Garden blueberries - the secrets of growing
Berry crops in all their widest variety, it seems, have already firmly and forever settled in our gardens, occupied our golden hectares of land, have grown and give harvests. Undoubtedly, the vitamin benefits of the fruits of these plants, they help to strengthen the health of gardeners, to fight diseases.
Blueberry cultivation - this is not news abroad. In our country, blueberries are still the property of individual enthusiastic gardeners.
Exhausted by worldly vanity, tiring hard work, a person in his garden finds solace in berries dear to the heart and so dear to the body - bright scarlet like raspberries, yellow like sea buckthorn, green like the king of gooseberries, black like currants and, of course , in sky blue, like honeysuckle and blueberry. If you won't surprise anyone with the first berries from this list, then you can still surprise many with blueberries. This culture is multivitamin, relatively easy to care for and very interesting. It is here that, when growing it, you can kill two birds with one stone - and surprise your neighbors with outlandish berries, and pamper your body with a variety in the season when its bush, like a New Year's tree, is covered with balls of berries, and in winter, when the caring master's hands get out of the cellar yes will open a jar or two of the most fragrant blueberry jam.
Tall blueberries are cultivated in culture, it differs from the familiar to many blueberries of marsh or marsh growth and even more calm, docile nature. It will not die on ordinary soil, it will humbly grow and give generally good harvests, but in all its glory it will open before you only on acidic soils... Maybe it is in this property that lies the lack of a rush demand for plant seedlings?
Although true connoisseurs and lovers of blue berries - blueberries, this does not stop. For a long time, to acidify the soil, amateur gardeners used improvised means, literally everyone could be given a Ph.D. degree for a correctly set experience. Someone plentifully watered the soil with acid from a battery, someone diluted citric acid powder and abundantly "flavored" with them the area given as a sacrifice to the majestic blueberries. Both were right, but what else could they do?
Now, when the twenty-first century is outside the window, you can act less blasphemously and use it for the full production of blueberry berries sour peat... It is sold everywhere and is inexpensive, and so that the soil is neutral or, even worse, alkaline does not dissolve it without a trace, the hole in which the seedling is placed and covered with acidic peat is pre-compacted with ordinary film as for sheltering greenhouses. Polyethylene dissolves in the soil for an extremely long time - it will be enough for your lifetime, thus it helps blueberries to grow actively. Well, and all you have to do is choose the variety you like and take care of the crop conscientiously, collecting stable yields.
By the way, oh blueberry varieties... To date, a fairly large number of them have already been created, there is plenty to choose from: this is both a large-fruited and a tall variety. Rankocas, an amazingly tasty variety Erliblu, romantic variety Weymouth, good old grade Blue Ray and a variety known to everyone due to its winter hardiness Jersey... All these varieties will feel good in the center of Russia, and even a little further north. If you are afraid for your harvest, then just cover the trunk circle with sour peat in autumn, throw more snow on the plants, or, if the frost does not want to be friends with the snow, cover it with light and reliable lutrasil.
The main thing when growing blueberries - this is not to be afraid to take risks, you will have to run around with a watering can during a drought period, fight with weeds, when the plants are still very young, and even drive birds that adore overripe fruits. But all the effort is worth these large and surprisingly tasty, juicy, nutritious and healthy berries of tender blueberries. It is worth eating a small handful of its berries during the season, and you will forget about headache, lack of appetite, nervousness and eye fatigue, and your blueberries will tighten up your immunity quite well. They say that 50g of fresh or frozen blueberries per day is the first step to perfect health.
If we talk about the harvest, then the first beads of berries ripen in sultry August, usually when the first leaves dressed in autumn dress are torn from the trees. The ripening period of each bush stretches for about a week. This will help you enjoy fresh, with a thin waxy bloom of rich bluish-violet color, fruits for a longer time.
When collecting blueberries, take your time, do not use large containers for harvest, it is better to take those that can hold no more than a kilogram, otherwise the upper heavy berries can crush those below, in cramped conditions. Alas, such fruits will not lie at all, but whole ones, and even plucked a little ahead of time, can lie for a month in a simple household refrigerator.
Nikolay Khromov, Researcher, Candidate of Science GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin Russian Agricultural Academy, Scientific Secretary of ANIRR Photo by the author
How to plant blueberries
Many farmers advise digging holes 1 × 1 m in size.But there is no point in making such large holes, since blueberries have a superficial root system, and even in a 10-year-old bush it does not always reach 50 cm in diameter. pits and think where to get so much suitable peat at once?
It is better to do the following: when the blueberry reaches 6-7 years of age, the crown of the bush will indicate what is approximately the diameter of the roots at this time. And if you understand that it has reached the loam, dig a trench along the perimeter of the near-trunk zone on the bayonet of a shovel, which you fill with fresh high-moor peat. So you will gradually expand the planting hole and rationally use peat.
Blueberries are generally associated with forests and wildlife. But today, breeders have developed varieties that allow growing this berry in garden plots.
In garden centers and nurseries, various species and varieties of this plant are presented.
The main thing to know about planting and growing garden blueberries is that it requires a certain soil, which must be acidic.
In addition to increased acidity, the soil must have a certain composition. The optimal combination of peat and sand with the addition of sawdust from coniferous trees.
Most gardeners are faced with the problem of survival when planting blueberries.
[stextbox image = ’null’] If this plant is not planted correctly, it will die [/ stextbox]
When choosing a place planting, pay attention to the fact that this plant loves well-lit and sunny places.
When preparing a substrate for planting blueberries sour high-moor peat is used, fine bark or sawdust of coniferous species and sand, or if you have sandy soil, then the earth in proportions 1 part of high-moor peat 0.5 parts of bark or sawdust, 0.5 parts of sand or light earth.
[stextbox image = 'null'] When preparing the planting site and substrate, pay attention to pests. [/ stextbox]
The beetle larva can destroy the blueberry bush in a short time. For prophylaxis, pickle the soil after planting.
The optimum acidity is between 4-5.5% Ph.
Blueberry cross-pollinated plant therefore, to get a good harvest on the site, it is necessary to plant at least two bushes, preferably of a different variety.
Blueberry seedlings are planted in holes. Sometimes, when preparing the hole, the edges of the pit are isolated from the main soil, this procedure is used for heavy and very acidic soils, for sandy and other light soils, this operation can be omitted.
We dig a hole 90 cm in size and 45 cm deep. The 45 cm depth is justified by the fact that 90% of the roots are at a depth of 30-35 cm and when digging a hole of greater depth, we prepare a place for organizing drainage to prevent the root system from getting wet.
At the bottom of the pit, we evenly apply sulfur in an amount of 100-150 grams, so that sulfur, during decomposition, acidifies our soil and restrains the pressure of the main soil, drainage 5-7 cm thick, it is advisable to use finely chopped bark of coniferous trees and fill it with a specially prepared mixture described above and plant a blueberry seedling slightly deepening it to a depth of 2-5 cm. The minimum amount of high-moor peat for such a hole should be at least 150 liters. It is not necessary to tamp the seedling strongly, as blueberries love loose soil.
Water abundantly with the addition of rooting preparations, blueberries have very delicate roots and we must mulch to preserve moisture.
Blueberries love moist soil, so pay attention to regular watering.
With regular watering, the soil becomes deoxidized, so I advise you to pour colloidal sulfur in the amount of 0.5 kg around the bush in the fall under each bush under mulch.
Blueberries need pruning, but carry out the first pruning not earlier than in 2-3 years.
When thinning the crown, the root system grows better and fruit buds are laid on which the crop ripens.
[stextbox image = 'null'] Pruning should be done in early spring before the leaves bloom. [/ stextbox]
The basic principles of pruning are to free the center of the bush for better aeration and avoid the development of fungal diseases of the plant due to thickening and poor ventilation.
Define and leave 4-5 strong, thick, tall annual shoots, cut out the rest.
Annual shoots these are reddish, not stiff shoots. We try to cut the shoots as low as possible to the ground.
We cut out all the shoots that creep along the ground, curves that grow inside the bush.
[stextbox image = 'null'] Good quality pruning is the health of your plant and the guarantee of a good harvest. [/ stextbox]
Blueberries are not afraid of pruning. Tip cut all branches on the remaining shoots to a height of 30-35 cm from the ground. Large berries are formed at a height of 40-45 cm from the ground.
The essence of pruning is to get high-quality, healthy, large berries th bush.
When fertilizing blueberries, use mineral fertilizers,
do not use manure and chicken droppings,
the root system of the plant is delicate and requires very careful use of dressings.
When feeding blueberries, use sulfate-based fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, potassium monophosphate, which acidify the soil.
The use of potassium nitrate and nitroamofoska is contraindicated
due to the fact that blueberries love nitrogen in the ammonium form due to the peculiarities of their development.
Ammonium sulfate is perhaps the best fertilizer for blueberries.
The application rate for a two year old bush is 80-100 grams during the season.
- the first feeding is done at the end of April,
- the second at the end of May
- the third at the end of June in the amount of 25-35 grams under the bush.
At the time of fruiting, it is recommended to apply potassium fertilizer such as potassium sulfate in an amount of 15-20 grams under the bush.
Top dressing 2 times.
- the first time at the moment of ovary formation
- the second time during the ripening period.
It's good to feed in the fall potassium monophosphate... The application rate is 20-25 grams per bush.
- phosphorus is good for the development of the root system,
- potassium will help the blueberry shoots ripen and survive the winter well.
[stextbox image = 'null'] Pay special attention to irrigation water [/ stextbox]
Ordinary water has a Ph 6-7, so acidify it periodically.
For acidification, you can use citric acid, electrolyte, acetic acid.
The dosage is selected individually according to the quality of the irrigation water.
Blueberries are very hygrophilous plants.
Water it often and abundantly, but try not to water it.
Blueberries are susceptible to pest attacks
which damage flowers, leaves and buds.
- pine silkworm caterpillar,
Applying chemicals according to package directions will help you fight these pests. The drugs are presented in a large assortment in specialized stores.
[stextbox image = 'null'] Blueberries are also susceptible to disease, [/ stextbox]
- stem cancer
- drying of branches,
- gray rot,
- moniliosis of fetuses,
- white leaf spot,
as well as viral diseases such as the:
- red annular leaf spot,
Treatment with a 0.2% solution helps well against fungal diseases. topsin or 0.2% solution euparena.
In the spring, before bud break and in late autumn, prophylaxis is carried out rovral(0.1-0.2% solution), Bordeaux liquid.
Against viral diseases there are no ways other than removing and burning damaged plants.
Remove plants and treat the infected area formalin or dark solution potassium permanganate.
It is not recommended to plant plants in this place for 3 years.
Blueberries need to be prepared for winter.
The preparation consists in covering the bushes.
We bend the bushes to the ground, set arcs and cover with burlap or non-woven material. Put spruce branches on top and, when snow falls, we throw it onto our shelter.
[stextbox image = 'null'] Cellophane is not recommended for covering to avoid fading. [/ stextbox]
When growing blueberries, keep an eye on the acidity of the soil, and periodically feed it with mineral fertilizers, and then this plant will delight you with amazingly tasty and healthy fruits.
Blueberries begin to bear fruit in late June and early July and lasts until September.
How to choose a variety
To date, more than 100 varieties of this plant have been bred, which differ:
- the size of berries
- the size of the bushes
- ripening terms
- the appearance of the fruit
Based on the area of the site and personal preferences, you can choose varieties with undersized or tall, spreading or compact bushes, as well as with different ripening times.
With the right selection of varieties, you can enjoy delicious berries from mid-summer to the end of September. We have selected the best blueberry varieties worthy of their place in your garden.
Garden blueberries: my secrets to incredible harvests
In order to get a stable harvest of sweet blueberries every year, you need to know a few tricks for planting and caring for plants. We are happy to share with you the rules for growing this wonderful berry!
It takes a long time to prepare for planting blueberries. After all, we plant nadolo, and not for 1-2 years. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare the landing site carefully and in accordance with all the rules.
Blueberry yield is also dependent on feeding, so take a close look at my tips for growing garden blueberries.
Compliance with all the rules for growing blueberries on the site is a guarantee of the appearance of the first harvest on the bush three years after planting. Check out the information you need to know when you start harvesting blueberries.
- Do not rush to pick blueberries, they do not crumble and will hang on the branch for a long time.
- Collect the soft and sugar berries, and leave the firm and hard ones for next time. Harvest once a week.
- Blueberries have a high keeping quality: fresh harvested berries are stored in the refrigerator for up to a month after harvest, at room temperature - 1-1.5 weeks.
- The berries are transportable, transport blueberries in wooden boxes, they will not choke and will retain their taste.
Blueberries are not only a tasty berry, but also extremely healthy. The vitamins contained in the fruits, ease of planting and maintenance make the shrub ideal for the gardener, even if his experience in gardening is very little or not at all.
Secrets of growing blueberries
Secrets of growing blueberries
For the successful cultivation of this culture, the soil must be acidic: pH 4.0-5.0, otherwise it will die.
Option 2: Overripe pine litter (needles) + humus
Option 3: Sawdust + humus
The place should be sunny, and protection from the wind is desirable, especially from the north side.
Throughout the season, blueberries must be watered at least once a month with acidified water: citric acid 10-20 g per 10 liters of water or apple cider vinegar 1 cup per 10 liters of water.
The soil should be well water-permeable and breathable (i.e. it can be sand, peat, coconut substrate). Blueberry roots not only need water, but also air to breathe.
Mandatory mulching with old sawdust. A layer of mulch retains moisture in the root zone, regulates the temperature of this layer, and improves the illumination of the bush.