In the nightshade family, which include tomatoes and potatoes, there is a rare unusual plant called physalis. For most, this culture is unknown and to many resembles the name of some exotic fruit. In fact, physalis grows both in the wild and as a cultivated plant. Among its various species, there are many decorative specimens and fruit-bearing varieties that are quite edible. Physalis fruits have beneficial properties and individual taste characteristics.
Physalis appeared on the territory of Russia at the beginning of the 19th century, and the plant came to Europe and Asia from the countries of South and Central America, which are considered its homeland. By the way, physalis was not known in its homeland as a culture with edible and healthy fruits, for a long time everyone considered it an ordinary weed.
Most popular types
Decorative physalis - perennial species with decorative, bitter-tasting fruits, the appearance of which resembles cherry berries or cherry tomatoes. During flowering, the shrubs seem to be decorated with yellow, orange or red lanterns-flowers. This species is able to become a real decoration of a garden or flower garden for many years. It is only necessary to carry out the thinning of the plants in time so that they do not occupy the entire free territory of the garden land.
Vegetable physalis - This is a fast-growing annual species that brings a bountiful harvest of medicinal berries with a high content of useful elements. These unpretentious plants easily tolerate moderate frosts and can reproduce by self-sowing. Berries of a high level of keeping quality can be used in food in various forms. They taste great in pickled and salted form, as well as as a hot seasoning and in a variety of sauces.
Strawberry Physalis Is a thermophilic annual crop that, during active flowering, resembles enlarged strawberry bushes. The orange-red fruits in the shape of a large strawberry look great against a backdrop of luscious green foliage. When flowering ends, the plants are left with many small, sweet-tasting red berries. They can be consumed fresh, dry, frozen and boiled. Marmalade, preserves or jams from physalis have a wonderful and unique taste and are suitable for long-term storage.
Not knowing all the secrets of growing this crop, gardeners do not dare to plant it on their plots. But in fact, these fears are in vain, since physalis does not cause trouble, it is not difficult to take care of it and it will not take much time for it. With minimal effort, you can get a bountiful harvest of healthy berries.
With proper preparation for planting and growing strawberry and vegetable physalis, as well as with basic care, a good harvest will delight gardeners every season.
How to grow physalis
Physalis reproduces in several ways: self-sowing, seeds, seedlings, rhizomes. The simplest and most common is the seed method of reproduction. Good quality planting material (seeds) easily takes root in the open field or is used for growing seedlings.
Preparing seeds for planting
First, you need to soak the seeds in a saline solution made from 250 ml of water and 1 tablespoon of salt to cull them. Low-quality (empty) seeds will float to the surface - they are unsuitable for propagation, and those that have sunk to the bottom can be used.
After soaking, high-quality planting material must be rinsed under running water (you can use a sieve), and then dry well. About a day before sowing, the seeds must be disinfected. As disinfectants, you can take fungicides, growth stimulants or a solution of potassium permanganate. In the purchased solutions, the seeds should be at least 12 hours, and in potassium permanganate - about 30 minutes.
The planting time is of great importance for the further development of the plant. Seedlings can be grown after April 15 - this is about 1.5 months before planting them in open beds. It is recommended to sow physalis immediately on an open plot of land in the fall (before the onset of frost) or in the spring, when the threat of frost at night has passed.
Choosing a site for planting and preparing the soil
Since the relatives of physalis are nightshades (for example, tomatoes and potatoes), planting in the area where these crops grew is undesirable due to poor survival rate and the risk of common diseases. But such precursors as cucumbers and cabbage have a beneficial effect on physalis.
The amount of harvest and the palatability of the fruit depend on the correct planting site. It must be in an open, sunny area.
The soil should be light, with good water and air permeability. This is possible if it includes: rotted compost (or humus), garden (or sod) soil - 1 part each, peat soil - 2 parts, cleaned river sand - 0.5 part. You can make this potting mix yourself.
Sowing seeds in open beds
The unpretentious physalis is not afraid of the vagaries of the weather, it can easily reproduce on its own (self-seeding) and planting is suitable for it in autumn and spring. But still, there are some proven planting rules on which the quality and quantity of young seedlings depends:
- You cannot plant seeds deeper than 1.5 cm;
- Dense sowing is recommended, which will ensure that young plants will not stretch;
- It is necessary to leave a distance of at least 50 cm between flower beds;
- The favorable temperature for the emergence of seedlings is from 15 to 17 degrees Celsius;
- In case of sudden temperature changes at night and during the day, it is recommended to use a plant shelter (at night);
- When sowing, the seeds can be mixed with sand or with radish seeds, this will contribute to the appearance of uniform shoots;
- Soil temperature favorable for planting seeds is from 5 to 7 degrees Celsius (at a depth of up to 10 cm).
Radish seeds, when mixed with physalis, will not interfere with each other, because the radish harvest will be harvested much earlier than the physalis grows. It is very important to carry out timely double thinning of plants. After the first procedure, a distance of about thirty centimeters should remain between young cultures, and after the second, it should be twice as large.
With all these recommendations from experienced gardeners, even without seedlings, young seedlings will be healthy and strong.
Seedling method of reproduction of physalis
Growing quality seedlings will require separate flower containers and excellent seed material. The optimal time for planting seeds is April, for planting seedlings in open ground - from 15 to 30 May.
Preparing the soil at the selected site consists in clearing it of weeds and loosening it. For the rapid rooting of seedlings and full further development, it is necessary to follow the planting rules:
- Before removing the seedlings from the container, it is recommended to moisten the soil abundantly so as not to damage the young plants;
- Physalis "Decorative" and "Vegetable" must be planted no more than 5 copies per 1 square meter, and "Strawberry" - up to 10 pieces;
- To prevent the seedlings from pulling out, it is necessary to sow the areas free between the physalis with lettuce or radish;
- It is recommended to plant seedlings in the evening, when solar activity decreases, this will promote rapid rooting and shorten the adaptation period;
- It is undesirable to water immediately after transplanting, such moisture can lead to the appearance of a crust on the surface of the soil and will interfere with the normal penetration of air into the soil.
Subject to all the recommendations for planting seedlings of perennial physalis, in subsequent seasons, special efforts will not be needed to obtain a high-quality harvest. The main care will be to irrigate the soil and apply the necessary fertilizers.
Physalis care outdoors
It is important to timely rid the flower beds of plants with the first signs of disease. To prevent further infection, all diseased specimens are recommended to be burned immediately.
Liquid dressing should be applied during the period of active flowering (1 time) and during the formation of fruits (2 times with an interval of 15-20 days). Each crop will require approximately 500 ml of mineral fertilizers.
Watering is carried out 1-2 times a week throughout the summer season, and in the hottest and driest period - up to 4 times. Since September, the number of waterings is reduced to 1 time per week. An excess of moisture must not be allowed.
Physalis blooms throughout the summer, and the fruits ripen from July until the first frost appears. When the orange physalis petals lose their color and dry out, this indicates that it is time to harvest the fruit. During this period, a pleasant smell appears on the beds, which spreads from ripe berries. For long-term storage, not only berries from the bush, but also "beads" that have fallen to the ground are suitable. But frosts have a negative effect on the keeping quality of fruits, so it is necessary to harvest before they appear. With the onset of frost, unripe berries must be cut off along with the bush and left hanging in a dry room for final ripening.
Growing physalis in 5 minutes! From sowing to harvesting
Of practical interest is a group of physalis of Mexican origin. Edible Physalis is an annual plant of the nightshade family, a close relative of tomatoes, but more resistant to diseases and pests. Biochemical indicators put it in a number of valuable vegetable crops. Physalis fruits contain up to 8% dry matter, 4% sugars, a significant percentage of vitamin C (25 mg%), pectin substances (0.27%). They are consumed fresh, dried, used as raisins in puddings, compotes, jam is made from fruits, sweets are made. Physalis is good in salted and pickled form.
Of the varieties, the following are most common: Gruntovy Gribovskiy 2046 - medium early, cold-resistant, up to 80 cm high. Fruits are light green, taste sweet and sour. Moscow early 2045 - early maturing, with half-lying branches. The fruits are light yellow, sweet. Strawberry 573 belongs to the group of physalis of South American origin, berry variety, early maturing, cold-resistant.
In the southern and central regions, physalis seeds are sown directly into open ground. In the middle lane, it is better to grow it through seedlings. The strawberry variety is sown in early April, the rest - in the second half of April, simultaneously with tomatoes. Seedlings dive into pots. Early harvest can be expected from seedlings planted at the end of May.
Physalis love the sun, fertile, non-acidic soil. Plants are placed in rows at a distance of 60 cm from each other. Physalis agrotechnics is similar to tomato agrotechnics. Plants do not stepchild, since the main crop is formed on the lateral branches. They begin to collect the fruits as they ripen (1.5-2 months after planting them in the ground).
What is important to know about physalis?
Before you start growing and, moreover, eating this plant, it is important to figure out which physalis is edible and not dangerous to health. In total, there are more than 100 varieties of physalis in nature, of which only 10 can be eaten without fear.
First of all, the physalis berry group is distinguished. The fruits of such a plant are suitable for eating raw, as well as when added to compotes, jam, confectionery dishes. The most popular in Russia is strawberry physalis, the cultivation of which is available not only in the southern regions of the country.
There is a physalis vegetable group that is also popular in cooking. The fruits of such a plant look like small tomatoes, and depending on the physalis variety, their color can be green, yellow and even purple.
The most popular in Russia are:
- Ground physalis
- Moscow early physalis
- Confectionery physalis.
Regular use of physalis is considered an excellent prevention of many diseases and ailments.
The organic acids that are part of physalis normalize the acid-base balance. Lycopene and pectin are excellent antioxidants. Fiber, also found in physalis berries, normalizes digestive functions.
Besides this physalis can be used as an effective antihistamine as well as an effective diuretic... Experts recommend using physalis for stomach ulcers, gastritis, diabetes mellitus, chronic cholecystitis and hypertension. Berries are used for diseases of the respiratory tract, hypertension, dermatoses, dysentery. In addition, physalis has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, analgesic, diuretic, choleretic effects.
Useful properties of Physalis
Edible fruits are sweet, aromatic. They are saturated with a large number of useful microelements, contain vitamins A, C, as well as iron, magnesium, calcium and many other substances useful for human health. Decoctions, infusions from this plant are used in folk medicine in the treatment of urolithiasis, bronchitis, rheumatism and other ailments.
Physalis care outdoors
Caring for physalis is easy and pleasant. Unlike tomato brothers, physalis bushes do not need pinching and frequent feeding. Fertilizers can be applied twice per season - in June, feed it with mullein infusion, and in the second half of July with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Watering for the first time is necessary for young plants, especially in the absence of rain. In the future, the plant will adapt itself to obtain water for itself and watering can be reduced. Growing pineapple physalis bushes will need support, therefore, as they grow, they are tied to pegs.
Planting pineapple physalis must be kept clean, and the soil must be loose. Therefore, weeding and loosening must be done on time. If the soil around the physalis bushes is mulched, these worries disappear by themselves.
Tied and mulched, physalis feels great
Several years ago I tried to grow physalis in my country house. There were no decent varieties then, and we had not heard of any pineapple or strawberry - vegetable, and that's all. Sowed without seedlings - seeds in the ground and did not cover them with anything. Shoots appeared quickly and amicably, thinned them out where it was necessary. In my garden, I try to mulch everything - we have an extremely dry climate, and physalis mulched it. Then I just watered. There were a lot of fruits, but it was impossible to eat them raw - they were tasteless. But the physalis jam with oranges turned out to be excellent - everyone ate homemade with pleasure.
But the most interesting thing happened the next year. In the fall, we did not have time to remove physalis from the garden - the fruits ripened until late autumn, and then unexpectedly it snowed and we did not go to the dacha. In the spring, when I began to put things in order in the garden, I discovered young shoots. Where the physalis fruits remained, the seeds fell into the ground and it grew unaided.
In the wild physalis found in Central and South America, where self-sowing propagates as a weed. The local population here long ago tamed him, introduced him to culture.Physalis is very popular in Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia: a large number of fruitful varieties adapted to growing on the plains and in the mountains have been bred. It was from here that physalis, or, as it is also called, the Mexican tomato, was brought to North America, and in the 17th century - to Europe and Asia. Physalis entered Russia almost simultaneously with tomatoes, but did not receive wide distribution. This was the case until recently.
Interest in Physalis increased in our country in the 1920s and 1930s. In 1926, breeder S. Bukasov, during a trip to Mexico and Guatemala, collected a large collection of nightshades, including physalis. At all experimental stations began to study physalis as a vegetable crop. It was found that Mexican tomato can be grown everywhere in our country, but especially successfully in Ukraine and the Far East. And physalis stepped onto the plantation. Already in 1934, its area reached 5000 hectares, of which 3000 hectares in the Far East. Somewhat later, the first varieties were bred for the confectionery industry, and especially for the production of citric acid. Then the interest in the new product faded, the crops decreased, and now physalis is grown mainly on personal plots. And that's not everywhere.
Physalis - a botanical relative of potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant. There are three groups of physalis - food (vegetable), decorative and medicinal.
Of course, vegetable physalis, primarily Mexican, Strawberry, Peruvian and some others, are of the greatest interest for gardeners. But first, a few words about decorative. We have them represented by the following types - alkekengi, flexuose, franchetia and longifolia. Alkekengs are known more as Chinese lanterns. Their cups are yellow, orange or red. Their decorativeness persists throughout the year. Al-kekengis are easily propagated by seeds and dividing the bush. Pretty in single plantings longifolia. Its height is 2 m, the bush is highly branching, the stems are erect, thick, the flowers are large with a blue corolla. The calyx (lanterns) are nut-colored with strongly overgrown ribs. The flowers have an interesting biological feature: they open at 12 o'clock and close at 16.
Medicinal and vegetable physalis have diuretic, choleretic, hemostatic and analgesic properties. They are especially widely used in traditional medicine in Central and South America. In addition, alkekengs, prethermis and franchettes provide organic dyes.
In our country, vegetable physalis are represented by annual varieties. According to biological characteristics, food physalis are divided according to the place of origin into South American and Mexican.
The South American forms have small, sweet and aromatic berries. Plants are self-pollinating, with densely drooping stems and leaves. Here, this form is represented by varieties of strawberry and Peruvian physalis.
Strawberry Physalis got its name for its pleasant smell, for the strong pubescence of all parts of the plant, it is also called pubescent. Popularly known as earthy cranberries and raisins. Strawberry physalis is an annual plant, its stem is highly branched, up to 50-70 cm long. The shape of the bush is almost creeping. Leaves are oval, slightly corrugated. This physalis is propagated by seeds, sown in the ground. This is in the southern regions, and in the more northern regions it is cultivated through seedlings. After all, strawberry physalis is very demanding on heat, the seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of at least 15 °. In addition, this type of physalis is short-day, that is, plants develop well only with a short southern day. In conditions of a long northern day, the growing season is extended. And only the race, which provides a seedling method, allows you to get ripe berries here too. They are small, yellow in strawberry physalis. In the conditions of Western Kazakhstan, the yield from a bush on irrigation reached 1.5 kg (300-600 and more berries). The most interesting varieties are Strawberry and Izyumny. Berries of strawberry physalis are sweet, vitamin, they are very fond of fresh children. You can make jam and raisins from them. Before use, they do not require blanching, since they do not have a sticky substance on the fruits, unlike the Mexican and Peruvian ones.
I fell in love with our gardeners and peruvian physalis... He comes from Peru, where it is cultivated as a berry crop. It appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 19th century. It has not yet received wide distribution, which is associated with its biology. This plant is very heat demanding. Even in the southern and subtropical regions, it is propagated by seedlings. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 20 °, plants are demanding on moisture and soil. The leaves of the Peruvian physalis are large, the flowers are small, pale yellow with a dark brown spot at the base. The berries are small, enclosed in an overgrown nut-colored cap. The berries taste sweet and sour with a pineapple smell. There are forms with a slight orange scent. The growing season is long. The berries begin to ripen only in the second half of September. Late ripening negatively affects the yield. It is interesting that in subtropical conditions this physalis does not freeze out in winter, and in the second year of life, flowering begins early, in May, and the fruits ripen in the middle of summer.
More widespread mexican physalis... Several of its varieties are known - branched, outstretched, spreading and inclined. In terms of its biological characteristics, the Mexican physalis is close to tomatoes, but in comparison with them it is more cold-resistant, drought-resistant, less light-loving. It grows on all soils, except for strongly acidic, saline and waterlogged soils. The high drought resistance is due to the powerful root system. As a shade-tolerant plant, this physalis feels good in the aisles of other crops. The increased cold resistance allows the Mexican physalis to move far north. He suffers from the same diseases as tomatoes - late blight, black leg, and from pests it is affected by wireworm and winter scoop.
The shape of the bush is erect, half-stem and half-creeping. Significant differences are also observed in height: undersized bushes reach only 30-50 cm, tall ones - 120-125 cm. Especially large differences between varieties are observed in the color of the tops: sometimes dark green, green, yellowish, purple. Fruit weight reaches 50-60 g. There are from 50 to 500 of them on the bush. The varieties Moscow Early, Gruntovy Gribovskiy, Konditerskiy and Local yellow-flowered, cultivated in the Amur Region, are distinguished by their yield.
The variety of forms, types and varieties of physalis allows amateur vegetable growers to select what suits them best in specific conditions.
We recommend reading more
- Growing physalis seedlings and its varietiesPhysalis is still a rare culture. Long-standing domestic varieties, bred at the Gribovskaya Vegetable Breeding Experimental Station, are still rare in the beds of amateur vegetable growers. But after all.
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- Growing pineapple at homeI grew pineapples by rooting the lateral shoots and supra-fruit rosettes of fruits purchased in the store. Pineapples need a very loose, nutritious soil. I compose it from leafy, turfy land.
- Strawberries in the gardenIt is known how laborious the strawberry culture is. It is necessary to constantly water the plants, weed the weeds, loosen the soil, cut the mustache and even spray the plants to protect them from diseases, etc.
- Strawberry-strawberry hybrids and varietiesIn the Research Zonal Institute of Horticulture of the Non-Black Earth Belt, strawberry-strawberry hybrids were obtained from crossing varieties of garden strawberries with strawberries of Milan. From the strawberry, the berries of the new hybrid were borrowed from the nutmeg.
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Gardening and horticulture books
(Vegetable crops) 1988 Pantielev Y. Vegetable garden outside the city “To provide assistance to personal subsidiary plots of citizens. "- recorded in the Basic Directions of Economic and Social Development of the USSR for 1986-1990 and for the period up to 2000. Following the established tradition, the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR provides assistance in acquiring special knowledge in horticulture and horticulture. Thus, visitors to the pavilion "Fruit and vegetable growing and potato growing" have the opportunity to get acquainted with the agrotechnical methods of growing vegetable products at all stages from pre-sowing seed preparation to harvesting. This edition of the Home Garden Guide summarizes the Pavilion's recommendations.
(Fruit crops) 1986 Lyubimova L.L., Totubalina G.V. Pear The brochure provides general information about the culture, its distribution, value, biology, gives a brief description of the best regionalized and promising pear varieties, and also describes the technology of cultivation in the Non-Black Earth Region. For professional gardeners, it can be useful for amateur gardeners.
(Vegetable crops) 1989 Alpat'ev A.P. Physalis Physalis is a relatively new, but very valuable and promising culture. Imported from South America in the early 1920s, it is now widely spread in many regions of our country. The fruits of edible physalis are distinguished by their high taste and rich biochemical composition. They contain sugars, a significant amount of vitamin C, organic acids, trace elements, pectin substances. Physalis is the only vegetable that has a gelling property and therefore is widely used in the confectionery industry. In addition, its fruits are eaten fresh, used to make jam, jam, jam, compote, caviar, they are salted, pickled. Interest in physalis is explained by the fact that this culture is less demanding on heat than tomato, and has simple agricultural techniques. Yields of vegetable physalis are 1.5-4 kg / m ^ 2. The brochure provides information on the most common species and varieties of physalis. The nutritional value of this culture, the peculiarities of its cultivation in household plots, is given. The main diseases and pests and measures to control them are described. Methods of fruit processing are recommended. Designed for amateur vegetable growers.
(Vegetable crops) 1991 Pisarev B.A. Potatoes on a personal plot Potatoes are one of the staple foods in our country. A significant part of its gross harvest is the production of household plots. How to grow early and late potatoes? How to choose a variety for your site? How to deal with diseases and pests? - Our book will tell about all this. It also explains the conditions required to produce early and late potatoes. Varieties suitable for cultivation in private plots are briefly characterized, indicating the methods of cultivation, as well as methods of storage of products. There is information about diseases and pests of potatoes and the possibilities of combating them.