Detailed description of the apple variety Spartan
Every gardener strives to plant an apple tree with delicious fruits on his site. Such a tree tolerates the changeable climate of central Russia well and does not require undue attention.
Apple tree Spartan bred by Canadian breeders in 1926, by crossing varieties such as Macintosh and Pepin Newtown Yellow.
The purpose of the breeding was the urgent need to grow apple trees on an industrial scale. Therefore, I needed a variety with a good presentation, transportability and a long shelf life.
Description of apple variety
Prefers a temperate climate, with warm winters and not humid air. Low frost resistanceif the tree is not prepared for the cold weather, it may die.
Begins to bear fruit from the third year of life. On average, a young apple tree (up to 10 years old) can bring from 15 to 35 kilograms of harvest, while more mature trees bring up to 80 kilograms.
The ripening period falls in mid-October.... Refers to self-pollinated varieties.
Characteristics of fruits and trees
Apple tree Spartan is distinguished by its rapid growth, but at the same time the tree reaches medium heights... Leaves are small or medium, dark green, smooth, edges slightly curled upwards.
Branches in relation to the trunk are located at an angle of 70 degrees. The crown is very lush, has a predisposition to the appearance of an excessive amount of unnecessary stems. Shoots of an unusual, dark cherry color, slightly pubescent.
Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the tree, the Spartan apple tree must not be forgotten and skipped.
In most cases, the fruits are round with a slight flattening, but conical apples can also be found. Due to their Canadian origin, these fruits boast an unusual color.
They are initially yellow, but maroon and purple spots begin to appear as they mature.that gradually cover almost the entire surface. There is also a waxy coating on it.
Such apples are not very large, only 130-190 grams. They taste sweet, juicy and aromatic., with a dense consistency.
Advantages and disadvantages
If the tree is properly looked after, then it can bring a large amount of harvest, such a tree bears fruit annually.
Excellent taste and the content of a large amount of useful microelements in such apples. For example, there is much more ascorbic acid in this variety than in others.
Good transportability. It is extremely rare that they are exposed to various diseases.
If you create a favorable temperature for the apples, then the crop can be stored for 4 to 7 months.
If the tree is grown in the northern regions or in the middle lane, will have to take care of his winter shelter... Apple tree Spartan does not tolerate frosts and sub-zero temperatures.
Small fruit size, which can gradually decrease due to poor thinning of branches.
In the 1980s, the Spartan apple tree was zoned throughout the territory of Ukraine, but to a greater extent it took root in the north of the country. From this we can conclude what is the tree prefers a temperate climate.
Does not tolerate both frost and drought, and heat with high humidity.
When choosing a landing site you need to pay attention to the following criteria:
- The place must be bright and sunny, otherwise the amount of the obtained crop may decrease significantly.
- The site must have fertile soil.
- Waterlogging of the root system must not be allowed, therefore, places with an elevated level of groundwater should be avoided.
If the entire site is located in an area with a high groundwater level, do not despair, you can plant trees on mounds and dug a ditch to drain excess moisture.
The best period is considered late April or early September.
For planting the Spartan apple tree, you need to prepare and approach as responsibly as possible. Seven days before the actual work, you need to prepare the pits, which should be infused.
The tree loves loamy soils and in order to create comfortable conditions for him, add to the clay soil:
- rotted compost.
Sequence of work:
- Pits should be dug at a distance of 4 meters from each other, while their depth should be 50-60 centimeters, and their diameter should be 1 meter.
- About 30 centimeters of the bottom must be carefully loosened.
- To protect the plant from the appearance of excessive moisture and accumulation of water, drainage is laid out at the bottom of the pit. It can consist of any means at hand. For example, stones or cut branches of plants.
- After all the work related to protecting the tree from moisture has been completed, the pit is half filled with a fertile layer of soil, then fertilizers are applied, consisting of: superphosphate, potassium sulfate, wood ash, rotted manure.
- At the end of this procedure, you need to fill up the previously dug soil into the pit. Due to the addition of fertilizers and drainage, a mound is formed, into which it is imperative to dig in a peg, it will be the basis for a seedling that has not yet matured.
- When planting, the seedling must be carefully placed on a mound and sprinkled with a fertile layer of earth so that the root collar is 5 centimeters above the soil level.
As soon as the young seedling is placed in the ground, it must be thoroughly watered with water until the soil begins to repel moisture. After that, the soil around the tree trunk must be mulched with a 5 cm layer.
To improve the formation of the crown, the branches of the seedling are cut by a third.
In the first year of the tree's life, it is recommended to prune all flowers, so that it would quickly take root in a new place.
One tree requires 20-30 liters of water, water it in the evening, as the soil dries. In hot weather, it is recommended to practice drip hydration.
When a large amount of precipitation falls, the apple tree does not need to be watered. It is enough to make punctures around the tree trunk. Their depth should not exceed 40 centimeters. Forks or crowbars can be selected as tools.
You need to feed the Spartan apple tree four times per season. at the certain time.
During the period of tying flower buds, for such purposes it is best to use natural fertilizers such as urea or dung.
As soon as flowering begins, the tree must be strengthened with the following solution:
- 100 liters of water;
- 400 grams of potassium sulfide;
- 500 grams of superphosphate;
- 250 grams of urea.
One young tree will need 15 liters of fertilizer, and an adult 50.
When the tree begins to bear fruit it must be fed with 30 liters of the following solution:
- 100 liters of water;
- 500 grams of nitrophoska;
- 10 grams of sodium humate.
After harvest in wet weather the following fertilizers should be scattered around the tree:
- potassium sulfate - 300 grams;
- superphosphate - 300 grams.
If it is dry and hot outside, this top dressing must be diluted in water.
When growing the Spartan apple variety, special care should be taken to remove pruning. It is best to carry out this procedure in the spring, when the tree has not yet entered the flowering phase.
In the first year of life, the apical bud and all shoots are removed, which are located under it. So that the lateral branches are not fragile, and do not break off during fruiting, you cannot leave two symmetrically located lateral shoots.
When forming the crown of a tree, emphasis is placed on the lateral growth of branches.... This is necessary in order to increase its diameter, and, accordingly, the stability of the entire apple tree.
It is necessary to remove shoots that are not located correctly. For example: braided, growing towards the trunk, not away from it; rub against each other.
It is imperative to remove dry and suspicious branches.... This procedure is the main prevention against many diseases.
Preparing for winter
Considering that the apple tree Spartan does not like the cold, in the winter season she needs additional protection... It is best to water the tree abundantly with the appearance of the first frost and bury it with peat for 30 centimeters.
Diseases and pests
A distinctive feature of the Spartan variety is high resistance to damage by diseases such as scab and powdery mildew... But with insufficient or improper care, the risk of disease still exists.
Scab - the initial sign will be the appearance of black dots on the fruits, such apples are already unusable.
To combat the disease, it is necessary to remove the affected fruits in a timely manner so that the scab does not begin to spread. An effective remedy in this case will be Horus and Skor.
Powdery mildew - is extremely rare. It is expressed in the appearance of a white bloom on the leaves, which gradually becomes brown and coarse.
Control measures will also be the removal of diseased branches and the use of the Strobi drug.
Fruit rot - the essence of the disease is expressed in its name, such apples become inedible. This fact significantly reduces the yield. As a preventive measure, Speed is used.
Cytosporosis - poses a danger to the tree itself, if the disease is not noticed and cured in time, the apple tree will dry out and die. In the initial stages, dark spots appear on the bark, which must be treated with Hom or Funadozol.
Apple moth - feeds on seeds and, accordingly, gnaws fruits. To get rid of the pest, the tree is sprayed with Fastan.
Apple blossom beetle - caterpillars that can cause significant damage to crop yields in general. You can get rid of them with the help of Cymbush.
To avoid re-infection, diseased branches and fruits must be burned; they should not be used as mulch or for other purposes.
Reviews about the apple Spartan
Elizabeth: “Very tasty apples, although the size is small. In addition, they lie for a very long time and belong to the winter varieties, so you can pamper yourself with fresh fruits all year round. All the friends who grow this variety praise it very much. "
Catherine: “Apples are sweet and crunchy, but their skin is thick and tough, but here as you like, this factor does not bother me. But it is difficult to take care of the tree, you must not skip the procedure for emptying the branches, otherwise there may not be a harvest. "
Peter: “The Spartan variety is well stored, but there must be a cold room, otherwise the apples will lose their juiciness and sweetness. By the way, of all my apple trees, this one is the most hardy, even tolerates hot and dry summers. "
The Spartan apple tree is perfect for central Russia... It rarely suffers from various diseases and produces a tasty and abundant crop.
The main thing is not to forget to take care of the tree and prepare it in time for the cold weather.
Apple variety Spartan
The Spartan variety was bred in 1926 by Canadian breeders to obtain fruits on an industrial scale. Until recently, there was a misconception that two varieties were involved in the origin of this apple tree: Newtown Pippin and Macintosh. However, with the advent of genetic examinations, it turned out that Pepin Newtown had nothing to do with this variety.
Features of the variety
This variety appeared in horticultural practice in 1936. The first description and photo of the Spartan variety was made by scientists from Canada. The species was obtained as a result of crossing the Macintosh and Yellow Newtown apples.
Spartan is a winter apple variety. On the territory of Russia, he gained fame a little later - in 1986. It turned out that not all areas are suitable for his cultivation. Spartan does not tolerate severe frosts very well, and also does not like a too dry climate. This is a late variety, the collective fruit ripeness occurs in late September and early October.
Favorable growing areas:
- Volga region
- North Caucasus
- Southern regions of the Urals
- West of Siberia.
Variety requirements for soils:
- the substrate needs a slightly acidic pH of 6.2-6.7 or neutral
- Spartan prefers black soil for good growth
- gives the best results on medium and fertile soils
- on light soils yields weaker fruit, smaller fruits
- on heavy and wet soils, Spartan can be very painful.
Growing the Spartan variety in harsher conditions is also possible. It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of growth and care, choose the right place for planting. Compliance with all recommendations and strict adherence to instructions will help you get a rich harvest.
Spartan - well pollinated, fairly resistant to scab.
- Golden Delicious
- Queen Reneth
Below is detailed information on the features of watering, feeding, and the formation of the crown of the variety.
Planting, growing care
If all the necessary requirements are met, the seedling will actively develop and after three years it can begin to bear fruit.
The variety is very sensitive to the presence of groundwater, so it is better to choose a planting site on a hill. If this is not possible, it is necessary to provide drainage grooves and lay a drainage layer in the planting pit. The best soil for this variety is loam. If the soil on the site is clay, then a mixture of sand, peat and compost should be added to it. The apple tree also develops well on sandy loam soils and low-fat chernozem.
The place for planting the Spartan apple tree should be well lit by the sun, since in the shade the yield decreases, and the fruits do not collect enough sugar.
The apple tree can be planted both in spring and autumn. Spring planting is preferable, since over the summer the root system will take root well and the seedling will get stronger enough. You need to plant a tree after April 20, when stable warm weather sets in and the earth warms up enough. Autumn planting can be carried out from the last decade of September to mid-October. The main thing is that the young tree does not fall under frost. For the winter, seedlings should be closed from cold weather. Spunbond covering material is suitable for this purpose.
Technology and agricultural engineering
To root a seedling, you need to prepare a planting hole with a depth of at least 60 cm and a diameter of about a meter. The pit is usually prepared two weeks before disembarkation. The soil of the upper fertile layer must be laid out separately. The bottom of the pit should be loosened to a depth of 30 cm and drainage should be laid. The drainage layer can consist of a mixture of coarse sand, crushed stone or broken brick. Its thickness is usually 20 cm.Then the fertile soil must be mixed with the following composition:
- manure humus - 60%
- superphosphate - 20%
- potassium sulfate - 10%
- wood ash - 10%.
The complex organic-mineral fertilizer "Giant" can be added to the mixture. The earth, together with fertilizers, is poured to the bottom of the pit until a small mound is formed. Before planting, you need to inspect the root system of the seedling and carefully remove dry and rotten roots. In order not to cause damage to the roots in the places of the cuts, they must be treated with a liquid mixture of humus, clay and water. Next, the seedling is lowered onto a mound of soil and its roots are straightened so that there are no bends. Next to the seedling, you need to stick a wooden peg to which it will be tied. Then the pit with the plant is carefully covered with earth. Each 5-10 cm layer of soil should be lightly tamped. The root collar of the plant should be raised above the ground to a height of 5 cm. After the plant is planted, it is tied to a peg, and the soil around the trunk is mulched with straw or peat.Immediately after planting, the seedling must be watered abundantly until moisture ceases to be absorbed into the soil.
Experienced gardeners recommend cutting off all branches of the seedling by a third immediately after planting. This contributes to the correct formation of the crown.
What is the best to grow from
A healthy seedling from a well-known nursery will be the best option for growing Spartan apple trees at home. However, the apple tree of this variety can also be grown from seed. It is best to prepare the seeds at the beginning of winter so that they are planted in the ground in the spring.
Next, you need to perform the following sequence of actions:
- Rinse the seeds 2-3 times in warm water
- place the seeds in water for 3 days to swell
- mix seeds with sand and sawdust, water and refrigerate for 90 days.
On the third day of soaking, it is good to add a growth stimulant to the water. Usually sodium humate or Epin is used. After the seeds have passed the hardening procedure in the refrigerator, they can be prepared for planting. The seeds can be planted in a pot or plastic container. There should be holes in the bottom, and under the container for planting, you need to put a pallet so that excess moisture flows into it. A drainage layer of pebbles or expanded clay can be placed on the bottom of the container.
Only black soil should be used as a soil. It contains all the nutrients a young seedling needs. To get a positive result, you should plant not one, but many seeds. The distance between them should be 2-3 cm, the distance between the rows should be 12-15 cm, and the planting depth should be at least 2 cm. After planting, the seeds should be watered abundantly. When the second pair of leaves appears on the trees, they can be sorted. This removes weak plants and trees with too small leaves.
Distance between trees
An apple tree of this variety has a fairly wide and spreading crown, so the distance between individual trees is chosen at least four meters. Until the trees are five years old, you can plant vegetables between them. Legumes should be preferred. Adult apple trees require a lot of nutrients and trace elements, so in order to avoid competition, vegetables will have to be removed.
Caring for Spartan, Lobo and Rudolph apple trees consists in proper watering, feeding, preventive measures against diseases and crown formation. This allows you to grow a strong and healthy tree with good fruiting. The tree needs good and regular watering. In dry and hot weather, as the soil dries up, the apple trees need to be actively watered. Each tree requires 20 to 30 liters of water. Watering should be done at least twice a week. Sprinkler irrigation can be used on particularly hot days. This should be done at least once a week. If the summer is full of rainfall, regular watering is not required. It is enough 60 cm from the trunk to make punctures in the ground with a pitchfork or a crowbar. Do not turn the tool in the ground.
The variety is practically not susceptible to diseases such as powdery mildew and scab, however, with improper care, the tree can get sick. The scab forms dark spots on the apples, making the fruit unsuitable for consumption. The treatment of the apple tree with the preparations "Horus" or "Strobi" allows you to completely protect the tree from these diseases. The drug "Strobi" is also active against powdery mildew. After flowering, Horus can be used to protect the apple tree from fruit rot that affects the flesh of the fruit. To combat cytosporosis, which affects the bark of fruit trees, drugs "Hom" or "Fundazol" will help. Spraying the Spartan apple tree with the "Cymbush" preparation will protect it from the codling moth and flower beetle.
There is a schedule for feeding adult apple trees, which it is advisable to follow. The first time feeding is applied in the last days of April. For this, urea is used in the amount of 500 grams or manure humus. In wet weather, the components can be applied to the trunk circle in their natural form. In dry weather, prepare an aqueous solution. The next feeding is done at the beginning of flowering. To do this, you need to prepare a solution from the following components:
- potassium sulfate - 400 grams
- superphosphate - 500 grams
- urea - 250 grams
- water - 100 liters.
For each young tree, 15 liters of solution are consumed, and for an adult apple tree - at least 50 liters. The third time the apple trees are fed during the fruiting period. For this, a mixture is used:
- nitrophoska - 500 grams
- sodium humate - 10-15 grams
- water - 100 liters.
For each tree, regardless of age, 30 liters of solution is consumed. After harvesting, in the process of preparing apple trees for wintering, potassium sulfate and superphosphate are introduced into the soil. Find out about the characteristics of the Uralets apple variety here.
Spartan apples reach consumer ripeness in late September or early October. Experienced gardeners do not pick them, but leave them on the tree for a while. Harvesting later will increase the amount of sugar. In addition, the fruits of late harvest are distinguished by a pronounced aroma. Read about planting and caring for the Land apple variety here.
Apples of this variety are well suited for long-term storage and transportation. They are usually stored in a cool place with no bright light. The best place to store apples is the refrigerator. They can stay in it for up to eight months. During this time, they fully retain their taste. The Spartan apple variety can be eaten fresh, used for canning and cooking. On the basis of apple juice, a quality wine is obtained. Find out about the characteristics of the Orlik apple variety in this material.
The process of rejuvenation is very important for fruit apple trees of all varieties, including Chudnoe and Melba. It consists in the correct formation of the crown and the removal of excess and old branches. Often, overgrown crown blocks the supply of sunlight to the fruit branches, which negatively affects the yield. Rejuvenation should be carried out in spring and autumn, but before the first frost. After cutting off the excess branch, the cut site should be treated with garden varnish.
The main pruning is done in the spring before flowering. On annual trees, above the stem, no more than 6 buds are left, and the top is shortened by 10 cm. Instead, you can remove the apical bud. You cannot leave two or more shoots growing from one bud. This will cause nutritional deficiencies and weakening of the main branch. All improperly growing branches must be removed. These can be twisted branches or shoots that rub against each other. Read about planting and caring for the Abbot pear in this article.
Planting of seedlings of fruit trees is carried out in the spring and autumn.
The Spartan apple tree is no exception, but it is preferable for a tree of this variety. landing at a permanent place in the spring .
Autumn is a fertile time for the preparation of planting holes.
- The area under the apple tree is dug up.
- They are digging a hole.
It is better to dig a planting hole near the fence that covers the apple tree from the cold north wind.
The mineral fertilizer must be thoroughly mixed with the soil.
Young trees are not suitable for dense, poor soil with a close occurrence of groundwater.
Preference is given to loams, sunny areas with loose fertile soil.
As planting material, preference should be given 2 year old trees , with an even central leash and a closed root system.
Before planting, the roots of the seedling must be soaked in a clay mash.
When planting, the branches of the seedling are cut to 1/3 of the length. The roots are placed on a mound prepared in the fall and sprinkled with fertile soil, watered, carefully trampling the soil around the young apple tree.
Attention: When planting, do not deepen the root collar. Distance from the root collar of the tree to the soil surface not less than 5-7 cm.
When backfilling the roots, it is important to monitor the placement of the root collar!
The soil around the apple tree is mulched, through 7-8 days re-watering. The peg remains in place. He, with a garter, will serve as a support for a young plant for some time.
It is best to organize the storage of apples in a container. In this case, the most favorable conditions of temperature and humidity are created.
Apples are stacked diagonally or in rows in cardboard boxes and crates.
It is best to isolate the fruits from each other with paper or shavings..
The best storage temperature is + 2-3 ° C with a humidity of 85-95%. The use of various varieties of apples, subject to the requirements:
- Cinnamon striped, Tambov for 1.5-2 months.
- Zhigulevskoe, Spartan, Autumn striped - 1-2 months.
- Glory to the winners, Cinnamon new - 2-3 months.
- Bolotovskoe - until mid-February.
- The beauty of Sverdlovsk - until spring.
Autumn apples have an intermediate position between summer and winter varieties. A huge number of varieties of these apples allows you to use it for a long time.
Diseases and pests
For the Spartan apple tree, the same diseases are characteristic as for the other varieties, however, through the efforts of Canadian breeders, Spartan managed to be made more resistant to scab and powdery mildew... Here we will briefly look at the main diseases that affect apple trees, as well as methods of dealing with them.
- Scab... This is the most common fungal disease among all apple varieties. It manifests itself as black dots on fruits. If these points are small and rare, then the apples do not lose their taste and useful qualities.
However, if this disease is not dealt with, these elements become deeper and larger.thus covering most of the fruit, making it unfit for human consumption. It is better to fight scab ahead of the curve - correct and timely watering, feeding, pruning will help to avoid this disease. However, if the infection has already infected the trees, they are treated with a sprinkler with special preparations (for example, "Chorus" or "Speed").
Summing up, we can safely say that the Spartan variety has excellent taste, is easy to cultivate and has great commercial potential. With the right care, a high-quality and generous harvest of excellent apples can be reaped annually.
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