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Field yarok

Field yarok


Field Yarut (Thlaspi arvense) is a common annual plant better known as verednik, kopeck, cash clover, sweet clover or love grass. Belongs to representatives of Cabbage and lives, as a rule, in the steppe zone of temperate climatic regions in the Northern Hemisphere.

Many people take the field bush for an ordinary weed. Attention is paid to culture only at the stage of collecting raw materials for medicinal purposes. On personal plots, cultivated species of the field jar are grown. In dried form, the herb is often used as part of bouquet compositions.

Description of the field yar

In the genus Yarutka there was a place for 60 species of annual flowers. The plant is characterized by a fragile taproot, which gives life to a straight stem, devoid of additional processes. Winter varieties of Yarutka have several central shoots ranging in height from 10 to 50 cm.

A rosette of rare leaf blades is located near the base of the bush. The oval foliage is smooth to the touch and attaches to the stem with a petiole. The color of the annual is a pronounced green. The dying off of the lower layer of leaves begins in June. Alternate leaf blades covering the shoots, small and oblong, without petioles. The lobes are whole or serrated with convex veins applied.

The bushes bloom in late spring. Flowering often lasts until autumn. White raceme-like flowers are formed from numerous buds, which, in turn, consist of 4 petals and a small corolla. The rim diameter does not exceed 3-5 mm. 6 stamens stick out in the center, which surround 1 pistil. The aroma of flowering jar is tart and intense, reminiscent of the smell of mustard.

When flowering ends, fruit pods with oblong flattened achenes appear. The peel of the seeds is rough, brown in color. The pod contains 7 seeds each, the length of which is less than 1 mm. The dried pods look like coins. In ancient times, it was customary to take dry yarp pods with you on the road, which promised success and wealth to the owner.

Planting and cultivation of field jars

Field Yarut is grown by seed method. During the season, the grass produces more than 3 thousand seeds. After the pods are ripe, the skin breaks and the grains are scattered to the ground. The germination capacity of high-quality seed is maintained for 5 years. Unripe grains are used for planting no longer than 3 years. In nature, the wind or insects carry them in different directions. The seeds successfully overwinter under a layer of soil and snow and begin to wake up in the spring, when the outside temperature reaches + 2… + 4 ° C.

Grass is planted in March or April. It is important to choose a site in a bright part of the garden. The seeds are evenly distributed on the plowed soil or immersed in grooves up to 2 cm deep. The seeds germinate at a temperature of + 16 ... + 22 ° C. The soil is regularly moistened. After 3-5 days, slender green shoots will rise above the ground. Further, the culture develops independently and dispenses with care.

Inflorescences bloom after 4-6 weeks. They stay on the bushes all summer. The upper part of the inflorescences is decorated with young buds, and the lower part is decorated with ripe pods.

Outdoor field service

Field Yarutka is a tenacious, unpretentious plant, which eventually turns into real thickets, if you do not limit the growing area. For the agricultural industry, grass is considered a weed that adversely affects crops. The annual adapts easily to any substrate, but grows best on fertile or well-fertilized soils. For cultivation of grass, an illuminated area is selected. The lack of sun stops the growth of stems and the formation of flower ovaries.

Covered with a layer of soil, the seeds are able to survive frosty winters. Shoots develop fully at temperatures from + 5 ° C to + 30 ° C. Water the plantings sparingly, do not overfill the soil near the rhizome. The plant has succulent properties, therefore, it accumulates a small amount of moisture in advance in order to survive drought.

The yarok does not need feeding. The annual nutrition is provided by microelements contained in the soil. If you use the herb for medicinal purposes, it is important to remember that excess minerals enter the body and lead to poisoning. After the death of one plant, the free area is quickly occupied by nearby processes.

Procurement and storage of raw materials

The ground part of the longline is used in the manufacture of medicinal concoctions, ointments and tinctures. The stems and leaves are harvested during the flowering phase. Ripe fruits are harvested in August. Cut off shoots of annuals are sorted out and then placed on a rack. In order for the raw materials to dry out more quickly, the layer of greenery must be thin, and drying is organized in the fresh air. To protect raw materials from rain and sun, a canopy is erected over the racks.

The dried grass is laid out in fabric bags or boxes with breathable properties. It is recommended to store medicinal raw materials in a cool dry place.

Medicinal properties of the herb

The field yaruk has a lot of useful biological components. These are oils, flavonoids, thioesters, glucosinolates and higher fatty acids.

The above substances have a positive effect on well-being and the body, have anti-inflammatory, stimulating, bactericidal and antispasmodic effects. Official medical sources are still wary of the field barn and do not give precise comments about its effectiveness. The properties of this annual culture are still being studied in full measure.

Yarutka preparations are successfully used in the treatment of complex diseases and pathologies. They are recommended for use by women and men who are faced with problems of disorders in the reproductive system.

The use of the annual gives good results in the treatment of hypertension, headaches, sclerosis and diabetes mellitus. The herb acts as a laxative and helps with gastrointestinal disorders. Decoctions from parts of the yarrow are considered an effective medicine for coughs, colds and phlegm accumulation. To prepare the broth, take 1 tbsp. l. dry crushed raw materials, pour boiling water, insist for about 5 minutes and filter. Drink 3 times a day in the amount of 1 tbsp. Overdosing sometimes causes poisoning and other problems.

Rubbing alcohol tincture for pain in the back and joints. The juice of freshly cut grass helps to remove warts and various skin rashes. In order not to cause burns, the juice is diluted with water and used for external use. Due to the high concentration, the juice droplets irritate the tissue. The procedure for treating problem areas on the skin is repeated 2-3 times a day.

School of Herbal Science - YARUTKA - Lesson number 11

Field wire application

The annual, thanks to its miraculous composition, successfully copes with the treatment of a number of diseases of the reproductive system in women and men. For males, the herb helps to restore potency. It is recommended to take crushed dried yarut powder every day for 1 g.

Women who regularly use herbal decoctions of the plant notice a stabilization of the menstrual cycle and a decrease in pain. For preventive purposes, the internal intake of the herbal drug reduces the risk of developing oncology of the female genital organs.

Some genital infections are successfully cured thanks to herbal preparations, infusions and douching. The use of folk remedies along with traditional pharmacological methods accelerates recovery and gives the patient a better chance of success. Before combining medical treatment, you should consult your doctor.

Despite all the value of this annual crop, exceeding the dosage of preparations and decoctions made with the addition of yarut leads to serious problems. The risk category includes pregnant and lactating mothers, hypotensive patients, allergy sufferers and children under the age of two.

Symptoms of excessive consumption of the plant are expressed in the form of food poisoning, dizziness, rashes on the skin and mucous membranes, feeling unwell and weakness. If such problems are found, it is required to immediately stop taking medications from the yacht.


What are the weeds

It is difficult to define weeds. Weeds are. Outraged gardeners immediately add: "This is what poisons our lives." Indeed, weeds cause a lot of trouble and trouble.

Weeds are cosmopolitan plants, that is, they are ubiquitous on the earth's surface. Of course, cosmopolitanism cannot be taken literally. Scientists believe that 18 plant species, including the well-known shepherd's purse, white quinoa, stinging nettle, garden sow thistle, stellate (wood lice) and others, occupy only half of the earth's surface. Another 117 species of plants occupy its fourth part, among them are the familiar buttercup, groundwort, and hawkworm.


Weeds as indicators of habitat

WEEDS AS HABITAT INDICATORS

Academic Supervisor - Associate Professor

Weeds, or weeds, are wild plants that live on land used as agricultural land. The harm caused by weeds is associated with both a decrease in yield and a deterioration in the quality of agricultural products.

In the practice of farming, it is important to know the weeds that respond positively to the high content of certain elements of mineral nutrition in the soil.

Many species of weeds indicate not only their phytocenotic compatibility with the crop, but also preferences for the soil conditions of the habitat. Weeds also "signal" the level of soil moisture. Dandelion and coltsfoot, for example, grow in moist soils. Where dandelions grow, there is enough moisture in the soil, you do not need to water it. By changing the species composition of weeds, one can judge about changes in soil properties. For example, an increase in the number of species blooming in the second half of summer and autumn signals a decline in fertility and loss of organic matter.

On heavily contaminated soils, fertilizers cannot have a full-fledged effect, and there is a need to combat weeds by improving the technology of cultivation of crops. An effective factor in weed control is the use of fertilizers. Violation of technology turns fertilizers into a means of increasing the number and mass of weeds, accumulating stocks of their organs, and reproduction in the soil.

The presence of populations of some species from a particular group provides a basis for assessing the feasibility of subsequent liming of soils. This technique, often due to a change in the floristic composition of weeds and an improvement in the development of a crop, sharply reduces the infestation of crops.

When studying the reaction of weeds to edaphic conditions, one should divide them into their responsiveness to the soil moisture supply, the reaction of the soil medium, and the supply of mineral food elements.

Classification of weeds as indicators of habitat

Weed group name

In relation to the level of soil moisture

Hygrophytes (on wet, poorly aerated soil)

Field horsetail, field mint, marsh marsh, creeping buttercup

Hygromesophytes (prefer rather moist and well aerated soils)

White Mary, tenacious bedstraw, odorless chamomile, field thistle

Xerophytes (on well-aerated warm and sometimes very dry soils)

One-year old chickweed, firecracker smolovka, cock's millet barnyard, upturned chickweed

According to the reaction to the pH value of the soil solution


HERBICIDE GOLD STAR

HERBICIDE GOLD STAR UKRAVIT

Highly effective post-emergence herbicide of systemic action for the destruction of dicotyledonous weeds, including species resistant to 2,4-D in cereal crops.

Active ingredient: tribenuron-methyl, 750 g / kg.

Form of the preparation: granules that are dispersed in water.

HERBICIDE GOLD STAR UKRAVIT

Highly effective post-emergence herbicide of systemic action for the destruction of dicotyledonous weeds, including species resistant to 2,4-D in cereal crops.

  • highly effective systemic herbicide for the control of dicotyledonous weeds
  • indelible by rain 2 hours after treatment
  • no restrictions on use in crop rotation
  • compatible with most plant protection products, which allows the use of the drug in complex protection
  • completely disintegrates in the soil at the time of harvest
  • non-toxic to humans and safe for the environment.

Active ingredient: tribenuron-methyl, 750 g / kg.

Form of the preparation: granules that are dispersed in water.

Range of Controlled Weeds:

Sensitive weeds: bitterness, chamomile (species), field mustard, black mustard, common shepherd's purse, janitor, wild radish, sprawling beetle, buttercup (species), medium starweed, oxalis (species), nettle deaf, common cockle, white marsh, wild poppy, sunflower carrion, dry curl, field longline, common gill.

Moderately sensitive weeds: field thistle, blue cornflower, birch knotweed, geranium, medicinal dandelion, field thistle, tenacious bedstraw, knotweed, medicinal smoke, violet tricolor, field chrysanthemum.

Insensitive weeds: field bindweed, ivy-leaved veronica, all types of cereal weeds.

Before spraying, it is necessary to dissolve the calculated amount of the drug (see Table) in clean water and mix thoroughly. Use the working solution on the day of its preparation, since during long-term storage the properties of the drug are lost, which leads to a decrease in the effectiveness of the action against weeds. Carry out processing under favorable weather conditions (no gusty wind, air temperature not higher than 250C, no dew), usually in the morning (up to 10-11) and evening (18-22) time.

Spraying should be carried out during the period of the beginning of weed growth (cotyledons - two pairs of true leaves. It is not recommended to use the drug under unfavorable conditions (in cold or very hot weather, with excessive moisture and during the period when the weeds are in a depressed state), as well as when the plants wet after precipitation.

It is advisable to use it in a mixture with insecticides FAS, Anticolorad, as well as with the fungicide FUNDAZIM. In case of intensively clogged up, it is recommended to use tank mixtures: GOLD STAR, 4 g + GOLIAF, 100-150 ml for 50-60 liters of water for 20 acres.

The maximum frequency of treatments per season is 1.

The time for people to go to the treated areas for manual work is not needed, mechanized work is 3 days. The waiting period from processing to harvesting is not regulated.

herbicide GOLD STAR UKRAVIT you can right now place an order on our Agro Start website.


Non-parasitic weed plants

Non-parasitic weeds - a group of weed plants capable of independent life. The group is the most floristic in terms of its extensive composition. It is represented mainly by autotrophic plants. According to the predominant mode of reproduction and life, durations are divided into: juvenile and perennial.

Minor non-parasitic weed plants

Juvenile non-parasitic weeds reproduce plants only by seeds, life expectancy is not 2 years more, completely die off after ripening or seeds of the fruit. Depending on the length of the life cycle, the cycle is subdivided into: ephemeral, early spring, wintering spring, late, winter and biennial. The largest number of weeds falls on the share of juvenile spring crops.

Monocarpics (weeds) are monocyclics that bear fruit once and have a one-year development cycle. Biennials have a biennial development cycle, called dicyclics.

Ephemera

Ephemera - very with a plant with a short growing season of 1.5-2 Capable. months to give several generations during the season of one. Ephemera include: medium starlet, annual bluegrass or wood lice (Stellaria media), from the carnation family. They litter vegetable gardens, crops of perennial cereals and grasses.

Starfish (wood lice) - a weed quickly, a plant that develops in low humid places, in irrigated vegetable and well-cultivated areas. The stems are almost branching, creeping, 5-25 cm long, from the nodes adjacent to the soil, they are capable of giving adventitious roots. One plant gives 15-25 thousand seeds. Seeds are shallow, germinate depths of no more than 3 cm, retain germination for 2-5, overwinter in late development years.

Early spring

Early spring weed plants exhibit the properties of early spring growth: crops begin in early spring at a soil temperature of 5-7 ° C and finish development before or simultaneously with crop harvesting.

Oats belong (Avena Mary), fatua white (Chenopodium album), Highlander Polygonum (gritty scabrum), field torus (Spergula mustard), arvensis field (Sinapis arvensis), chaff Lolium (intoxicating temulentum), bindweed (Fallopia radish ), convolvulus wild ( Raphanus raphanistrum ), zyabr pickle (beautiful) (Galeopsis speciosa), ragweed (artemisiifolia Ambrosia), weed hemp (Cannabis ruderalis), tender chorispore (Chorispora tenella), garbage bug (ruderale Lepidium). The latter is sometimes referred to as wintering weed plants.

Spring late

Late spring weed plants show the properties of late spring plants germinate: crops in summer when the soil warms up to 18-20 ° C, develop and grow slowly, ripening occurs after early harvesting of cultivated plants, in late crops simultaneously - crops with harvesting, in cereal crops - in post-harvest Autumn. period of seedlings, crumbling seeds, die from long frosts before fruiting.

Mostly common in crops of spring crops. Among them there are many specialized, only growing in crops similar in biological characteristics and crops to agricultural technology.

Late spring weed plants include the overturned (Amaranthus retroflexus), Setaria bristle (green viridis), gray bristles (Setaria the barnacle), pumila common or rooster (chicken) Echinochloa (millet crusgalli), hodgepodge or kurai (nightshade), Salsola black (Solanum nigrum), purslane Portulaca (garden oleracea) and etc.

Wintering

Overwintering weeds end the vegetation period with early spring volumes in the shoots of the same year, and with late shoots any in the winter growth phase. After overwintering, the rosette is formed by basal leaves, rapidly growing early and the stem ends the growing season. This feature successfully allows it to spread in spring and winter crops.

crops seedlings do not form a root rosette develop, leaves like spring, ripen at the same time a little or later than harvesting grain crops.

Seeds get mainly into the soil, they are very small, they retain their germination capacity in the soil for up to 5-7 years.

Wintering weeds include plants: common shepherd's purse (Capsella pastoris-bursa), field pitch (Thlaspi aryense), odorless chamomile (Matricaria perforata), larkspur (regalis Consolida), blue cornflower (Centaurea cyanus), Sofia descurenia (Descurainia sophia), canadian small-petal (canadensis Erigeron), garbage bug (Lepidium ruderale), Sisymbrium (walker), common cockle (Agrostemma githago). sometimes the latter is referred to as the early spring weeds of the Shepherd.

plants bag and field roll due to the ecological high plasticity (they have spring and wintering clog) forms of crops of winter and spring cereals, row crops and fodder grasses. They grow in the fallow roadsides, along the fields of roads and fields, in orchards and vegetable gardens, young fallows. The ripening period of spring seeds is 40-45 days after germination. Can give several generations during the year. small seeds, have an extended period of germination, retain germination for 6-7 years.

Cornflower blue crops litter winter and spring crops, perennial Distributed. herbs in the Non-Black Earth Zone.

Mayweed crops litters cereals, row crops and perennials after. mowing grass can grow back. Distributed throughout the entire European part of Russia, in Siberia and in the Far Winter crops.

East

Winter weeds form the first shortened vegetative shoots in a year and are in the tillering phase, develop the root system, accumulate nutrients, and form renewal buds on the underground after. organs of exposure to low temperatures, a short day of light in the fall and spring of the next year, complete and grow a full cycle of their development, forming seeds, and die off. The difference from wintering weeds in plants is that they require lower temperatures in autumn and winter. Regardless of the germination time, they only bear fruit the next year. Only Germination reproduces. the seeds of seeds are preserved from 2 (near a field fire) to 4 broomsticks (in years).

In view of their biological properties, they are characteristic weeds of winter grain crops, especially winter rye.

Representatives of winter weeds fire: rye plants (Bromus secalinus), Bromus bonfire (field arvensis) and ordinary broom (Arega venti-spica).

Rye bonfire and field fire - winter crops weed in grain crops, especially in excessively poor, moist and poorly cultivated fields. The seeds ripen simultaneously with the rye and enter the seed material, from which they are difficult to separate. The field fire has smaller, more seeds with an awn, is less demanding on more often and moisture is found in the Central Black Earth zone. soil in Germinates from a depth of up to 10 cm.

Metlitsa has similar properties to campfire. It germinates from a depth of no more than 5 cm. The grains are very small and mainly fall into the soil and chaff.

Biennial

Biennial weeds go through a full development cycle in two years. In the first year, the rosette is formed by leaves and several stems in the lower root. In the tier, the system goes deep into the soil.

In the following spring, the stem develops rapidly and the plant produces seeds in the summer. Typical biennials germinate in autumn and bear fruit only after 2 years, that is, after there is a second overwintering. Some weeds exhibit properties of winter crops: they germinate in autumn, winter crops develop as well as give seeds for the next year. annuals and forms occur. Some species of biennial weeds such as sverbiga orientalis (Bunias after), orientalis fruiting does not die off, but shoots from the root collar or root segments.

Weeds are biennial: sweet clover or yellow (officinalis Melilotus), white sweet clover (Melilotus albus), ordinary cutter (Falcaria vulgaris), black henbane (niger Hyoscyamus), black velcro (Lappyla squarrosa), eastern sverbiga (Bunias orientalis), thistle (Carduus), Conium (hemlock), parsnip (Pastinaca), Silene, gray-green hiccup (Berteroa incana) and etc.

Medicinal melilot (officinalis Melilotus) - drought-resistant plant, litters crops of winter and spring crops, perennial grasses, borders and roadsides. Distributed everywhere. The stem reaches 2.5 m in Seeds. The height is covered with a waterproof shell; they can maintain their viability for decades in the soil. Parts of all plants contain poisonous alkaloids and feeding. Glycosides of sweet clover cause poisoning to livestock, gives animal milk an unpleasant taste.

Helen Hyoscyamus (black niger) - a specialized weed of crops Seeds. poppy and seedlings in size and color have seeds similar to poppy and are difficult to separate from them. The same sweet clover and how, contains poisonous alkaloids and glycosides.

Melilot non-parasitic weeds

Perennial weedy non-parasitic plants - plants with a growing season of several years, bear fruit almost every year (semi-cyclic methods). According to the polycarpics of seed and vegetative propagation, they are subdivided into: root suckers, rhizomes, bulbous, tuberous, taproot, fibrous and rhizomatous.

Creeping

Rhizome weeds reproduce vegetatively mainly by underground stems - rhizomes, characterized by high vitality and the number of buds, from which new shoots and underground stems are formed. Due to this, they spread quickly and in a few years are able to form a dense turf. Seed propagation is not the same. most of one widely represented group of weeds.

Exterminating measures for the fight must first provide for the destruction of all vegetative organs - rhizomes. Depending on the occurrence of the depth of the rhizomes and biological characteristics, different approaches are used to suppress their viability.

Group representatives: creeping wheatgrass (Elytrigia repens), branched spikelet (racemosus Leymus), brisket (Leymus ramosus), the pig Cynodon (finger dactilon), Aleppo sorghum (Sorghum gumay), halepense (Sorghum halepense) , horsetail (arvense Equisetum), yarrow (Achillea), nettle ( Urtica ), stepmother-and-mother (Tussilago).

Creeping wheatgrass (Elytrigia clogs) repens crops of all cultivated plants. ubiquitous Distributed except in arid regions, where Vestreca is inferior to branched (Leymus racemosus) ... It has a shallow root depth: up to 90% of the rhizomes are placed on Young ones up to 12 cm deep, wheatgrass rhizomes germinate at the beginning and die off in summer and at the end of the next summer, those formed in the fall can live 15-16 months and overwinter twice. Noted with what: the feature is the shorter the length of the rhizome segments, the more the buds are activated for growth. Therefore, shoot formation enhanced by crushed rhizomes are used for Pig.

fight finger (Cynodon dactilon) infests field and vegetable crops, orchards, vineyards and others. Distributed. lands in the southern regions of Russia, in the Transcaucasia, on irrigated lands, in the Ukraine, in the lands of Central Asia. Rhizomes are most viable at the age of 2-3 years, they have a high, especially, survival rate at a young age, during the growing season they can go deep or come out to the surface, they quickly die off when there is a lack of moisture. Seed thousand 2-3 productivity. seeds that do not separate from the plant for a long time.

Aleppo Sorghum or gumay (Sorghum halepense) crops litter tilled crops, Sudanese, sorghum. Heavily crops in oppressed alfalfa, winter vetch and winter. Distributed. wheat in the same areas as the pig has. three types of pollen rhizomes (A.I. Maltsev): old (primary), retaining viability and forming fruiting secondary stems, growing from the primary, short, emerging and giving out new tertiary plants (spare), young from the outgoing plants. The bulk (up to 90%) of the arable rhizomes is located in the soil layer, but some processes are capable of penetrating 45 cm and deeper. The main part of the seeds germinates after winter.

Horsetail (Equisetum clogs) arvense all crops, especially harmful to perennial crops of grasses. Distributed on sod-podzolic forest-meadow soils of the zone and in low humid places of the Chernozem-Central zone. The rhizomes are located in the soil in several tiers to a depth of 45 cm. From the formed thickenings (nodules) on the rhizome nodes, new shoots grow, developing from the adventitious (adventive) buds. In the fall, buds form in the upper nodes of the vertical rhizomes, from which spore-bearing and vegetative shoots appear in the spring of the next year. The type of such branching around the maternal central shoot allows the shoot to create a wide network of rhizomes with aerial shoots, remote at a considerable distance. Old, when cut or die off, the rhizomes form independent plants, due to which vegetative vitality occurs. the reproduction of rhizomes is high, their segments, with one presence of a viable bud, take root and grow from more than 30 cm and depth. The emerging spore-bearing shoots in March give May a huge amount of spores that do not play an essential role in reproduction.

Branched spikelet (Leymus clogs) racemosus all cultures. drought and frost-resistant, therefore it became widespread in arid regions - in Siberia and the steppe zone of the European part of the country. Rhizomes on loose soils lie at a depth of 20-25 cm, on dense soils - 15-20 cm or less. horizontally They are located, without going out to the soil surface, have a pointed strong end that penetrates dense soil areas, plots, roots and tubers of other plants. Shoot-forming Horizontal rhizomes of one plant are capable of reaching lengths of 100 meters or more. After 3 years of vegetation, only underdeveloped leaves are formed on vertical rhizomes, in the fourth year the rhizomes die off. horizontal Sections of rhizomes less than 10 cm long poorly quickly and die off.


Fundamentals of farming

All weeds are usually divided into several groups based on biological characteristics and developmental characteristics.

By the type of nutrition, weeds are divided into non-parasitic, semi-parasitic and parasitic. According to their lifespan, non-parasitic weeds are divided into juvenile and perennial. Below is a complete production classification scheme for biological weed groups.

2. Spring: a) early b) late

Parasitic and semi-parasitic:

Non-parasitic weeds. These include green plants that have an independent type of nutrition. This is the most abundant group of weeds. Juvenile weeds take one (annual) or two (biennial) years to fully develop. Perennial weeds grow for several years and bear fruit repeatedly during their life cycle.

Young weeds usually reproduce by seeds (bear fruit once and die off - only seeds remain viable) perennial - seeds and vegetatively. Juvenile weeds are divided into five biological groups, a brief description of which is as follows.

Ephemera - plants with a very short growing season (several weeks), during the summer they can give 2-3 generations.

Grow well in damp places. They litter vegetable gardens, crops of cereals and perennial grasses. These include wood lice, or stellate.

Spring weeds give one generation a year. They are early and late. The first ones germinate in early spring and finish development before harvesting cultivated plants. These include wild oats, intoxicating chaff, bindweed, tornitsa, wild radish, white gauze, field mustard, chaffinch pickle, wormwood ragweed. Seeds of late spring weeds germinate when the soil is heated sustainably. They grow and develop slowly. Ripen after harvesting early cultivated plants in the crops of late crops - simultaneously with them.

Late weeds include common squid, chicken millet, gray bristles, green bristles, kurai, black nightshade, purslane, wild hemp.

Spring weeds infest mainly the crops of spring plants. Among them there are many specialized crops that infest crops only close in biology and agricultural technology.

Wintering weeds - walker, shepherd's purse, field yarotka, common cockle, blue cornflower, odorless chamomile, garbage bug, field larkspur. With early spring shoots, the growing season ends in the same year, and with late shoots, they can winter in any phase. Wintering weeds infest spring and winter crops, fallow fields, and vegetable gardens.

Winter weeds - field rump, rye rump, field broom - typical weeds of winter grain. They sprout in the fall, and bloom and bear fruit the following year. For their full development, a lower winter temperature is required, regardless of the timing of germination. Winter weed seeds ripen, as a rule, together with the ripening of cereals.

Biennial weeds - yellow sweet clover, white sweet clover, thistle, hemlock, parsnip, steppe cabbage, resin. The full development cycle is completed in two years. In the first year, they form a powerful root system and a small root rosette of leaves.In the spring of next year, they develop a flowering stem and bear fruit at the end of summer.

Perennial weeds according to the method of reproduction, they are divided into the following biological groups.

Rhizomatous weeds - creeping wheatgrass, pinworm, gumay, pig, field horsetail, yarrow, nettle, coltsfoot. These are the most vicious and difficult to eradicate weeds. Reproduce well in a vegetative way. Underground stems (rhizomes) are formed in the soil at a depth of 10-12 cm in the wheatgrass and even deeper in the pig and ovid. Rhizomes have many viable buds, from which new shoots develop, forming new rhizomes. As a result, the weeds of this group spread very quickly. In a few years, they can create a strong sod.

Root weeds - field thistle, field thistle (pink thistle), pink bitterness, spurge, field bindweed, toadflax, common rape. Weeds of this group, due to their rapid reproduction and the difficulty of eradication, are also considered malicious. Root-sucking weeds have a powerful deep-penetrating root system, from which horizontal lateral roots extend. The buds on the roots are capable of producing young shoots during the growing season. On the fields, clumps of root weeds are formed. In addition to vegetative propagation, suckling weeds also propagate by seeds. So, thistle gives tens of thousands of seeds. Field bindweed stalks often strongly entangle bread, which leads to their lodging and a decrease in yield by 30-50%.

Bulbous and tuberous weeds - round onions, field onions, meadow garlic. They litter meadows and pastures. Propagated vegetatively by bulbs, tubers and seeds. Getting into the hay in large quantities, these weeds reduce its quality.

Creeping weeds - creeping buttercup, cinquefoil goose. They are rare in the fields, they are mainly weeds of meadows and pastures, mainly in damp, low places. They reproduce by creeping shoots on the soil surface. Each such stem has a large number of buds. Taking root, the bud develops a rosette of leaves. In winter, the aboveground part of the plant dies off, but the rooted bud is preserved. In the spring, a new plant is formed from it. Strongly overgrown creeping weeds oppress other plants.

Pin-root weeds - horse sorrel, cracker, chicory, dandelion, bitter wormwood. Form an elongated and thickened main root. Propagated mainly by seeds and partially vegetatively.

Fibro-root weeds - large plantain, caustic buttercup. They have powerfully developed filamentous roots. Rarely found in crops, more often in gardens, meadows and pastures, along roadsides and ravines. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

The vegetative way of reproduction of the last two groups is poorly expressed or completely absent.

Parasitic weeds... This type includes weeds that do not have roots and green leaves, have lost the ability to photosynthesize and live off the host plant.

According to the method of attachment to green plants, parasitic weeds are divided into stem and root weeds.

Stem parasitic weeds - field dodder, clover dodder, linseed dodder, etc. The dodder stem is curly, with numerous suckers, with the help of which the weed attaches to the stem of the host plant and sucks out its nutrients. Propagated by seeds. The seeds germinate in the soil, then the young seedlings twine around the green plant and lose contact with the soil. It parasitizes mainly on clover, alfalfa, vetch, lentils, flax, hemp and many weeds. It also affects some vegetables and melons.

Root parasitic weeds - types of broomrape. Unlike stem weeds, they develop on the roots of green plants. Sunflower broomrape is more widespread. It parasitizes sunflowers, tomatoes, tobacco, makhorka, hemp.

Sucking on the roots of sunflower or other plants, broomrape strongly oppresses them, sharply reducing the crop yield. Propagated by seeds that overwinter in the soil, retaining germination for up to 6-7 years. One plant produces over 100 thousand small seeds.

Semi-parasitic weeds. This type includes weeds that have green leaves and are capable of photosynthesis, but partly feed on other plants, sticking to their roots or aboveground organs. Representatives of this type are stem (white mistletoe, European birch flower) and root (large rattle, small rattle, narrow eyebright, late toothed, field beetle, marsh mytnik).


Effective Weed Control Techniques

The most effective method of dealing with parasitic crops is to dig a site. Of course, this process is laborious, but it eliminates the main source of the formation of problems - the root system of weeds. It is not necessary to use a shovel for these purposes and do the whole process by hand; you can use a cultivator. During the active growth of flowers in the garden, it will not work to dig up the soil, therefore weeding of the plantings is used.

If traditional control methods do not work, you can use herbicides. But it is better to process the territory before planting flower crops. The most effective drugs are "Accord" and "Forsat", they are able to overcome almost all types of weeds.

Some gardeners practice biological weed control. It consists in the use of a dense opaque material (agrofibre, black film). This method implies the deprivation of the parasitic representatives of the necessary living conditions, which leads to their death.

But the best method of control is the prevention of the emergence of crops. First of all, gardeners recommend fully planting the territory, leaving no free space for the development of weeds. You can also resort to mulching, re-sowing in places where plants have faded. Do not forget to throw out the removed weed representatives from the site, setting aside a special compost pit for this.

With the right approach, the weeds in the garden will not cause much trouble, allowing you to enjoy a riot of flowers. Try to detect parasitic representatives in time, preventing them from spreading throughout the site.


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