Currants in the fall: planting and care in the garden, pruning, transplanting, feeding
Fruit and berry plants
Everyone knows that currant berries are not only tasty, but also healthy. For the human body, currants are a storehouse of vitamins, essential elements and organic acids, and if you want to harvest a high yield of currants every year, you need to take care of it, not only before and during fruiting, but also in the fall, after harvesting.
In our article, we will share with you information about which month to plant currants in the fall, how to plant currants correctly in autumn, how to care for currants in autumn, whether to cut currants in the fall, and how to properly prepare currants for wintering.
How to plant currants in the fall
Dates of autumn planting
The main question that a novice gardener needs to solve is: when to plant currants - in spring or autumn? You can plant currants in open ground during the entire growing season, however, in the spring, the buds of currants open too quickly, so you will have very little time between the moment the soil thaws and the beginning of sap flow in trees and shrubs. You may not be in time.
Therefore, many gardeners prefer autumn planting, after leaf fall, when sap flow slows down and the plant is preparing to enter a dormant period. From a botanical point of view, there is no difference between spring and autumn planting of currants. The decisive factor in this matter is the climatic conditions of the region.
When to plant currants in the regions
The survival rate of currant bushes will be much higher if, after planting, you create the most favorable conditions for them, but the quickly onset of frosts will easily destroy the plant that did not have time to take root. It is also of great importance what type of currant we are talking about: red currants are much weaker than black in autumn and can easily die in winter, therefore, it is better not to experiment with rare varieties of this culture, but to plant them in the garden in mid or late March, as soon as enough the soil will warm up.
Black currants are not so weak in autumn and in areas where winter comes late, they have time to set up and develop a strong root system - for this it takes four weeks until the air temperature drops to 0 ºC. In the conditions of the middle lane, this occurs approximately at the end of October, therefore, currant bushes in the fall in the ground, for example, in the Moscow region, need to be planted in September, at least in early October.
In Siberia and the Urals, it is better to plant currants in the spring - the spring is long and wet there.
Planting currants in the fall in the ground
Preparing for landing
High-quality currant seedlings should have ripe shoots and succulent roots. Tear off all the leaves on the seedling, and if the roots are dry, lower them before planting in a bucket with a solution of ground insecticide, for example, Aktara - this will prevent damage to the roots by gnawing insects (wireworms, May beetles and others). Before planting, seedlings with succulent roots are dipped in a mash, consisting of 3 liters of water, 6 g of Aktara, 1-2 bags of Kornevin, 1 kg of clay and 1 kg of black soil. The talkers made according to this recipe should be enough for 15-20 currant seedlings.
Then plant the currants
A plot for currants is chosen flat, protected from the wind, with the occurrence of groundwater no higher than 1-1.5 m from the surface - currants do not tolerate wet soil and prolonged stagnation of water. Not suitable for growing crops and areas overgrown with wheatgrass. The best predecessors for currants are vegetables and flowers, perennial legumes (clover and lupine), mixtures of cereals and legumes, row crops, and after such plants as gooseberries, currants and raspberries, currants cannot be grown.
Soil for currants
The best soil for currants is light to medium loam and cohesive sandy loam soils. Clay soils dry out poorly in spring, there is little air in them, it is difficult to keep them in a loose state, therefore, plants develop on them very slowly. In sandy soils, on the contrary, there is too much air, they do not retain moisture well, and plants suffer from drought and lack of nutrition.
3-4 weeks before planting, a deep digging of the site is carried out with the removal of the rhizomes of perennial weeds and the subsequent leveling and loosening of the surface. For digging, add 6-8 kg of humus or compost, 40-50 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium fertilizer to each m² of the plot.
How to plant currants in the fall
Autumn planting rules
Planting holes about 40x40 cm in size and 30-35 cm deep are dug two weeks before planting. Three-quarters of them are filled with soil from the top layer and left in such a way that the soil settles. How to plant currants in the fall? Before planting, the shoots of the seedling are shortened to 15-20 cm, and the roots are dipped in a chatterbox, then the seedling is placed in the planting hole at an inclination of 45 º so that it is 6-8 cm deeper underground than it grew in the nursery. Shoots are fan-shaped.
Fill the roots of the currant with fertile soil, compact it, make a hole around the perimeter of the root circle and pour a bucket of water into it. When the water is absorbed, cover the tree trunk circle with humus, peat or dry sand.
Usually currants are planted in rows, keeping the distance between bushes 1-1.25 m, and between rows 2.5-3 m. For the most part, currants are self-fertile culture, but cross-pollination increases yields, so plant several inter-pollinated varieties on the site in separate rows.
Transplanting currants in the fall to a new place
When to transplant currants in the fall
Black currant bushes are cultivated for up to 10 years. Of course, with good care, they can bear fruit longer, but the yields will gradually begin to decline, the quality of the berries will deteriorate, and the size will decrease. The still old bush needs to be dug out, divided, and those parts that are younger and more promising should be planted in a new place. When to transplant currants in the fall? The currant is transplanted at the same time as the initial planting - after the end of the growing season, when the bush will drop all the leaves.
Autumn care for currants
Caring for currants in the fall consists of such procedures as watering, weeding and loosening the area, pruning, treatment from pests and diseases, and preparation for wintering. But there is a big difference between caring for mature bushes and seedlings. So, how to care for currants in the fall so that they take root successfully?
At first, currant seedlings need abundant watering - the roots are literally kept in water, like rice. After two weeks, watering becomes less frequent and plentiful. For adult bushes in dry autumn, they carry out podzimny water-charging irrigation - 3-5 buckets are poured per m² of the plot in order to soak the soil 40-50 cm deep. How much moisture the currant receives in the fall depends on its cold resistance and the next year's harvest.
How to feed currants
Fertilizing currants in the fall is done so that they can survive the winter without harm to health. However, when planting, such an amount of organic matter and minerals is introduced into the soil, which will be enough for seedlings for more than one year, so you can skip fertilizing currants in the fall.
Many insect pests and pathogens overwinter in the upper layer of the soil, and with the onset of spring they begin their harmful activity in the currant. How to treat currants in the fall from diseases and pests? Spraying the bushes and the soil under them with a 7% solution of Karbofos is effective against insects, and for diseases - with a 1% Bordeaux liquid. Before processing, it is necessary to remove fallen leaves and debris from under the bushes.
On our website you can find detailed information on how currant pruning is carried out in the fall - for beginner gardeners. But pruning currant bushes in the fall and pruning freshly planted cuttings are not the same thing. How to prune currants in the fall if they are in the process of rooting? It is only necessary to shorten the stems of the plant, leaving shoots 3-5 buds high on the bush.
Currants are mulched immediately after planting in the ground and the first watering. Used for mulch, humus, peat or fallen leaves. The thickness of the mulch layer must be at least 7 cm.
Preparing currants for winter
Preparation of currants for winter begins with the first frost. Rake up the fallen leaves, dig up the soil under the bushes, add to the root area of the earth. You can cover low bushes with wooden boxes, and pull burlap on top of them and fix it so that the structure is not ripped off by a gust of wind. As soon as snowfalls begin, the boxes can be removed - there is no more reliable shelter for the winter for currants than a snowdrift.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Gooseberry family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Berry bushes Honey plants Plants on C
Since this plant is from the tropics, therefore, it thrives in warm southern climates. Some gardeners grow it as a tub plant, and in the summer they move it to the garden. The plant does not tolerate temperatures below 5 degrees. At the same time, the rhizome dies off. To successfully grow bougainvillea in the garden, you should create the maximum amount of heat and bright sunlight for it.
Before planting bougainvillea, you should determine its place. It should be spacious and well-lit, protected from winds and drafts. The plant will not grow in shady or semi-shady places, on lean and clayey soils. The soil for the bushes should be slightly alkaline. You can buy it in specialty stores and pour it into a hole prepared for bougainvillea or mix it yourself. To do this, take equal amounts of leafy and sod land, peat and fine-grained sand, mix thoroughly and place in a planting pit. The bushes should be planted in the spring. The hole should be deep enough to cover the bottom with a drainage layer. Place the plant in a hole, sprinkle it on top with a layer of soil mixture, compact it and water it abundantly.
Watering should be plentiful in summer and moderate in spring and autumn.In winter, watering is not carried out. If the pot of bougainvillea is indoors during the winter, the soil should be moistened occasionally so that it does not dry out.
Bougainvillea should be watered only with settled water at room temperature. It should be soft and free from chemical additives. Avoid waterlogging and watering with cold water. This leads to rapid decay and death of the roots.
You need to feed the plant with organic or mineral fertilizers. As an organic fertilizer, humus is used, which is applied during the planting of the bush; in spring and autumn, it is better to use a phosphorus-containing fertilizer.
Shrubs are best illuminated with diffused light in winter and direct sunlight in summer. In winter, the plant should be supplemented with special lamps. For abundant flowering, provide at least 6 hours of light per day.
Since bougainvillea is a southern plant, the optimum temperature for growing should be adhered to. In summer, it should be within 21-27 degrees. In the spring, during the period of active growth, the temperature should be above 10 degrees. In winter, it should not drop below +5 degrees. If the winter temperature is higher than it should be, the plant will not retire, but will continue to bloom. This will deplete it, and the summer bloom in the summer will no longer be so abundant.
Black currant: planting and care
Black currant gives a higher yield of larger berries, if several different varieties are planted side by side - for mutual cross-pollination. Almost all modern varieties are self-pollinated, but with cross-pollination, the number of ovaries increases and the size of berries increases, even in small-fruited black currants.
Currant seedlings with an open root system can be planted both in spring and autumn, but it is better to do this all the same in the fall (for the middle lane - in the first half of October). During the winter, the soil around the bushes will settle and compact, in spring the plants will start growing early and take root well. When using seedlings in containers, there are practically no restrictions on the timing of planting.
Usually, currant bushes are planted at a distance of 1–1.25 m. To get a harvest in the 2-3rd year, plants in a row can be planted a little denser, at a distance of 0.7–0.8 m. But the yield from a bush will be less and life expectancy will be slightly reduced.
Black currant is moisture-loving and relatively shade-tolerant, but it does not tolerate strong shading. Therefore, it is better for it to take low, humid, sufficiently illuminated and protected from the wind places (but not swampy lowlands with protruding groundwater!). The best of all are fertile light loams. On heavy acidic soils, black currant grows poorly.
At the chosen place, it is necessary to level the soil so that there are no deep depressions and holes. Then it is good to dig it up on the bayonet of a shovel, carefully removing the rhizomes of perennial weeds. A planting hole 35–40 cm deep and 50–60 cm in diameter is covered with fertile soil mixed with fertilizers - a bucket of compost, superphosphate (150–200 g), potassium sulfate (40–60 g) or wood ash (30-40 g).
The root system of the seedling must be lignified, have 3–5 skeletal roots at least 15–20 cm long. The aboveground part - at least one or two branches 30–40 cm long. Damaged or dried roots are shortened, the seedling is buried 6–8 cm higher root collar. Deepening of the root collar contributes to the formation of basal buds for the future multi-stem bush.
Before filling the hole, half a bucket of water is poured into it, and another half a bucket is poured into a circular hole around the landing site. And immediately mulch the surface with peat. The ground under currant loosen: near the root collar to a depth of 6–8 cm, at a distance from it - by 10–12 cm. When mulching, moisture is better retained, and loosen can be much less frequent.
Conditions of detention
In the fall, the heavy soil under the bushes is shallowly dug up and left lumpy for the winter to keep the moisture supply. If the soil is light and loose enough, you can limit yourself to shallow loosening (up to 5–8 cm) near the bushes, and dig up the row spacing by 10–12 cm.
Of all berry bushes, black currant is the most moisture-loving, because its root system is located in the upper soil layer, at a depth of 20-30 cm. It is especially important that it receives the right amount of moisture during intensive growth and ovary formation (early June), during pouring berries (third decade of June - first decade of July) and after harvest (August - September). Watering in winter is also important, especially in dry autumn. Approximate water consumption is 20-30 liters per bush.
Spring raspberry care
Immediately after all the snow on the site has melted, it will need to be freed from the leaves that fell last year, because they may contain pathogens or pests that were hiding there from winter frosts. This dwarf shrub needs support, therefore, in the springtime, you should tie raspberries to the trellis.If the plant is tied to a trellis, then as a result of this it will be evenly illuminated by the sun's rays, the maturation and growth of young basal shoots will accelerate, and it is also relatively easier to care for such bushes. If you decide to make trellises, then at the end and at the beginning of each row you will need to dig in on both sides powerful posts reaching 150 centimeters in height. Between these pillars, it is necessary to stretch the wire in 2 rows: the lower row should be located at a height of 0.6-0.7 m from the surface of the site, and the upper one - at a height of 1.2 m. To avoid wire sagging, it is necessary every 5 m into the ground stick a wooden stake. Place the stems of the bushes along the wire in a fan-like manner, and then secure them by tying them with twine. After a couple of years, additional rows of wire must be stretched between the posts: the first - at a height of 0.3 m from the surface of the site, and the other - at a height of 1.5 m.
The rest of the time it will be very easy to care for this culture. So, it needs to be systematically weeded, fed, watered, loosened near the bushes to a shallow depth, after which its surface is covered with a layer of mulch. What is used to feed this crop in the spring? In the event that all the necessary fertilizers were introduced into the soil before planting, then raspberries will not need potassium and phosphorus for 5 years. However, it is necessary to feed the plants with nitrogen-containing fertilizers every year. Prepare the following nutrient solution for feeding: Combine 10 liters of water with 1 shovel of cow droppings and with 5 grams of urea or saltpeter. This mixture is poured under each plant in the last days of March or the first in April. If you decide to use a different nitrogen-containing fertilizer, then for each 1 m 2 of the plot you will need to take from 20 to 25 grams of the substance. Then the surface of the soil will need to be loosened.
Raspberry care in autumn
When in the autumn time all the fruits from the bushes are collected, you need to start preparing the raspberries for the upcoming winter. This procedure must be approached with all responsibility, since it depends on this how abundant the harvest will be in the next season. The surface of the site must be freed from the old mulch layer, which should be destroyed, since it may contain various pests or pathogens. Then the soil is carefully dug to a depth not exceeding 8-10 centimeters. Once every couple of years, it is recommended to add wood ash and compost to the soil for digging. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers for feeding raspberries in autumn are not used, because they can cause active growth of young shoots, their leaves will fly around late, which increases the likelihood of frost damage. In the event that a dwarf shrub needs phosphorus and potash fertilizers, then they should be applied in not very deep (from 15 to 20 centimeters) grooves, which should be located at a distance of at least 0.3 m from the plants.No more than 1 bush is taken 40 grams of potassium salt and 60 grams of superphosphate. In plants fed in this way, the laying of flower buds will improve, which will have a positive effect on the future harvest.
Watering raspberries in spring and summer is only necessary if there is a prolonged drought. If it rains systematically, then it will not need watering. In a hot and dry period, the plant will need abundant watering, while the water should soak the topsoil by 0.3–0.4 m. In addition, this shrub needs mandatory watering in May, before it blooms, as well as during time of active growth and ripening of fruits. Podwinter watering for such a culture is of great importance, since in the autumn time, buds of growth in the root system are laid in it. At the same time, try to soak the soil to the maximum possible depth, then the wintering of raspberries will be more than successful. Most of all, the drip method is suitable for watering this plant, because it has a number of advantages:
- water saving - less liquid is consumed compared to sprinkling or ditch irrigation
- warm water - in no case should it be watered with cold water, and with this method of irrigation, the liquid is already comparatively warm to the root system
- uniform soaking of the soil.
If you want to significantly reduce the number of waterings in the summer, then the surface of the site should be covered with a layer of mulch.
When transplanting such a plant, you need to adhere to the same principles as when planting it for the first time. This shrub is prone to strong growth. Its roots are located quite close to the soil surface, and a large number of offspring grows during the summer. If desired, using a shovel, they can be separated from the mother bush and, having dug up along with the roots, planted in a new permanent place. If the specimen is overgrown and old, then using a shovel, you can cut off the youngest part from it along with the root system and a lump of earth, while taking into account that the diameter of its shoots should not be less than 10 mm. In such a "delenka" it is necessary to shorten the shoots to 0.25 m, and then it is planted in another place. You can transplant raspberries at any time, except for the winter period. However, experienced gardeners recommend carrying out this procedure in the spring. To prevent the uncontrolled growth of such a plant, the area where it grows must be fenced; for this, sheets of iron or slate are dug into the ground around the perimeter.
Reproduction of raspberries
Propagating raspberries is very simple, easy and fast. How to reproduce it by offspring was described in detail above. Cuttings are also used for propagation of this plant. Cuttings are cut in June on a cloudy day; for this, two-year or three-year-old root suckers are chosen. The length of the cuttings should be from 10 to 12 centimeters, and they should have 2 or 3 leaf plates. The cuttings are immersed in an agent that stimulates the growth of roots for 12 hours, after which they are planted in containers with a volume of 0.5 liters, which must be filled with sand mixed with peat. The containers are removed under the film, while it should be borne in mind that the air humidity required for rooting of cuttings should be about 90 percent, and the temperature should be from 22 to 25 degrees. After 4 weeks, the cuttings should start growing. When this happens, they are carefully transferred together with a lump of earth into a more spacious container: its height should be at least 14 centimeters, and its volume should be 1.5 liters. After the cuttings have taken root, they must be hardened, for this they are taken out for a while in fresh air. Hardened cuttings are planted on a training bed, they will need shading from the scorching sun's rays, which is removed only when the plants take root and start growing. In autumn, they are transplanted to a permanent place. Cuttings harvested in autumn must be treated with a fungicide, which will protect them from fungal diseases. Then the cuttings need to be covered with peat and stored in a cellar, basement or other cool place. Thus, before the onset of the spring period, the cuttings will undergo stratification; it is important not to forget to systematically moisten the peat. In spring, the cuttings are immediately planted on the garden bed, while its surface must be covered with a layer of mulch.
There are types of raspberries, for which the rooting of the tops is used for reproduction (like in blackberries). So, these include purple and black raspberries. In the first autumn weeks, the grown shoot begins to lean towards the soil, while the leaves located at its top become smaller, and the shoot itself acquires a loop-like shape - at this time and make its rooting. This shoot should be separated along with the "handle", while it must be rooted in the same way as described above.
The best varieties of black currant
The culture is rich in varieties. They are divided into large, sweet, early, late, etc. Each summer resident will be able to choose a suitable variety for the climate and region in which he lives.
Large black currants are famous for a fruit diameter of about 1.5-1.7 cm. Some berries reach large sizes.
The largest variety is considered to be bred in Siberia under the name Yadrenaya. The berries reach 7-8 g, the first harvest can be obtained at the beginning of summer. The only negative is that the variety is not suitable for cultivation in the south, the berries become smaller, acquire a sour taste. The plant needs constant propagation.
- The beauty of Lviv.
This type of culture is considered sugar. The fruits contain a huge amount of sweetness, pectin trace elements, minerals and vitamins.
- Bagheera. The amount of sugar is 10.8%. The berries are not small, suitable for various types of preservation. The crop retains its presentation during transportation.
- Green haze. The amount of sugar is 10.2%, at times it reaches 12%. Fruit size is medium to large. The fruits are used for making jelly and jam.
- Nina. The amount of sugar is 11%. The crop is large, medium-sized bushes. The fruits are nutritious and healthy.
- An excellent pupil. The amount of sugar is 11.1%. Coal fruits with sourness. The variety cannot boast of strong immunity, it often gets sick and is attacked by insects.
- Triton. The amount of sugar is 10.6%. The variety is intended for cultivation in the northern regions.
The most popular early varieties are:
- Litvinovkaya. Of universal purpose, the plant grows tall. The fruit weighs about 3-4 g, with good care it can reach 5 g. From one plant, you can get about 2 kg of yield. Litvinovkaya grows well in the Moscow region. The main disadvantage is that it does not tolerate heat.
- Gift of Smolyaninova. 3 kg of berries can be harvested from one plant. Plants are small. Differs in strong immunity, does not need pollinators. The variety shows itself well in the Middle Lane. Cons - low yield and cold resistance.
- Selechenskaya 2. The plant reaches 2 m in height. Fruits are about 4 g, with proper care they reach 5 g. About 7 kg of harvest can be harvested from one shrub. It is better to grow the variety in Western Siberia, Altai and Yakutia. Minus - aphids attack in summer.
- Summer resident. The bush is small. Fruits are about 4 g, from one plant you can get 5 kg of yield. Has established itself well in the Moscow region. Cons - it is impossible to transport, sensitive to frost, crumbles.
The best representative of this group is Dobrynya. The plant needs good agricultural technology. Bushes of medium size with a compact crown, in the fruiting season, need supports, otherwise they will begin to fall to the ground.
Differs in good performance even in compacted plantings. The mass of one berry is about 6 g. From one plant, you can collect 2 kg of harvest. Differs in excellent cold resistance, high transportability.
Boasts strong immunity to powdery mildew and kidney mites. It is better to grow on the territory of Western Siberia and the Central region. Disadvantages - long ripening period, poorly propagated by cuttings, needs fertile soil.
The representative of this group is the Lazy. A fruit weighing 2 g, from one plant it will be possible to harvest about 1 kg. Self-pollination is low, so it needs pollinators.
The plant has excellent cold resistance, strong immunity to terry and anthracnose. It grows well on the territory of the Volga region, the Moscow region and in the central zone of Russia. Cons - berries of different sizes on one plant, the yield is unstable, subject to powdery mildew.
Planting currants in open ground
Currant bushes can be found at any summer cottage, but not every gardener knows the main rules for planting this plant and makes mistakes that lead to low yields, and sometimes to the death of the shrub.
Soil preparation and site
The growth and fruiting activity of currants largely depends on the chosen place for planting. More sun, less shade and drafts are the basic principles when choosing a site on the site. In this case, it is necessary to control the moisture level, because with an overabundance of it, the root system may not take root.
Soils are preferable fertile, moderately acidic, drained. If the land is poor, then fertilizers are introduced into it two months before planting: peat, mineral fertilizers, compost, potash salt, ash. With increased acidity, lime is added to the ground. After adding fertilizers, the site is dug up.
How and when to plant
For planting a currant seedling, the beginning of autumn is considered the best period. Until spring, the shrub has time to take root and harden. If the landing takes place in the spring, then this should be done as soon as the snow melts.