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Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. volkii

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. volkii


Succulentopedia

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. volkii

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. volkii is a clump-forming succulent, up to 2 inches (5 cm) tall, with paired, pale bluish-white leaves…


Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. volkii - garden

Accepted Scientific Name: Lithops pseudotruncatella subs. volkii (Schwantes ex de Boer & Boom) D.T.Cole
Lithops Flowering Stones 233 (1988) D.T.Cole

Origin and Habitat: Namibia.

  • Lithops pseudotruncatella subs. volkii (Schwantes ex de Boer & Boom) D.T.Cole
    • Lithops pseudotruncatella var. volkii (Schwantes ex de Boer & Boom) D.T.Cole
    • Lithops volkii Schwantes in H.Jacobsen

Description: Lithops pseudotruncatella is a very free- growing species, forming clumps. It was one of first plant of this genus discovered and for a long time one of the first representative in European collections. Generally this Lithops is characterized by greyish colour with darker ramosely branched marbling on the upper surfaces, but it is also a very variable taxon in which a number of variety and forms has been described. The status of these is uncertain. The body is medium to very large, solitary or variously branched with more of 20 heads. Facial diameters 25-50 X 20-35 mm and up to 4 cm tall.
Flowers: Yellow (occasionally white), medium to very large, up to 50 mm Ø, mostly 25-40 mm Ø.

Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Lithops pseudotruncatella group

Notes: In the winter season the plant doesn’t need watering, but they will still be growing, the new bodies will be increasing in size as the old outer leaves begin to shrivel. In fact the plant in this time extracts water and nutrient stored in the outer succulent leaves, allowing them to dehydrate relocating the water to the rest of the plant and to the new leaves that form during this period until the old leaves are reduced to nothing more than "thin papery shells".

Bibliography: Major refences and further lectures
1) Heidrun E. K. Hartmann (2002) “Aizoaceae F – Z” Springer
2) Achim Hecktheuer (2008) “Mesembs, mehr als nur Lithops” Books on Demand GmbH Norderstedt. ISBN-13 978-3-8370-1724-3
3) Desmond T. Cole & Naureen A. Cole, Uwe Beyer, Yves Delange (2008) “Les Lithops” SUCCULENTES Spécial 2008 AIAPS (now Terra seca). ISSN 0258-5359
4) Desmond T. Cole & Naureen A. Cole (2005) “LITHOPS Flowering Stones” Cactus & Co. Libri. ISBN 88-900511-7-5 ISBN-13 978-88-900511-7-3
5) Yasuhiko Shimada (2001) “The Genus Lithops” Dobun Shoin. ISBN 4-8103-4066-X
6) Rudolf Heine (1986) “Lithops - Lebende Steine” Neumann Verlag. ISBN 3-7402-0000-6 ISBN-13 978-3-7402-0000-8
7) Bernd Schlösser (2000) “Lithops – Lebende Steine” Praktische Anleitung für die Zimmerkultur. BussinessPoint MEDIA. ISBN 3-934945-01-5 ISBN-13 978-3-934945-01-2
8) Steven A. Hammer (1999) “Lithops – Treasures of the veld” British Cactus and Succulent Society. ISBN 0-902-099-64-7 ISBN-13 978-0-902099-64-7
9) Desmond T. Cole (1988) “Lithops – Flowering Stones” Acorn Books CC. ISBN 0-620-09678-0 ISBN-13 978-0-620-09678-2
10) Rudolf Heine (1986) “Lithops – lebende Steine” Neumann Verlag. ISBN 3-7402-0000-6 ISBN-13 978-3-7402-0000-8
11) David L. Sprechman (1970) “Lithops” Associated University Presses, Inc. SBN 8386-6902-6
12) Gert Cornelius Nel (1946) “Lithops” Hortors Limited, South Africa


Lithops pseudotruncatella var. volkii (Lithops pseudotruncatella subs. volkii) Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Lithops pseudotruncatella var. volkii (Lithops pseudotruncatella subs. volkii) Photo by: Cactus Art
Lithops pseudotruncatella var. volkii (Lithops pseudotruncatella subs. volkii) Photo by: Cactus Art
Lithops pseudotruncatella var. volkii (Lithops pseudotruncatella subs. volkii) Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli

Cultivation and Propagation: The Lithops (a.k.a. Living Stones) are some of the world's most fascinating plants and are sought by the collector of succulent plants. Paying attention to the particular growing requirement of Lithops is especially important. If you provide the Lithops with the right conditions, they will reward you with their unique shape, size, colour and a proliferation of blooms in autumn. However, Lithops are tricky plants that are very particular about their growing conditions and require the right maintenance in order to keep happy. But don't be afraid even the best growers have plants that mysteriously dry up, or leave during the night. While Lithops are picky about their care, if you are patient and remember the basics, your efforts will be rewarded. Being small plants, a representative collection can be grown on a patio table, a sunny windowsill or a shelf in the greenhouse.
Growing rate: Slow growing for a mesemb.
Soil: They grow best in an open mineral, sandy-gritty soil and requires good drainage as they are prone to root rot. They can grow outdoor in sunny, dry, rock crevices (protection against winter wet is required) They can also be cultivated in alpine house, in poor, drained soil.
Repotting: They may stay in the same pot for many years. Plants grown in larger containers have frequently relatively poor flowers. Flowers might improve when the plants are given their own, small individual pots.
Watering They Require little water otherwise the epidermis breaks (resulting in unsightly scars). The basic cultivation routine is: Stop watering after flowering. Start watering after the old leaves are completely dry (usually late March or Early April). Water freely during the growing season, soak the compost fully but allow it to dry out between waterings. In the winter season the plant doesn’t need watering, the plant in this time extracts water from the outer succulent leaves, allowing them to shrivel away, relocating water to the rest of the plant and to the new leaves that form during this period. If grown in a container, bottom watering by immersing the container is recommended. Water sparingly only when warm, no water when cold. Nearly all problems occur as a result of overwatering and poor ventilation, especially when weather conditions are dull and cool or very humid. They must have very dry atmosphere.
Fertilization: Feed them once during the growing season with a fertilizer specifically formulated for cactus and succulents (high potash fertilizer with a dilute low nitrogen), including all micro nutrients and trace elements diluted to ½ the strength recommended on the label. They thrive in poor soils and need a limited supplies of fertilizer to avoid the plants developing excess vegetation, which is easily attacked by fungal diseases. Some growers fertilize frequently, some hardly ever. However, for the highly succulent mesembs, (Lithops, Conophytums, etc.) fertilization is not really necessary.
Light: They prefer a very bright situation and in winter they need the maximum amount of light you are able to give them, but keep more cool and partially shaded in summer. The only exception to this is seedlings in their first year that enjoy a shades place. Such tiny plants can easily get scorched or broiled and their appearance spoiled (this may not matter in the wild, where the Lithops have probably shrunk into the ground and becomes covered with sands). Outdoor (Lithops prefer full sun, with some shade in the hottest summer months. High levels of light are needed in autumn to flower and for good plant development. The low intensity of sun light during the growing season of this species generally prevents the white flower flowers from opening.
Special Advice: Lithops are best planted in a sunny and airy part of the greenhouse, and not too close to the glass roof or sides of the house as the plants can overheat during hot spells.
Hardiness: They require a minimum temperature 5°C (But will take a light frost and are hardy down to -7° C for short periods if they are in dry soil). USDA zones 9A – 11.
Uses: Container, rock garden.
Pests & diseases: Lithops may be attractive to a variety of insects, but plants in good condition should be nearly pest-free, particularly if they are grown in a mineral potting-mix, with good exposure and ventilation. Nonetheless, there are several pests to watch for:
- Red spiders: they may be effectively rubbed up by misting the vulnerable plants every day.
- Mealy bugs: occasianlly they develop aerial into the new leaves and flowers with disfiguring results, but the worst types develop underground on the roots and are invisible except by their effects.
- Sciara Flies: they are one of the major problems for seedlings. It is a good practice to mulch your seedlings with a layer of grit, which will strongly discourage the flies.
- Scales, thrips and aphids: (they are rarely a problem.)
It is wise to treat your whole collection with a systemic insecticide twice a year in spring and autumn.
- Rot: it is only a minor problem with mesembs if the plants are watered and “aired” correctly. If they are not, fungicides won't help all that much.
Remarks: After flowering in the autumn and extending through winter season the plant doesn’t need watering, but they will still be growing, the new bodies will be increasing in size extracting water from the outer succulent leaves, allowing them to shrivel away. In fact the plant in this time extracts water and nutrient stored in the outer succulent leaves, allowing them to dehydrate relocating the water to the rest of the plant and to the new leaves that form during this period until the old leaves are reduced to nothing more than "thin papery shells".
Propagation: Seed or (or rarely) cuttings. The small seeds can be sown in pots of fine, well-drained sand, any time during the spring and summer months when temperatures are warm. Cover the seeds with a very fine layer of grit and water from below with a fungicide to prevent damping off. For the first 3-4 days cover the pots with a sheet of glass/clear perspex to keep the humidity levels high. Remove the glass and replace it with light shadecloth and mist once or twice a day for the next two weeks after which most seeds should have germinated. From then on mistings can be reduced to every second and then every third day as the little plants grow. Take the cuttings from a grown-up mother plant. Each cutting must contain one or more heads along with a fraction of root and permit them to dry out a couple of days, lay the cuttings on the soil and insert the stem end partially into the soil. Try to keep the cutting somewhat upright so that the roots are able to grow downward. It is relatively difficult to root Lithops from cuttings and generally pointless as well, so quick are they from seed.
Comment: Improvement of Lithops characteristics: Some growers (but not all!!) think it is very intriguing to reinforce any characteristic of cultivated Lithops of by crossing two similar selected plants and then back-crossing with the mother plant. This way we can eventually get some interesting results. Of course, many of the nicest Lithops we grow in cultivation have already been selected over time. However many Lithops are already nice plants which can’t really be improved, on the other hand one could try to improve the colour or the markings etc. Now if we have two particular plants we may attempt to breed between them and can maybe get a whole improved population and then select some better offspring to continue the selection.
Seed production: Plants can be hand pollinated, using a small paint brush. Remember always to cross different clones as the plants are self-sterile. The seed will remain viable for many years provided it is stored in a cool dry place.


Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. volkii - garden

Description: Lithops pseudotruncatella is a very free- growing species, forming clumps. It was one of first plant of this genus discovered and for a long time one of the first representative in European collections. Generally this Lithops is characterized by greyish colour with darker r amosely branched marbling on the upper surfaces, but it is also a very variable taxon in which a number of variety and forms has been described. The status of these is uncertain. The body is medium to very large, solitary or variously branched with more of 20 heads. Facial diameters 25-50 X 20-35 mm and up to 4 cm tall.
Flowers: Yellow (occasionally white), medium to very large, up to 50 mm Ш, mostly 25-40 mm Ш.

Lithops pseudotruncatella comprises several more or less intergrading and distinct variety:

  • ssp. pseudotruncatella (N.E. Brown) N.E. Brown 1908. Cole numbers: C067, C070, C263, C315 “alpina”, C068, C381 “mundtii”, C099, C100 “clear form”.
    It is a medium to very large sized elliptical plant about 40 X 30 mm wide, the body is flat to slightly convex with a shallow fissure,and lobes conjunct. It branches easily and forms clumps with up to 20 (or more) heads, but usually less. It is somewhat variable in colour, usually opaque, smooth to very slightly rugose, uniform pale grey or beige tinted with variously shaded. Face, margins and shoulders dull grey. Windows and margins usually not clearly distinguishable, In the upper surface there a broken network of irregularly and extensively branched tree-like rubrications that sometimes are reduced to a scattering of short lines, dashes and dots the ends often finely ramose and tapering off into the outer margins.
  • ssp. pseudotruncatella var. elisabethiae (Dinter) De Boer & Boom 1933 Cole numbers:C187
    It is quite similar to the standard variety but whit a peculiar bluish-pink colour.
  • ssp. pseudotruncatella var. riehmerae D.T. Cole 1987 “edithiae” (var. edithae (N.E.Brown) De Boer) Cole numbers: C097
    Not very different from the standard variety, it differs mainly in its generally smaller size. The head colour is pale grey colour with less extensive markings.
  • ssp. archerae (De Boer) Cole 1967 (L. archeri De Boer) Cole numbers: C104, C306
    This subspecies is easily recognized for its truncate profile and round-elliptic face, the uniform milky grey-green colour is also very characteristic of this plant.
  • ssp. dendritica (Nel) De Boer & Boom 1946(L. dendritica Nel. L. farinosa Dinter.) Cole numbers: C072, C073, C357, C384,“farinosa”C245,“pulmonuncula”C071( var. pulmuncola (Jacobsen) Jacobsen)
    This form is distinguishable for the more regularly branched channels and rubrications that forms an almost a honeycomb pattern. The face has usually a reddish colour.
  • ssp. groendrayensis(Jacobs.) D.T. Cole 1961. Cole numbers: C239, C244 “Witkop form”, C246 Almost uniform pale grey-white in colour with minutely pin-pricked or wrinkled top surface.
  • ssp. volkii (Schwant. ex H.W. de Boer & B.K. Boom) D.T. Cole 1961 Cole numbers: C069
    The face of this form is pale bluish-white with very few rubrications and few or no dusky dots. a

Synonym: L. pseudotruncatella Pallid Form


Each year two leaves are produced at right angles to the old pair of leaves. The growth period ends when the yellow blossoms come out of the cleft.

Photo of conspecific taxa, varieties, forms and cultivars of Lithops pseudotruncatella.