the southern regions, the optimal time for planting is October, for the northern regions - mid-April.... The best soil for apple trees is black soil.
The process begins with the preparation of the planting pit., the size of which must be at least 1 * 1m and a depth of 0.7m. It is dug up 1 month before planting to ensure high-quality land sediment and fertilized with superphosphate, ash and potassium. In the middle of the pit, a stake is installed, protruding 0.4 m above its surface. It should be noted that the lower part of the stake is burned with fire in order to prevent decay.
After the allotted time, a hole is made in the pit, at the bottom of which black soil is poured. Further, the seedling is planted so that the peg is on the south side, and the root neck of the tree trunk rises 5 cm above the ground... So that it does not settle down with the soil, it is tied to a peg. Then the landing site is watered abundantly (3-4 buckets of water) and covered with earth.
Apple tree care
The main plant maintenance is pruning, which is done every year. This provides earlier fruiting and high yields, longer service life, and frostbite protection. The time of the process is alternated, that is, first it is carried out in early spring before the formation of buds, then in the fall. To limit the growth of trees upward and the active formation of lateral shoots, a vertical shoot is necessarily pruned... Also, the growth is trimmed annually, from which 1/3 of their length is removed. This stimulates the formation and growth of fruit branches.
The next step in the grooming process is thinning of ovaries and fruitsnecessary to prevent underdeveloped apples with low palatability. For this, during the formation of ovaries or fruits, the one in the middle is removed, as well as apples with some kind of defects. The intervals from one beam to another must be at least 0.1 m.
A strong overload of the tree leads to the occurrence of periodic fruiting and the next year the apple tree is unlikely to please with a large harvest.
As for watering, he in the first year it is necessary 3-4 times over the summer, as excessive moisture can lead to cracking of the fruit. Water consumption - 3-4 buckets per tree. After moistening, the soil cover is mulched with humus. In dry summers, trees are watered until the buds open, 20 days after the end of flowering and for the same period before harvesting.
For the correct development of apple trees and a good harvest, fertilization is required. So, nitrogenous substances affect the growth, pollination of flowers, the formation of ovaries, phosphate - on the formation of fruit buds and fruit color, potash - for the growth of young shoots, etc. The ideal feeding option is the alternation of organic and mineral fertilizers.
The most popular organic fertilizer is manure., which is brought in every year in the fall. Nitrogen substances are used 2 times a year - in early spring and in the first half of the growing season, phosphorus and potassium substances are introduced during the same periods, but not directly, but by embedding them in the dug grooves around the trunk circle and having a depth of up to 0.4 m.
Before frost, the trunk circle is mulched with humus, peat and compost... Apple trees are subjected to hilling and tying with spruce branches or reeds, and are also whitened with a solution of chalk or lime.
Diseases and pests
Golden, like other varieties of apples, are susceptible to various diseases, but most often you can find scab and powdery mildew on them... For destruction, spraying with drugs such as Skor, Topaz, Ridomil-Gold is used.
Apples suffer from apple buds, aphids, moths and leafworms. They are also combated by spraying with chemicals..
Summing up the above, I would like to say that Golden stands out among other varieties of apple trees for its beautiful appearance and excellent taste, therefore we recommend having this variety in any garden.
The Jonathan variety was bred in America, selected in 1886 from the seedlings of the Aesop Spitzenburg variety. Other names for this variety are Winter red, Horoshavka winter, Oslamovskoe. The plant is in high demand and is common in areas of industrial horticulture, although in recent years it has been rare in new plantings.
Trees of the Jonathan variety are medium, the crown is wide and has a rounded shape, slightly branched and moderately thickened. As they mature, the main branches become somewhat drooping, especially when they are harvested. The bark is brownish green.
Fruiting is of a mixed type, fruits are formed mainly on ringlets, fruit twigs, spears and annual growths. The buds have a moderate degree of excitability, the ability to form shoots is good.
The shoots themselves are green-brown, covered with fluff. The thickness is either minimal or medium. The leaves are either small or medium, oblong-ovate in shape, the edges are somewhat wavy, have jagged edges. The foliage surface is matte, slightly wrinkled. A distinctive feature of this variety is a green-silvery bloom on the leaves.
Flowering is good, terms are medium late.
The history of the creation of the variety
The Mantet variety was bred by Canadian breeders at the beginning of the second quarter of the last century as a result of the cross-pollination of Macintosh and Tetovsky apple trees (this name was given to the Russian variety Grushovka Moskovskaya in Canada). It is believed that the Canadian plant breeder Dr. W. T. Macoen was involved in the development of the new variety.
Scientists, however, still disagree on which apple tree this variety came from - from Grushovka or from Titovka. The fact is that in Canada Grushovka is called Tetovsky, but another Russian apple tree is also popular there - Titovka (translated as Titowka). Because of this, confusion arose - with which variety of pollination the Mantet apple tree was obtained.
Subspecies and variants
The Golden apple variety is so popular that many varieties have been created on its basis, which are grown in gardens and in personal plots around the world.
A variety of golden varieties, a delicious fruitful hybrid of the Golden apple tree. Up to 30 tons of fruit per hectare are harvested in industrial volumes. High taste and the possibility of long-term storage of the crop made the variety popular among gardeners and farmers.
Golden Vladimirsky is resistant to temperature extremes and spring frosts. The early ripening of apples allows this variety to be grown in regions with a short summer period. Ripe fruits of a golden hue, some specimens of fruits exceed the 200gr milestone.
A frost-resistant variety of Golden apples, most often found in orchards of the temperate climatic zone. The fruits are large, yellow-green in color, with a rich apple flavor and aroma. Fruits are stored for a long time and do not lose their sweetness.
Breeders of the USA worked on the Resistant variety. This type of apple tree is distinguished by late flowering dates and large fruits with an orange tint. The fruit taste is rich, sweet, with a slight sourish tinge. Recommended for cultivation in regions with warm climates.
Ripening and fruiting
Golden apple fruits ripen within 3-4 months. Proper care ensures the duration of the fruiting period, which reaches 15-20 years, and in some cases even longer.
Golden apple trees are best planted in warm regions of the country, because this variety of garden trees does not always withstand severe frosts. Not having enough warm days leads to lower yields. The taste properties of the described type of apples are high.
The fruits are completely unleavened, very sweet (the sugar content in them reaches 20%), aromatic (have a pronounced smell) with tender and juicy pulp. Fruiting of the variety begins in the 3rd year after budding. Sometimes, subject to all the conditions of agricultural technology and proper care, fruits appear on the seedling as early as 2 years after vaccination.
It is not difficult to take care of the crop, then only if all the rules of agricultural technology are observed will it be possible to achieve high yields. The main requirements are watering, disease control, pruning.
Pruning and shaping the crown
Pruning is recommended annually. The process is best carried out in the spring, this will reveal dried or frozen shoots. During the flowering period, repeat pruning, remove excess buds. Leave 1-3 ovaries per inflorescence.
It is recommended to form a crown in the second year after planting - remove part of the main trunk, shorten the side shoots. Leave only 5-6 buds on each of them. It is forbidden to prune before frost - the plant can die.
Golden loves moisture, but cannot stand waterlogging. Frequent, but not too abundant watering is recommended. Immediately after planting, add 10-12 liters of water under each plant.
Growing a variety on black soil will allow you to abandon fertilizing - the plant will receive everything it needs from the soil. If the soil is not too nutritious, use organic matter, cover the trunk circle with a thick layer of rotted manure in the fall. Melted water will allow nutrients to penetrate to the roots in the spring.
Protection from cold and rodents
In cold regions, you will need a cover - straw, spruce branches, burlap. After snow falls, it is recommended to pour a high snowdrift around the tree, which is removed at the end of winter. Use special nets from rodents, build a temporary fence, spread poisonous baits.
Diseases and pests
The lack of persistent immunity is the main reason for the defeat of the culture by diseases. You will have to regularly carry out treatments for powdery mildew, all types of rot. Use Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate. Against pests, which also quite often occupy the tree, use insecticides. Irrigation should be carried out in cloudy cool weather.
Planting, growing care
“Golden Excellent Apple” is a rather demanding variety.The tree will grow on inappropriate soil and in conditions of insufficient watering, but all this negatively affects the yield, and, most importantly, the taste and keeping quality of apples. So if the goal is to get a harvest, you must follow all the recommendations.
The first thing to remember when planting: the variety is very thermophilic and requires very good access to sunlight for the ripening of so many fruits. Accordingly, the best location for the apple tree is the western and southern parts of the garden. Moreover, they should be chosen so that the shadow from neighboring tall trees or a fence does not block the sunlight.
Soils are best light loamy or soddy. If the soil contains too much clay, sand is added. In principle, trees take root on any soil.
Apple trees need sufficient moisture. Areas with groundwater levels below 1.5–2 m are categorically unsuitable for planting.
It is best to plant the seedlings in the spring before the leaves open. The deadline is the appearance of a green cone on the buds. If the seedling is in a container with soil, then it can be planted later, along with a lump of earth.
The Golden apple tree can also be planted in October. The landing rules are the same.
Technology and agricultural engineering
Planting seedlings is performed according to a certain scheme.
- Pits are dug 30 days before tree planting. During this time, the soil will settle well.
- The hole reaches a depth of 60–80 cm. Its volume should be sufficient to accommodate the root system of the seedling.
- Drainage is placed at the bottom of the trench - crushed stone or pebbles, and then a fertile mixture is poured - about 2 buckets. It contains leaf soil, mineral mix and compost. You can use another option: 1 kg of charcoal, 2 buckets of humus, up to 2 kg of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate.
- A seedling with a closed root system - in a container with soil, planted with a lump of earth on the roots. If the roots of the apple tree are open, then before planting the roots are kept in a growth stimulant solution for about 1–2 hours.
- The plant is lowered into a trench, the roots are straightened, covered with earth so that the root collar rises 5 cm above the ground. A stake can be installed in the pit to support the young apple tree.
Read about planting and caring for the Tomato tree in this material.
The support is fired before installation so that it does not cause root rot.
- The trunk of the apple tree is tied to a stake, the plant is watered with 2-3 buckets of water. After that, the top layer is mulched and slightly compacted.
What is better to grow from
The seedlings offered in the nursery are scions. Choosing the right option comes down to choosing the optimal rootstock.
- If the summer cottage is located on a hill, with a low level of groundwater, it is preferable to choose a seed tall stock. He has a better developed root system. And although such a tree will bear fruit later, it will take root better and will hurt less.
- If the groundwater level is high - lowland, and the fertile layer reaches 50-60 cm, then it is better to choose dwarf and semi-dwarf scions. Their root system is weaker, more superficial, but for such conditions this option is better. The tree will bear fruit faster, will not reach a great height, which makes it easier to care for.
Quite often, summer residents do it easier: they choose suitable seedlings on their own plot and plant Golden scions. The engraftment process itself, of course, is more difficult than planting, but the result is more predictable.
Distance between trees
Trees are planted taking into account their future growth and crown size. On average, an adult tree has a crown with a diameter of up to 3 m. Accordingly, a distance of 3-4 m should be maintained between the pits. If the scion is dwarf or columnar varieties of the variety are planted, the distance may be less - up to 2 m.
Golden apple trees need pruning, feeding, watering and protection from the cold. To get a decent harvest, they must be looked after and very carefully.
The most popular and versatile solution is manure spreading. The procedure is carried out every year in the fall, after harvest. As a rule, no other fertilization is required on chernozem soils.
In early spring and in the middle of the growing season, nitrogenous fertilizers are applied. Phosphorus and potash are applied before bud formation and during the first flowering. The need for them is determined by the state of the apple tree. So, if the leaves become pale and curl, nitrogenous fertilizers should be added to the soil. If the leaves turn yellow and no new shoots appear, the tree needs iron. If purple blotches appear on the leaves, it's a lack of phosphorus.
Read about the growing season for an apple tree in this article.
Regardless of the state of the plant, the third feeding is carried out during the ripening of the fruit.
With abundant watering, dry fertilizers are simply scattered around the tree trunk. If the area is dry, it is preferable to add fertilizer to the irrigation water.
Before the winter cold, the trunk circle is mulched with peat, humus and compost. Such a layer will protect the apple tree from frost, and in the spring it will turn into an excellent top dressing.
As a rule, the yield is regulated even at the stage of the appearance of flowers and ovary. However, even during ripening, it is worth paying attention to the quantity and quality of future fruits. It is recommended to get rid of small defective apples. In order for the remaining ones to reach the desired size and sweetness, it is necessary that a distance be maintained between the bundles.
Harvested in late September and early October. For Golden, if it is grown commercially, it is very important to choose the right harvest time. According to the standards, the hardness of ripe fruits should be 7.5–8.5 kg, and the starch index should reach 5–6.
Read about storing apples for the winter here.
In order for apples to be stored for a long time, they must be collected carefully, avoiding falling to the ground and impacts.
The fruit is susceptible to apple bitter rot. Therefore, when storing large batches, they are pretreated with Smart Fresh.
Apples are stored in refrigerators or cellars - in boxes, at a temperature of +1 C. In such conditions, the fruits remain unchanged for 8-9 months.
It makes sense to resort to this procedure only if Golden is grafted on a strong graft and the tree can really reach a great height and live a long time. Solve this problem by pruning.
Rejuvenating pruning is done in early spring or fall. The scheme is the same.
It should be noted right away that anti-aging pruning is a long-term business. The procedure is carried out in 3 stages and takes 3 years:
- for a start, within a radius of 2 meters from the trunk, the entire dead wood will be removed
- then the apple tree is freed from all dry branches found. Both dead wood and branches must be burned or taken to a landfill, as they can be infected with pests or diseases
- in the first year, the top of the tree is removed in order to stimulate the growth of side branches
- in the second year, weak, non-bearing and simply extra branches are removed on each side branch
- in the third year, the procedure is repeated in order to leave only the strongest shoots
- all sections after the procedure must be trimmed with a knife and covered with garden varnish or oil paint.
At this point, the crown of the tree looks very thin and there is no need to wait for a large harvest during rejuvenating pruning. But next year, the apple tree will again delight the owner with wonderful fruits.
The Golden Apple tree is very prone to crop overload. In addition, at the time of the formation of a spherical crown from a conical one, too many extra shoots appear. So pruning is a must and is done several times a year.
- The first pruning is done immediately at the landing site: the ground shoots are shortened so that 6 buds remain on the branches.
- In early spring, sanitary pruning is also carried out on already established apple trees: frozen branches are removed, the growth is shortened by 1/3 of the length, and vertical shoots are also cut in order to limit the growth of the apple tree in height.
- The second obligatory pruning is performed during flowering - excess buds and ovaries are removed with pruning shears. Normally, 1-2 best ovaries should remain in each inflorescence.
- In summer, preventive pruning may be necessary if there are too many young shoots. Also in August, foliage is sometimes thinned in order to provide the fruit with better access to sunlight.
- In the fall, dry and rotten branches are removed.
After the onset of frost, pruning is strictly prohibited.