Rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica) is a biennial plant whose root crop is eaten or used as animal feed. The plant belongs to the Cabbage genus, Cruciferous family. Rutabaga has other names: wicket, groove, Swedish turnip. Sometimes you can hear how rutabaga is called fodder beets, but this is a mistake. The plant has been known since ancient times. It was obtained by crossing cabbage and turnips. It was first mentioned in sources in 1620. According to versions from other sources, the rutabaga comes from Siberia.
Description of the rutabaga plant
Rutabaga is not afraid of cold or drought. Its relatives are turnips, horseradish, cabbage, mustard. Since the plant is two years old, in the first year, a root crop and tops are formed, and the next year - seeds with peduncles. Rutabaga has a tall stem with lyre-shaped leaves. The above-ground part has a gray color. The flowers are yellow and the fruit is a long pod with a smooth or lumpy surface. Seeds are spherical.
There are many varieties of rutabagas. The root crop can be oval or round, cylindrical, or rounded but slightly flattened. The pulp is white or yellowish. The taste is very similar to turnips, but rutabaga is more nutritious.
Growing rutabagas from seeds
If you grow seedlings in advance, the plants will not be afraid of some pests. Before sowing the seeds, they must be soaked in a garlic solution for about 1 hour. To do this, you need 100 ml of water and 25 g of garlic (pre-chopped). After an hour, the swede seeds should be washed and dried. It will be helpful to germinate the seeds by wrapping them in a damp cloth.
Sowing seeds should fall on the first days of April, 1.5 months before planting. It is necessary to pour a moistened substrate into the boxes, deepen the seeds into it by 1-1.5 cm, and at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. The distance from one row to another should be about 6-7 cm. Then the boxes must be covered with foil. It is important to keep the temperature around 17-18 degrees.
Seedlings of rutabagas
When the first sprouts of swede appear, you need to remove the film from the boxes, and then put them in a cooler room. The temperature here should be about 6-7 degrees, and in a week it will need to be increased by 5-7 degrees to 12-15 degrees. Seedlings should be thinned out, and the ground should be watered and loosened.
In order not to damage the roots, it is not necessary to dive the seedlings. Therefore, the box for growing seedlings must be taken deep.
Before planting turnip seedlings, they need to be hardened for about 10 days. Every day, the boxes are taken out into the street, leaving them for a while, which is slightly increased every day. The maximum time is 24 hours after that the plants will be ready for planting.
Planting swede in open ground
After a month and a half from the day of sowing the seeds, it will be possible to transplant the plants to the beds. By this time, about 4-5 leaves should already appear on them. In this case, it is also necessary to take into account weather conditions. But, as a rule, it is mid-May. Before planting, the seedlings are well watered so that the soil is moist.
The soil should be neutral in acidity. If the earth is acidic, it will need to be calcified. The soil should be as fertile as possible. It is important that it allows moisture to pass through well. The waters must be deep. Peat or loamy soil is suitable for this culture. You can also plant it in sandy loam.
It is advisable to plant rutabagas after cucumbers, pumpkins, potatoes, eggplants. Cruciferous plants should not be among the predecessors. After them, rutabagas in these beds can be planted only after 4-5 years.
The beds should be prepared in the fall. It is necessary to dig them up, add 3-4 kg of manure, 15 g of urea, 25-30 g of potassium salt, as well as 30-40 g of superphosphate per square meter. If you need to lower the acidity, this procedure is also performed in the fall.
Every 20 cm you need to make holes. The distance between the rows is about 50 cm. Before planting the seedlings, the wells are well watered. When planting, the leaves are partially cut off, and the roots are dipped into a chatterbox with clay. It is important not to bury the rutabaga root collar in the ground. When the seedlings are planted and sprinkled, the earth is tamped and watered a little. The seedlings are shaded for several days.
Landing before winter
If you plant this crop before winter, then in the spring it will grow together, and the harvest will bring earlier than usual. Rutabagas are sown late, when the ground freezes by 5 cm. The soil is dug up in advance, the necessary fertilizers are applied. The depth of the holes is about 3 cm, the distance is the same as when planting seedlings. A little sand is added to the holes, on which 2 seeds are placed. Sand is also poured on top, and then humus or a mixture of compost and peat.
Care of the turnip
It is not difficult to care for this culture. It is watered, hilled, the earth is loosened and weeded. Fertilizers are periodically applied and treated against pests and diseases. If sockets are formed, then it's time to spud. After watering, the soil is loosened, deepening by 4-8 cm. The first time this procedure is performed 2 days after planting, the second - a week later. Further, loosening is performed together with weeding. There should be 4-5 looseings per season.
This crop loves moisture, but if there is too much of it, the root crop can turn out to be watery. For the whole season, there should be about 3-5 waterings. If there is not enough water, the fruit will be tough and taste bitter. It is recommended to consume about 10 liters of water per 1 square meter.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Fertilizers need to be applied 2 weeks after planting. After watering, slurry is introduced. When the root crop begins to form, you need to add a mineral dressing containing potassium and phosphorus.
After planting, the seedlings need to be powdered with ash. This will help avoid getting hit by the flea. It is important to keep a close eye on the plants throughout the season. If necessary, chemical treatment is carried out. But before harvesting the swede, there should be at least a month.
Cleaning and storage of swede
In 3-4 months after planting, you can start harvesting. As a rule, rutabagas are removed for storage after the first frosts. When you dig the rutabaga, do it carefully. The root crop should not be damaged. The tops are cut at the base. The root crop is cleaned, dried in a shaded place, and then lowered into the cellar for storage, where it is placed on shelves or in boxes.
Diseases and pests
Rutabaga can get the same diseases as other cruciferous plants such as cabbage or horseradish. Most often it is more linen, mosaic, black leg. It is also characterized by such diseases as keela, vascular bacteriosis. Among pests, the following species are dangerous: sprout swings, aphids, bugs, etc.
To protect the plant from damage by pests and the development of diseases, it is very important not to forget about the need for crop rotation. Before sowing, the seed disinfection procedure should not be neglected. It won't take long, but it will help preserve the harvest in the future. Weeds need to be removed from the beds. After harvesting, you need to remove the tops from the garden, as well as dig up the ground well.
For prevention, it is useful to plant any salad and herbs that have a strong aroma next to the beds of the turnip. This can be salvia, sage, wormwood, and also mint or chamomile. Row-spacing nasturtium will be excellent at repelling many pests.
Useful properties of swede
These vegetables are rich in sugars, fats, and fiber. They contain vegetable protein, as well as carbohydrates, which are well absorbed by the body. They contain a lot of ascorbic acid, carotene, as well as various B vitamins. Rutabaga is rich in useful essential oils. Among the trace elements, this root vegetable contains potassium, sodium and phosphorus. It is useful for those who suffer from calcium deficiency. In folk medicine, the seeds of this culture were used for rinsing with inflammation of the oral cavity.
The root vegetable is often used as a remedy for burns, diuretic, anti-inflammatory. When we lack vitamins in winter and spring, rutabaga helps to fill this deficiency. Thanks to its fiber content, it helps with constipation. Rutabagas are recommended for atherosclerosis.
Root crops are used for hypertension, as they help to remove accumulated fluid from the body.
If someone in the family suffers from a cough, it is necessary to consume as much rutabagas as possible, so that recovery can come as quickly as possible.
But this healthy vegetable also has its own contraindications. It is not recommended for those who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases. After all, plant fibers can irritate the surfaces of organs. Sometimes there may also be an individual intolerance, that is, an allergy. In this case, the use of the product will have to be abandoned.
Types and varieties of swede
There is both fodder and dining rutabaga. Fodder is a table crop crossed with cabbage. It produces good yields and is easy to care for. Table rutabaga has a juicy tasty pulp. Here are some of the most common varieties.
- Invitation - this variety is good because it is not afraid of powdery mildew and is not affected by the keel.
- Swedish is a high-yielding variety, the roots have yellow flesh.
- Krasnoselskaya - gives a good harvest that can be stored for a long time. The growing season is 3-4 months. One root vegetable weighs 300-500 g. They have a yellow sugary pulp.
- Novgorodskaya is a mid-season variety with good resistance to shooting. Root crops weigh about 400 g. Their flesh is yellow, soft. The advantage is excellent keeping quality.
- Children's love - the roots are oval-round. This is a mid-early rutabaga. The mass of one root vegetable is 350-500 g. The pulp is quite dense and juicy.
- Acme - roots have an orange pulp, and their top is purple.
- Brora - high sugar content is characteristic of root crops, they look shiny and purple.
How to grow a PANTS / Growing a turnip
Field crop classification. About 90 of the most important types of field crops are cultivated in the fields of our country, providing the population with the necessary food products, animal feed and raw materials for industry. They differ from each other in morphological structure, chemical composition, relation to environmental conditions, nature of use and other characteristics.
In production, field crops are divided into groups. The classification is based on the principle of combining individual cultivated plants according to the nature of the main product obtained during their cultivation.
Cereal crops. They occupy more than half of all field crops in the Soviet Union. This group includes: wheat, corn, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, millet, rice. Cereal grain, as the most complete product in terms of the ratio of carbohydrates and proteins, is widely used for food and animal feed.
Cereals are divided into two groups: the first - wheat, rye, barley, oats, the second - corn, millet, sorghum, rice.
In plants of the first group (Fig. 5), a caryopsis with a longitudinal groove is formed during germination of the caryopsis, several roots appear, an inflorescence - an ear (wheat, rye, barley) or a panicle (oats), a stem - straw. Plants in this group thrive in moderate temperatures and long days. Wheat is in the first place among these crops in terms of value and acreage.
Cereals of the second group - corn, millet, sorghum and especially rice - are heat-loving plants. They vegetate normally, as a rule, in areas with a warm climate in the south of the country. Unlike cereals of the first group, they form a caryopsis without a longitudinal groove and a stem (shoot) filled with spongy tissue. The weevil sprouts with one root. Sorghum and millet, cultivated in areas of insufficient moisture, are distinguished by their resistance to drought. Rice culture is widespread in irrigated areas
Fig. 5. Bread of the first group:
1 - wheat: a - hard, b • - soft awnless, c - soft spinous 2 - rye 3 - seed oats 4 - barley: a - multi-row, b - two-row.
stgny (Northern Caucasus, southern Ukraine, Transcaucasia, the republics of Central Asia, southern Far East). "
Corn and millet can be grown not only in the southern regions of the country. In the central regions, although maize does not ripen, under favorable conditions it forms high yields of green mass used to obtain high-quality silage.
Leguminous crops. Peas, vetch, soybeans, beans, lentils, rank, chickpeas, lupines occupy a prominent place in agriculture. These plants are valued for their high content of vegetable protein in seeds (2–2.5 times more than in cereals). Pulses are excellent precursors for any crop.
Beans, soybeans, chickpeas, as more thermophilic crops, are widespread in the southern regions of the country, vetch and especially peas - more in the central and northern.
Tuber and root crops. These plants form as a result of thickening of roots (sugar and fodder beets, rutabagas, turnips) or underground shoots (potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke) of various forms, underground fruits. Unlike cereals and especially legumes, their protein content is low, and carbohydrates (sugar, starch, inulin) are high. Tuberous and root-bearing plants are distinguished by high productivity and increased demands on growing conditions. They occupy a relatively smaller area, but serve as an important source of carbohydrates. Potatoes are cultivated everywhere, sugar beets mainly in the chernozem regions of the RSFSR and Ukraine, where their share reaches 15-20% of the total sown area.
Oilseeds. In the southern and central regions of the country, as well as in Siberia and Kazakhstan, the sowing of these crops occupies an important place. They are cultivated for the seeds that are rich in fats. Vegetable fats are used both for food and for technical purposes (in the manufacture of dyes, soaps, etc.). The main oilseed crop in our country is sunflower, other oilseeds - curly flax, castor oil plant, sesame seeds, perilla, mustard, rapeseed, camelina - occupy relatively small areas. Sunflower is widespread in the black earth regions of the European part of the USSR - in the Ukraine, the North Caucasus, in the Central Black Earth regions of the RSFSR, the Volga region.
Spinning crops. Bast-fiber crops are distinguished, cultivated for the sake of obtaining fiber from the stems: flax, hemp, kenaf. In cotton, the fiber is formed on the seeds. The most important fibrous plants in our country are cotton, flax and hemp. They give us over 95% of vegetable spinning raw materials.
Spinning flax (fiber) is widespread in areas of a humid temperate climate: in the Non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR (60%), Belarus (18%), the Baltic republics (6%), northern and western regions of Ukraine (16%). Hemp crops occupy a smaller area than flax. They are located south of flax - in the Central Black Earth Region of the RSFSR, forest-steppe regions of Ukraine.
Forage grasses. In field cultivation, annual and perennial forage grasses occupy a large place. Expanding their crops and increasing yields to obtain high-quality forage (hay, haylage) and create perennial pastures is the most important task facing agricultural workers.
Perennial legumes (clover, alfalfa, sainfoin, sweet clover) and cereals (timothy, fescue, awnless fire, wheat grass, ryegrass) under conditions of sufficient moisture and good agricultural technology can give high yields - 4.0-5.0 tons per hectare, and with irrigation, up to 10.0 tons of hay per hectare.
No less important are annual legumes and cereal grasses, which are widespread both in areas of sufficient (vetch, annual clovers) and insufficient (Sudanese grass) moisture.
WHAT ARE THE FEATURES IN GROWING A PANTS?
It should be grown like a cabbage of mid-season and late varieties - by seedling and non-seedling methods. Plant 35-40-day-old seedlings in open ground in the presence of 3-4 true leaves.
The best soils for cultivation are loams, cultivated peatlands. Sandstones and clayey soils are unsuitable, as well as areas with a close occurrence of groundwater - the crop will be lost.
You cannot grow related plants near the rutabaga - cabbage, turnips, radishes, etc.
After planting these crops, at least 4 years must pass.
2 weeks after planting seedlings in the ground, feed the plants with mullein infusion (1:10), and at the beginning of the formation of root crops, apply full mineral fertilizer (according to the instructions, as under cabbage).
Classification of vegetable crops. There are a large number of wild and cultivated vegetable plants for human consumption. They are combined into groups with more or less homogeneous economic characteristics.
According to the industrial classification, the following groups of crops are distinguished:
1. Cabbage vegetables. This group includes all varieties of cabbage cultivated by humans for both food and forage purposes.
2. Root crops, uniting representatives of three botanical families: umbrella (carrot, parsley, celery) haze (beet) cruciferous or cabbage (radish, radish, turnip, rutabaga).
3. Onions (onions, garlic, onions).
4. Fruit vegetables (fruits or seeds are used for food), including representatives of four families: pumpkin (cucumber, squash, pumpkin) nightshade (tomato, pepper, eggplant) legumes (peas, beans, beans) cereals (sweet corn).
5. Green or salad vegetables, the leaves of which are used for fresh food (various types of salad, dill, etc.).
6. Perennial vegetable plants (rhubarb, sorrel, horseradish).
Many cultivated plants have been created by human labor,
completely unlike their wild ancestors. For example, white and red cabbage, leafy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc. are obtained from wild cabbage (Fig. 6).
The requirements of vegetable plants to environmental conditions are naturally related to the place of origin of wild relatives.
The need for plants in certain conditions (temperature, moisture, illumination, etc.) was developed in the process of their centuries of development. Many biennial plants (cabbage, carrots, beets, radishes) from the humid regions of the temperate climate of Europe, Asia and the mountainous part of North Africa, where they winter at a temperature of 2-6 ° C and therefore are characterized by increased cold resistance. The homeland of the heat-resistant watermelon is the sultry African semi-desert Kalahari (see front endpaper). Knowing about the origin of the plant, you can better understand its biological characteristics and develop agricultural techniques correctly.
Vegetable plants also differ in life expectancy and vegetation.
The life span of vegetable plants is understood as the period from seed germination to natural plant death. On this basis, they are divided into three groups: annuals, biennials and perennials.
Annuals are plants that bloom once in a lifetime and after. flowering and fruiting die off. When sowing in spring, annual plants complete their individual development cycle ("from seed to seed") in one year and usually die off completely in the fall. Annual vegetables include pumpkin, cucumber, watermelon, melon, tomato, beans, peas, radishes, cauliflower, lettuce, dill, etc.
Biennial vegetable plants in the first year of life form heads of cabbage, bulbs, roots, which are used by humans for food. After winter storage, they are planted in the soil in spring to obtain seeds (fruits and seeds are formed in the second year of life). Biennial crops include cabbage, beets, carrots, parsnips, rutabagas, turnips, radishes, onions, etc.
Perennial vegetable plants / are characterized by repeated flowering and fruiting during their life. Their transition to fruiting usually begins in the second year of life. During the growing season, perennial plants form organs in which reserves of nutrients are deposited (roots, rhizomes, bulbs), and their entire aboveground part dies off in autumn. From the surviving rhizomes and bulbs, plants resume their growth every spring. Perennial plants include rhubarb, sorrel, horseradish, perennial onions.
Features of development. The growing season lasts from the emergence of seedlings to the ripening of fruits and seeds. In crops such as cucumber, squash, squash, eggplant, there is a distinction between the economic growing season (from germination to consumer ripeness) and the growing season when grown for seeds. For example, cucumber is used for food in the green phase, that is, 8-10 days after fertilization, when the seeds in the fruits are underdeveloped. When growing a cucumber for seeds, the growing season is calculated from germination to full maturation of the testes.
In biennial crops (cabbage, onions, root crops), in the first year, the growing season is distinguished from germination to economic suitability of heads of cabbage (cabbage) or from seedlings to the formation of root crops, bulbs and other organs used for food in the second year from regrowth of mother plants (plants of the first year life used to obtain seeds) until the seeds ripen.
By changing the soil and climatic conditions and the methods of cultivating the crop, it is possible to lengthen or shorten the life of the plant.
Vegetable plants water regime. The constant supply of plants with water in the required amount determines their full development and the formation of productive organs. Lack of water causes a decrease in the activity of photosynthesis and an increase in respiration, which leads to a more rapid aging of plants and a decrease in yield by 2–3 times or more. Root crops grown with insufficient moisture develop rough roots with a bitter taste.
Vegetable crops have a high water requirement. However, only 0,! - 0, 2% of the consumed water is consumed for the formation of dry matter. The amount of water consumed by a plant to create a unit of dry matter is called the transpiration coefficient. The amount of water consumed by the soil and the plant for the formation of 1 ton of wet mass of the crop is called the coefficient of water consumption. The coefficient of water consumption of vegetable crops is very high. So, depending on the culture in arid conditions, it is as follows (t):
Cabbage 250-300 Tomato 90-150
Sweet pepper 200-250 Carrots 80-120
Onion, cucumber, eggplant 150-200 Beetroot 60-90
The higher the yield, the less the plant uses water for each ton of production and the lower the water consumption coefficient. The coefficient of water consumption of white cabbage with a yield of 20 tons per 1 ha - 160 tons 70 tons per 1 hectare - 65 tons.
In different periods of the growing season, the need of plants for water is not the same. For example, at a young age, although all vegetable plants consume little water, they require high soil and air moisture due to poor root development. Therefore, when growing seedlings in nurseries and greenhouses, irrigation is systematically carried out.
The different requirements of vegetable plants to water are determined by the ability of their root system to extract water from the soil and the intensity of its consumption.
On this basis, four groups of vegetable plants are distinguished (Fig. 7):
1. Actively extracting water from the soil and consuming it intensively (beetroot).
2. They actively extract water from the soil and use it very economically (watermelon, melon, pumpkin, sweet corn, carrots, parsley, tomato, pepper, beans).
3. Slowly extracting water from the soil and uneconomical
Fig. 7. Grouping of vegetable plants according to their ability to extract water from the soil and consume it during the growing season:
/ - first group 2 - second group 3 - third group 4 - fourth group.
consuming it (cabbage, eggplant, cucumber, cruciferous roots, lettuce and spinach).
4. Plants with a weak ability to extract water from the soil, but with an economical water consumption during the growing season (onions, garlic).
When developing agricultural techniques for vegetable crops, it is necessary to take into account the natural precipitation of each zone and the demands of plants on water in different phases of growth and development. To obtain high yields of vegetables in almost all zones, artificial irrigation is necessary in certain periods.
Vegetable production methods. Cultivated vegetable plants appeared after centuries of artificial selection, and therefore, for their growth and development, a complex of soil and technical conditions created by man is required. Without care, vegetable plants die or run wild. For example, carrots and beets on uncultivated plots, after several generations, form woody, undeveloped root crops, which become practically inedible. Moreover, even with an insufficiently high level of agricultural technology for growing these crops, the quality of the root is sharply reduced. Therefore, to obtain good yields of high-quality vegetables, it is necessary to adhere to agricultural techniques developed by science and practice for various soil and climatic zones, as well as for cultivation facilities (greenhouses and greenhouses).
Common methods of growing and preserving vegetables include cultivating, forcing, rearing, ripening, and storing.
Cultivation of vegetables. This is the main way to grow vegetables. Getting a harvest from seeds both in the open and in the protected ground.
Forcing vegetables. Obtaining a harvest of young edible leaves and stems from rhizomes, tubers, root crops, bulbs and other storage organs. Usually, roots and bulbs are harvested in the fall and planted in greenhouses in winter. Nutrients from roots and bulbs enter the growing young leaves and stems, which are used for food. In this process, light is of secondary importance, and it is not needed at all to obtain etiolated (bleached) asparagus stalks or leaves of cyclone lettuce. Forcing is widespread in the more northern regions of the Non-Black Earth Region, where the growing season is short and the demand for fresh vegetables is high. The most suitable for forcing are various types of onions, sorrel, parsley, celery, beets, rhubarb.
Growing up. Formation of vegetables from reserve plastic substances of leaves without the process of photosynthesis. For this, plants with a well-developed leaf apparatus are usually used. The most widespread is the autumn and winter growing of cauliflower. Plants with well-developed large leaves and a small head are dug out of open ground in the fall and buried in greenhouses or greenhouses. At low temperatures, proteins, fats and starch contained in leaves and stems form soluble amino acids, sugars and fatty acids, which enter the underdeveloped inflorescence (head) and are again reduced to protein, fat and starch. The mass of the head increases from 70-100 g to 1 kg or more, that is, a normal yield of cauliflower is formed. Due to growing, the term of cauliflower intake increases, especially in late autumn and winter periods. Growing Brussels sprouts is carried out in a similar way.
Ripening of fruits. Changes in their chemical composition, food and taste properties during storage. In the open field, the fruits are fully formed, but they are still green, slightly edible. As they ripen during storage, the fruits become suitable for human consumption. Ripening of tomato fruits is most widely used in the northern regions of the Non-Black Earth Region and in Siberia. In the regions of Central Asia, ripening of fruits of late-ripening varieties of melon is used.
Storage of vegetables. Many vegetable plants (cabbage, onions, root crops) after harvesting go into a dormant state and at temperatures from 0 to plus 2-3 ° C without light at a certain humidity and ventilation retain their nutritional properties for 7-8 months, and sometimes more of the year.
Vegetable plants with green leaves (onion, leek, parsley, celery, lettuce) can also be stored; they are extracted and added dropwise in greenhouses or greenhouses.
At a temperature of about 0 ° C and good ventilation, green plants are stored for several months. This way of storing plants with green leaves is called attachment. With this method, in contrast to forcing, the value of light (natural and artificial) is significantly enhanced.
Biological features of swede
Rutabaga, like turnip, belongs to the cruciferous family. This plant is biennial. In the first year, it develops a rosette of leaves and a large fleshy root crop, in the second year it blooms and gives seeds.
The leaves of the turnip are fleshy, dissected. The root crop is often flat-rounded, rather large, rises above the soil surface. Its upper part is dirty green or purple-red, and the lower part is yellow. The pulp is firm, yellow in different shades or white. A noticeable thickening of the root crop begins 35–40 days after germination.
Rutabaga is a very cold hardy plant and can be grown in the northernmost farming zones. Its seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 2-4 degrees, and seedlings already appear at an average daily temperature of 6 degrees. Seedlings can withstand frosts down to minus 4 degrees, and adult plants can withstand temperatures as low as minus 6 degrees. The best temperature for the growth and development of root crops is 16–20 degrees. At higher temperatures, the plants are inhibited and their palatability deteriorates.
Rutabaga is demanding on lighting, prefers long daylight hours and high soil moisture, but does not tolerate both a prolonged excess of moisture in the soil and its strong lack.
The choice of varieties of rutabagas in garden plots is still poor, but new excellent varieties of foreign selection have appeared in the trade, possessing excellent qualities and completely changing the idea of u200b u200bthe taste of rutabagas. It is not without reason that it is in great demand in European countries, especially among English and German gourmets.
Rutabaga, sister of turnip and cabbage
Not by chance turnip got into a fairy tale. After all, before the Russians knew potatoes, turnip was the most common crop. And today it is not uncommon in the garden.
Another thing is the turnip's own sister - swede... Not every gardener in the beds will see her. It's a pity. She is worthy of attention.
Scientists believe that a plant is - turnip-cabbage hybrid... The hybrid could be produced in natural conditions or it was created artificially. Perhaps some forms of rutabaga were obtained by Russian gardeners who grew turnips and cabbage for seeds in neighboring beds. These cultures are easily re-pollinated.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, rutabaga became widespread. But with the introduction of the potato crop, the area under it decreased. In our country, rutabagas are cultivated mainly in the Non-Black Earth Region. Significant areas, especially for fodder rutabaga, are set aside in the Baltics.
In terms of nutritional properties, rutabaga surpasses turnips. It contains vitamins, and yellow-meat varieties are also rich in carotene. The leaves of this vegetable plant are cheap livestock feed.
Swede - the plant is biennial. In the first year, it develops a rosette of leaves and a large fleshy root crop, in the second - a flowering stem. The fruit is a multi-family pod, the seeds are black, small, like small balls. The shape of the roots is from flat-round to round-conical and even cylindrical. Skin color is yellow or lemon. The flesh is firm, yellow or white. Continue reading Rutabaga, sister of turnip and cabbage
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What to cook?
Due to its taste, rutabaga is included in many recipes and gives each dish a unique aroma. This root vegetable can replace potatoes in stews or become a staple ingredient in salads.
So let's take a look at some of the rutabaga dishes. It is possible that one of them will become your favorite, and you will include it not only everyday, but also a festive menu.
Salad with rutabaga, apples and herbs
- 1 rutabaga, peel and coarsely grate
- remove seeds from 2 medium apples and also grate
- take one sprig of celery and parsley, rinse, dry, chop with a knife.
Advice! If you do not like honey, then you can not use it at all, but to enhance the flavor of the salad, you can add a small amount of pumpkin pulp to it.
Vegetable salad with ham and pistachios
- 250 g rutabaga, peeled and cut into small slices
- Cut 100 g radish into slices
- Chop 200 g small ham
- 3-4 stalks of green onions and the same amount of parsley, rinse, dry and chop
- Grind 40 g of salted pistachios into flour using a blender or coffee grinder.
Mix the components of the salad, pour over the sauce of 200 g of light mayonnaise and 3 teaspoons of mustard.
Advice! Mayonnaise can be replaced with sour cream, and regular mustard can be replaced with French or Dijon mustard.
Spicy baked rutabaga
This dish is prepared as follows:
- Rinse 1.5 kg of swede under running water, peel, cut into small cubes and boil until soft
- pour the broth into a separate container, crush the rutabagas into mashed potatoes
- combine 150 g of bread crumbs, half a cup of sugar syrup, an egg, 2 cups of cream, a teaspoon of ground ginger, half a teaspoon of white pepper and nutmeg each, beat with a mixer
- dilute the resulting mixture with a small amount of swede broth so that it acquires a soft consistency, pour in mashed potatoes, mix
- Grease a baking sheet with a piece of butter, put the prepared mixture in it, sprinkle with a small amount of bread crumbs and grated cheese
- send the dish to bake in the oven at a temperature of 170 °.
After 1.5 hours, the spicy rutabaga is ready.
Rutabaga with fried chicken and bacon
To cook dinner for two, you need to do the following:
- peel one small rutabaga, cut into cubes, boil until tender, drain the liquid
- Heat olive oil in a frying pan, fry 4 slices of bacon and 2 chicken fillets, cut into thin strips
- after two to three minutes, when the meat is browned, add the rutabagas and reduce the heat to medium
- Chop 2 garlic cloves with a knife and send to the pan
- after 5 minutes, add 100 ml of broth (vegetable or chicken) to the swede with meat, put half a teaspoon of ground cumin, salt and pepper
- simmer the dish for 2 minutes.
English rutabaga soup
To prepare English soup, you should:
- peel and dice vegetables: one rutabaga, 2 carrots, one onion, celery stalk
- put the ingredients in a saucepan, add water and simmer for 5-10 minutes under a lid
- when the vegetables are tender, add 125 pearl barley and cook the soup for 45 minutes
- bring the dish to taste with salt and pepper, remove from heat.
As you can see, rutabaga can be used in a wide variety of dishes and does not require any special preparation. Create your own recipes and delight them with the taste of your family.