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How to create a small garden in a regular style

How to create a small garden in a regular style


Versailles style garden

Elements of regularity in home gardens

Regular gardens and parks are one of the greatest achievements of mankind in the field of landscape design. Not a single decent castle in Europe is complete without this peculiar visiting card of a self-respecting nobleman.

Having spread throughout the world, the art of creating such parks has found application in more modest spaces. Today, adding elements of regularity to a personal plot, for example, decorating the front entrance in this way, is the best way to give a country house solemnity and splendor.


Historical reference

What is more in parks and gardens, divided according to the laws of strict symmetry - the desire for orderliness or the desire to demonstrate knowledge in geometry and their power over Nature - is difficult to say. However, the Egyptian pharaohs, who first allowed themselves such a luxury about 4 thousand years ago, were still fascinated by regular-shaped gardens with straight alleys and symmetrically arranged trees.

Symmetrical gardens of the ancient Greeks and Romans with a large number of statues and topiary forms (trimmed to fit certain figures of trees and shrubs); square green courtyards in Islamic countries and, of course, European gardens of the Renaissance - all this is a tribute to the regularity of mankind. Today, regular gardens can be roughly divided into French, Dutch and Italian.

It is believed that the earliest of them are Italian. Since the days of Ancient Rome, the Italians' country villas were located on the coastal slopes, ledges down to the sea. It is terracing that is the main feature of a regular Italian garden. Straight paths, trees cut to match geometric shapes, bright lawns, arches entwined with vines and covered alleys - all this is an Italian garden.

The green apartments of each of the terraces were connected by corridors and staircases, and each separate "green room" was inhabited by peculiar plants - fruit or beautifully blooming. The Italian garden did not have strict axial symmetry, the plantings followed the natural course of the terraces, and yet it was certainly a regular style. The Dutch, like the Italians, divided the garden into a series of closed offices.


Preference was given to aromatic plants, the house, or rather, the palace was hidden behind the trees, and the owners and their guests had the opportunity to hide in gazebos and pavilions. The Dutch gardens were meant for secluded relaxation and contemplation.

One of the distinctive features of the Dutch garden is the presence in it of the attributes of rural life - tiny mills, wells, wheelbarrows with plants planted on them. Peter I, the first national gardener, had great respect for Dutch gardeners. The first garden in front of the park facade of the old Catherine Palace was laid by a Dutchman - Van Roosen.

In the conventional sense, French regular parks are, first of all, spaciousness, endless perspectives, a very large territory where trimmed hedges are freely placed, strict geometric lawns, ornamental flower beds, rarely located, but perfect in shape and execution, laconic rectangles of ponds, fountains, pergolas , spheres and pyramids of topiary forms. The French regular style is luxurious and solemn.

The flat relief of France and rather large spaces, which, in particular, were deprived of the inhabitants of the Netherlands, contributed to the flourishing of landscape art. This style reached its peak in the era of Louis XIV and, according to historians, reflected the idea of ​​centralization of power. However, since the rise and heyday of Versailles, there have been many variations on the theme of regular parks for those who do not have a royal amount of hectares. Today, small resemblances of a French garden can decorate any site, even if it is not too large.

Luxury projections

Lawn. Using the elements of regularity in a private property is the best way to bring a touch of solemnity to the exterior of a country house. However, it should be remembered that even the most modest composition in a regular style remains a luxury item, since its elements cannot be cheap by definition.

All elements of a regular garden, including the lawn, look truly rich and even luxurious. The reason is simple: creating a regular garden does mean a hefty investment. In a parterre lawn, for example, an exceptionally high seeding rate is achieved. In addition, for its creation, the slowest-growing, most beautiful and, accordingly, expensive varieties of herbs are used, mixtures of different varieties and types are never used.

In Russia, the most common type of lawn grass is meadow bluegrass. To create a quality lawn, it is sown at a double rate. To express the idea of ​​the simplest regular garden in a modern "home" version, it is enough to make a high-quality, emerald-colored patterned lawn, using, in addition to lawn grass, a certain amount of inert material for dumping. Stones are most often used as an inert material: granite screenings, river pebbles, crushed bricks. In compositions in the classical style, materials of two or three shades of the natural range are most often taken.

Flower garden. The founder of the rules for laying out flower beds in a regular garden is the French architect and gardener Andre Le Nôtre.

In his opinion, various stylized natural forms should be included in the composition of parterre flower beds: branches with leaves, finials (images resembling a flower), ornamental dismembered leaves, drawings of developing stems, grains or trefoils. Parterre flower beds are located in open, sunny places, avoiding shadows from anything, since the latter can provoke uneven plant growth and, as a result, vertical asymmetry of the flower garden.

Usually, the parterre flower beds include only annuals - plants of one year of life; bulbs are used in spring parterres. Perennials for the most part are not suitable for the role of the main characters of a regular flower bed, since their flowering period is usually short.

Almost the only exception to this rule are hosts - perennial ornamental deciduous plants, arranged in clumps and having a very graphic shape. In the center of the parterre flower garden, as a rule, some single plant is planted (in landscape design they are called solitary plants). It can be a well-known thuja or a standard rose bush.

A fairly common technique is to install exotic tub plants in the center, for example, an agave, orange or laurel tree (although it would also be nice to have a winter garden where these guests from the subtropics will spend the winter). Sometimes a fountain, sculpture or decorative metal products act as a compositional center. The edge of the flower garden must be perfectly straight; the ornament should be a continuation or, on the contrary, a "provocateur" of the entire artistic concept. Everything in regular gardens tends to be orderly.

In classic parterre flower beds, it is considered important that the flowers growing on it are of the same size within one of the components of the pattern. Therefore, in such flower beds, plants are never sown with seeds, but ready-made seedlings are planted. The average planting density is 60-80 plants per square meter. The narrowest part of the picture cannot be less than 30 cm and, accordingly, subject to the proportions, the entire parterre flower garden is a rather large structure. But this is the very case when you cannot save, otherwise the result will be very deplorable, and, as you know, a miser pays twice ...

Trees, shrubs and topiary forms

The regular style is characterized by a rather tough shearing of trees to form a crown, hedges and topiary forms, when trees and shrubs are given geometric or fantastic outlines.

The popularity of trimmed trees and shrubs is truly enduring; This is especially true for hedges and bosquettes (French bosquet is a dense group of trees or bushes planted for decorative purposes, often cut in the form of even walls (trellises), balls, cubes or pyramids). Parterre hedges are most often created from shrubs. In the West, due to climatic conditions, there is a very large selection of planting material for such garden structures.

The most popular of these is boxwood. It also grows here, but it is almost impossible to make a high-quality hedge out of it, since it hibernates in our latitudes with great difficulty. The same can be said about beech and berry yew, which are very common in European gardens. For Russia, the most suitable are the Thunberg barberry (for creating hedges no more than 60 cm in height), shiny cotoneaster and privet (up to 1 m and above).

Of the conifers, thuja western, suitable for creating high hedges or "walls of green rooms", is unsurpassed in popularity. Shrubs are planted, as a rule, at the age of two years. Planting density is of decisive importance: 40 or more bushes per square meter. Of deciduous trees, the most common lindens, willows or elms will give a fair amount of regularity to the site.

The most important thing when using deciduous trees in this style is to observe strict geometry when planting and very carefully monitor the formation of the crown. The aerobatics of garden art is the formation of topiary forms, which decorate not only exteriors - they are often kept in rooms.

Yet their main "place of residence" is in the gardens. In our climatic conditions, various varieties of western thuja, which differ from each other in the shape, color and looseness of the crown, are most often chosen for the role of plants for cutting. Most often, they take 30-40-centimeter thuja for landing. These plants are planted quite widely (at least 2 m from each other), so that the shape of each individual tree is visible in adulthood.

Of course, at first this landing does not make much of an impression. This point can be slightly corrected with the help of the already mentioned tub plants, among which there are also topiary forms - pyramidal, spherical, or more intricate and playful. Arranged between the main plantings, tubs with neatly trimmed trees will help to survive the not too decorative "adolescence" of thujas. Another way is to plant spherical thuja at a distance of a meter, and when they grow up, thin them out exactly by half, finding another place in the garden for the dug trees.

Fruit and berry regular garden

It is difficult to imagine a Russian person who would give up berry bushes in favor of "overseas" decorativeness. And you don’t need to do that. Ordinary fruit bushes may not be comparable to berry yews in decorativeness, but when planted symmetrically and neatly trimmed, they will look no worse than their southern brothers.

A well-done haircut will also help increase yields. To make the orchard look like a little Versailles, for example, currants should be planted at a distance of at least two meters; try to keep the bushes of approximately the same shape; alternate planting of red currants with black, white or other berries, for example, with gooseberries.

The favorites of the garden fashion of recent years - garden shrubs on a trunk - are most appropriate in such a garden. Raspberries may be suitable for the role of a hedge in such a garden, if you remember to prune it and limit some aggressiveness of this plant with a plastic tape dug along the plantings, limiting the growth of roots and preventing the plant from leaving the territory allocated for it.

Regardless of whatever you stop at when planning a garden reformation, remember that the main thing for a regular style is the subordination of details to a single whole. It is extremely rare, but there are projects of houses in which it is better to avoid laying out a regular garden in front of the main entrance due to some glaring stylistic discrepancy. In that case, allow yourself to have a small, regular garden in the style of French Versailles in your backyard ....

Also read:
• How to create a Japanese-style garden
• Japanese garden in the genre of haiku
• Choice of style in the garden landscape
• Country style garden - rustic style
• How to create a Scandinavian style garden
• How to create a landscape garden
• Choosing the style of the garden - romantic, ceremonial, Roman, Spanish, Muslim, Chinese

N. Ivanova, biologist


The history of the emergence of the regular park [edit | edit code]

Italian influence [edit | edit code]

The French regular park has its roots in Renaissance Italian gardens, the principles of which were introduced to France at the beginning of the 16th century. Typical examples of the Italian Renaissance garden are the Boboli Gardens in Florence and the Villa Medici in Fiesole, which are characterized by the presence of parterres (seed beds) of regular geometric shapes, arranged in a symmetrical pattern, using fountains and cascading effects to animate the garden of stairs and slopes to combine different levels of the grotto garden. labyrinths and sculptural groups on the motives of mythologies. Such gardens symbolized harmony and order, the main ideals of the Renaissance, and personified the virtues of ancient Rome.

King Charles VIII, after his campaign in Italy in 1495, where he had the pleasure of seeing the castles and gardens of Naples, brought with him to France Italian artisans and gardeners, including Pacello de Mercogliano, who, at his order, began to arrange Italian-style gardens at the royal residence in Amboise. His successor Henry II, who also fought the Italian wars and met Leonardo da Vinci in Italy, set up an Italian garden near the royal castle in Blois [3]. Beginning in 1528, King Francis I began to arrange a new garden in the Palais des Fontainebleau, where fountains, parterres, a pine grove from trees brought from Provence were provided, and the first artificial grotto in France was built [4]. In the Château Chenonceau, two gardens were arranged in a new style - one in 1551 for Diane de Poitiers, and the second in 1560 for Catherine de Medici [5].

In 1536, the architect Philibert Delorme, after his return from Rome, took up the organization of the gardens of the castle of Anet in accordance with the Italian principles of proportionality. The carefully calibrated harmony of the gardens of Anet, reflected in their parterres and reservoirs, combined with areas of green space, became one of the earliest and most significant examples of classical French regular garden [6] .

Despite the fact that the gardens of the French Renaissance were already significantly different in character and appearance from the gardens of the Middle Ages, they were still an architectural composition separate from the castle and, as a rule, were framed by a wall. There was no harmonious relationship between different parts of the garden and gardens were often arranged on inappropriate land plots, which corresponded more to the goals of the defense of the castle than to the goals of creating beauty. Everything changed in the middle of the 17th century after the construction of the first real French regular gardens.

Vaux-le-Vicomte [edit | edit code]

The first significant garden and park complex of the regular style appeared in France at the Vaux-le-Vicomte palace. The construction of the estate of Nicolas Fouquet, superintendent of finance under King Louis XIV, began in 1656. Fouquet commissioned the design and construction of the castle to the architect Louis Leveaux, the creation of sculptures for the park - the artist Charles Lebrun, and the organization of the gardens was entrusted to André Le Nôtre. For the first time in France, the gardens and the palace were conceived and executed as a single garden-architectural complex. From the steps of the palace, a wonderful vista opened up 1500 meters into the distance, up to the statue of Hercules of Farnese, parterres were arranged in the park with the use of evergreen shrubs in ornamental patterns, bordered with colored gravel, and the alleys were decorated with sculptures, reservoirs, fountains and elegantly made topiary. “The symmetry arranged in Vaud has been brought to perfection and integrity, which is rarely found in classical gardens. The palace is placed at the center of this discerning spatial organization, embodying strength and success ”[7].

Gardens of Versailles [edit | edit code]

The gardens of the Palace of Versailles, created by André Le Nôtre, between 1662 and 1700, are the most outstanding example of French regular garden... They were the largest gardens in Europe, occupying an area of ​​8,300 [8] hectares during the era of Louis XIV. They are laid out along the east-west centerline, following the movement of the sun: the sun illuminated the Court of Glory at sunrise, illuminated the Marble Courtyard, crossed the palace, illuminating the King's bedroom, and sat behind the far side of the Grand Canal, reflected in the mirrors of the Mirror Gallery [9]. Contrasted with the lush, perspective view stretching to the horizon, the gardens were full of surprises - fountains, bosquets filled with sculptural work, gave the gardens a small scale and formed nooks and crannies.

The main symbol of the gardens, like the entire complex, was the Sun - the symbol of Louis XIV, personified by the statue of Apollo in the main fountain of the gardens. “Views and perspectives, both from the side of the palace and towards it, went to infinity. The king rules over nature, showing in the gardens not only his supremacy over the territories, but also over the courtiers and subjects ”[10].


10. Naturgarden - nature at its finest

The main task of naturgardena (literally a natural garden) is to show nature as it really is, simple and absolutely not requiring the intervention of such an imperfect creature like man. The philosophy of maximum laissez-faire has become very popular thanks to the work of Pete Udolph, landscape designer of the so-called "new wave".

Lack of clear boundaries, year-round, multi-level and, of course, low maintenance are the main principles of a garden in the naturgarden style. Special attention is paid to the use of natural landscape (no matter how unsightly it may seem) and plants typical for your region.

Colors: discreet and dull (bluish blue, lilac, golden).

Trees and shrubs: Local cultures and weeping willows. The main thing is that they do not overload the garden space. Fruiting should be lost against the background of their "wild" relatives.

Flowering and ornamental deciduous: chamomile, chrysanthemum, aster, echinacea, tansy, rudbeckia, foxglove, chisel, lobelia, wormwood, ornamental onion, bluehead, ferns and mosses, Moorish lawn.

Small architectural forms: in recreational areas, the use of flowerpots and pots is permissible. Gazebos and outbuildings should not be conspicuous. Wicker or wooden furniture, simple swing, decor from wooden saw cuts.

Water objects: as natural as possible.

Tracks: simple and inconspicuous, use fine tiles or paving stones for paving.

If you start comparing different landscape styles, you will notice that the ideas of some of them very often overlap. It is not surprising, because landscape design is not an exact science, but an art that knows no boundaries. However, knowing the characteristics of gardening styles will help avoid blunders and set the right direction.


The Italian garden as interpreted by Tom Stuart-Smith

The regular garden, created at the top of the old Italian garden by an English landscape architect, is perhaps the most "irregular" of all the "regular" ones. The classic garden art is the Italian garden, where chiseled tui and geometrically austere boxwood borders play the first violin, filled with chaotic and chaotic flower beds that are characteristic of the gardens of the "New Wave", but not Italian.

Udolph's work surrounds the new Italian garden from all sides, the plants chosen for the latter's flower beds are purely Udolph's, but his regular style remains regular. "Lush" flower beds and ridges do not merge with the mixborders of the neighboring garden due to the strict lines that create boxwood borders.

Inside there are chaotically growing rudbeckia and hakonekhloya, birchwood and reed grass, pikes and stalk-embracing knotweed. In addition to the ornamental grasses and grasses characteristic of the gardens of the "New Wave", the architect settled thermophilic perennials inside the strict borders: dahlias, gailardia, aeoniums and gladioli. As befits Italian-style gardens, there are many old flowerpots here. The designer planted a scarlet begonia in them, emphasizing the tone of bright perennial flowers.

The Italian Garden of Trentham Gardens is the most "irregular" of all the regular ones. © Gardenvisit


Secrets of garden planning on the site

Layout

If there is a plot of land, then there must be a garden with fruit trees. Without them, even the smallest area will seem deserted and uncomfortable: you cannot hide in the shade, nor can you pick an apple straight from a branch. Trees create a special atmosphere of comfort, beckon on a hot day under the spreading crowns, and that is why the first step to landscaping a summer cottage is planning an orchard.

  1. Planning
  2. Where to start (choice of location, soil composition)
  3. Plant compatibility in the garden
  4. At what distance to plant trees and bushes
  5. What trees to plant
  6. Apple trees
  7. Pears
  8. Sweet cherries
  9. Cherries
  10. Plum
  11. Where to plant berry bushes
  12. Tips for creating vegetable beds
  13. Landscaping with fruit trees
  14. "Useful" tapeworm
  15. Hedge
  16. Vertical gardening
  17. Related videos:

Junipers

The main highlight of the site is the presence of slender junipers, which grow like slender columns that unite and support the garden. The many-sided conifers are very loved by the overwhelming majority of gardeners, and it is their rich variety that often plays a cruel joke with us. After all, cases are very common when the garden turns into a variegated collection of "Christmas trees" of different colors and shapes. With Alla Alekseevna, everything is not at all like that.

In addition to the huge common forest spruce that meets us at the gate, this garden has only one species of conifers - the common columnar juniper. And there are no other conifers of a similar habit here.

The varietal name of this juniper is currently lost, but judging by the external features, presumably it is juniper "Khybernika" (Juniperus communis Hibernica). Once the hostess planted a single tree in her garden, but the whole family liked the juniper so much that it was soon multiplied and a whole juniper “grove” was created on six hundred square meters.

The only place where juniper is not found in this garden is the vegetable garden area, and the largest number of trees is concentrated in the favorite resting place of Alla Alekseevna in the depths of the garden. And this is no coincidence, because the juniper significantly heals the air in the places where it grows. It is well known that the juniper releases a large amount of volatile compounds that ionize the air and have significant antiseptic properties to the point that the air in the juniper forest is literally quite sterile.

Common juniper (Juniperus communis). © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

Juniper "Suezica" (Juniperus communis Suesica) has a narrower clonal shape. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

There is evidence that "juniper air" has a positive effect on bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, sore throat, tracheitis, and also stabilizes the psycho-emotional state of a person. Therefore, for the hostess, the juniper is not only one of the most beloved conifers and an element of landscape design, but also a green healer.

In this corner of the garden, another variation of common juniper is also planted - "Suezica" (Juniperus communis Suesica), which differs from the Khybernika variety by a narrower and denser regular columnar shape. But in general, both varieties of common juniper are very similar.

Thanks to this uniformity, the garden looks really stylish and strict. All other elements, obeying a similar "pillared hall", are combined into a single whole. Due to the fact that the majority of uniformity is not characteristic of ordinary summer residents who prefer to settle everything that is possible on the site (with the world on a string), this garden seems to be made by a professional designer.

The creeping juniper very quickly covered the entire alpine slide. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

Creeping species of conifers

Creeping conifers are mainly represented by ground cover juniper, presumably horizontal, whose varietal and specific name is also, unfortunately, not known to the owners. A common and instructive story for novice summer residents once happened with this juniper. A small coniferous twig acquired many years ago, which was supposed to gently creep among the stones, imperceptibly turned into a voluminous dense green carpet, displacing all the plants present here.

As a result, the rock garden had to be relocated to a new place, and an adult bush of creeping juniper among the stones turned into an independent composition.

The bunny perched near the horizontal juniper. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

A cute turtle on a pebble, surrounded by stonecrop. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

A frog on its own tree stump. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya