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The Plum - Prunus

The Plum - Prunus


The Pruno

Of the Rosaceae family, in which the genera are often divided according to the structure of their fruits, the plum - common name for prunus - is one of the largest genera in the family.

It differs among the Rosaceae for having a large and single stone guarded by the pulp of its fruit.

It is therefore a very broad genus of trees and shrubs that originates in those areas of the temperate climate belonging to the northern hemisphere. The plum includes many deciduous trees, which bloom in spring, not large in size, particularly widespread as arboreal specimens. Ornaments are placed above all in gardens, between lawns or planted in pairs at the entrance to the green space to frame the entrances to the garden or other particular points. Many of these lose much of their beauty over the years, not a little thinning out the flowering.

But the plum in its turn contains in its own genus several groups of trees, different in foliage, flowers and fruits. We will focus here on Prunus serrulata, or Japanese cherry.


Flowers and fruits

The prunus serrulata, the most popular and widespread of Japanese cherry trees, is a strong and vigorous tree that boasts double, pink flowers in profusion. Many of its energies are reserved for flowering (in fact, serrulata never bears fruit), which when it explodes in its full form is truly enchanting. It has pink flowers that communicate joy and serenity to all the streets or garden spaces where it is grown. The flowers that grow in profusion are almost always pink, sometimes white, and are reminiscent of the shape of small roses.


Cultivation

Prunus serrulata can be grown easily even where space is limited, for example even on a terrace. It comes from a low root stock, then develops thin columns of one or more stems which are themselves thin and will be covered by their length of semi-double flowers. The plant prefers soils rich in organic material.


Fertilization

A mixture that enriches the soil with nutrients and porosity is recommended for the cultivation of prunus: 80% akadama and 20% peat.

A mulch of manure with a high concentration of phosphorus and potassium to be applied every two winters will keep the tree vigorous even where the earth is shallow for rooting.


Exposure

The serrulata wants a fair amount of care, requires a lot of light and lateral protection from the wind. Due to its need for light, it is advisable that any plants or shrubs planted nearby are pruned frequently to ensure more direct exposure.


Pruning

Pruning must take place after flowering, acting in such a way as to shorten too long branches. In the event that pruning is carried out for a branch that is too large, it will be good to lower the scar that develops with a knife and subsequently cover it with a good healing paste.


Watering

The prunus requires continuous watering especially in the warmer seasons and in the flowering period. At other times of the year it is advisable to water the plant only when the soil is dry.


Parasites

There are several dangers to the tree, represented by the attack of parasites. Often frequent enemies are the scale insects, which make their appearance when the branches and trunk have various encrustations. In this case there is a deformation of the trunk, dryness of the branches and fall of the leaves. It is necessary to intervene by cleaning the leaves with water and alcohol and to prune the branches attacked by the scale insects. Destroy the larvae with petroleum oils and isolate the plant in order not to contaminate the neighboring ones.

Other pests that often attack prunus are aphids that suck the sap of the shoots. In this case there is the presence of honeydew which leads to smoke and yellow leaves, as well as a slowed growth of the tree. To combat this situation, it is advisable to use plant-based, chlororganic or phosphorganic insecticides to be sprayed precisely on the trunk and branches after having moistened them.

A third frequent problem is represented by the attack of red mites or spider mites. An invasion of these parasites leads to the presence of eggs on the bark which produce evident red spots, while the mites settle mainly on the inner part of the leaf. In the face of this assault, the overgrown branches must be resolutely pruned and at the end of the winter season, yellow oils must be sprinkled to eliminate the presence of grapes. In spring, however, it is advisable to use acaricides continuously. A humid condition prevents the invasion of mites: it is therefore better to moisten the foliage frequently as well as water abundantly in the warmer seasons.


Curiosity

Many of the ornamental cherry trees, of which prunus serrulata is one of the most widespread and common examples - its name in Japan is Amanogawa - have been selected and developed by highly trained and patient Japanese gardeners over the centuries. Now these variations are reproducible in various parts of the world, but in Japan, their homeland, they are still celebrated every spring in a national holiday that celebrates their flowering. Many in the land of the East visit parks and gardens to enjoy the brief and intense joy of the glorious vision of so many blooms: pink, mauve, white or rosy red flowers, in profusion on branches still free from foliage.




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  • 1 Description
  • 2 Varieties
  • 3 Cultivation and uses
    • 3.1 Origin, domestication and diffusion
    • 3.2 History of cultivation
    • 3.3 Uses
  • 4 Etymology
  • 5 In cultures
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Prunus armeniaca is a small tree, 8–12 m (26–39 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm (16 in) in diameter and a dense, spreading canopy. The leaves are ovate, 5–9 cm (2.0–3.5 in) long and 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) wide, with a rounded base, a pointed tip and a finely serrated margin. The flowers are 2–4.5 cm (0.8–1.8 in) in diameter, with five white to pinkish petals they are produced singly or in pairs in early spring before the leaves. The fruit is a drupe similar to a small peach, 1.5–2.5 cm (0.6–1.0 in) diameter (larger in some modern cultivars), from yellow to orange, often tinged red on the side most exposed to the sun its surface can be smooth (botanically described as: glabrous) or velvety with very short hairs (botanically: pubescent). The flesh is usually firm and not very juicy. Its taste can range from sweet to tart. The single seed is enclosed in a hard, stony shell, often called a "stone", with a grainy, smooth texture except for three ridges running down one side. [9] [10]

According to the Catalog of Life and Flora of China, there are six varieties of P. armeniaca: [10] [11]

  • Prunus armeniaca var. ansuansu apricot (Japanese: ア ン ズ, anzu), pink-flowered, East Asia
  • Prunus armeniaca var. Armeniancommon apricot, Central Asia and China, widely cultivated
  • Prunus armeniaca var. holosericeaTibetan apricot, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Tibet
  • Prunus armeniaca var. meixianensisMei County apricot, double-flowered, Shaanxi
  • Prunus armeniaca var. xiongyueensisXiongyue apricot, Liaoning
  • Prunus armeniaca var. zhidanensisZhidan apricot, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Shanxi

Origin, domestication and diffusion Edit

According to the Soviet botanist Nikolai Vavilov, the center of origin of P. armeniaca is Central Asia, where its domestication would have taken place, and China is another center of domestication. [12] His hypothesis has been confirmed by genetic studies. [4] [5]

There were at least three independent domestication events in the demographic history of P. armeniaca: [4]

  • The one from the wild populations in southern Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) gave rise to the cultivated apricot in southern Central Asia and northern South Asia.
  • The one from the wild populations in northern Central Asia (Kazakhstan) gave rise to the cultivated apricot in northern Central Asia, West Asia (including Armenia, the previously assumed place of origin), Europe and North Africa.
  • The third one occurred in China and gave rise to cultivated apricot in East Asia. It involved the wild populations from northern Central Asia or / and its hybrids with P. sibirica.

The cultivated apricot diffused towards west by two main routes: one is Central Asia → West Asia → Mediterranean Europe & Noth Africa, and the other is Central Asia → continental Europe. In addition, the cultivated apricot from Japan had a minor contribution to that in Mediterranean Europe. [5]

History of cultivation Edit

The apricot was known in Armenia during ancient times, and has been cultivated there for so long that it was previously thought to have originated there. [13] An archaeological excavation at Garni in Armenia found apricot seeds in a Chalcolithic-era site. [14] Its scientific name Prunus armeniaca (Armenian plum) derives from that assumption. For example, Belgian arborist Baron de Poerderlé, writing in the 1770s, asserted, "Cet arbre tire son nom de l'Arménie, provinces of Asia, d'où il est originaire et d'où il fut porté en Europe. "(" this tree takes its name from Armenia, province of Asia, where it is native, and whence it was brought to Europe. "). [15] A large variety of apricots, around 50, are grown in Armenia today. [ 13]

Apricots have been cultivated in China since no later than 1000 BC. [16] Beginning in about the seventh century, apricots in China have been preserved by various methods, including salting and smoking, and the more common drying. Hubei is noted for its black smoked apricots. [17]

Its introduction to Greece is attributed to Alexander the Great. [18]

Apricots have been cultivated in Persia since antiquity, and dried ones were an important commodity on Persian trade routes. Apricots remain an important fruit in modern-day Iran. [ citation needed ]

An article on Apricot cultivation in Andalusia of Spain is brought down in Ibn al-'Awwam's 12th-century agricultural work, Book on Agriculture. [19]

Egyptians usually dry apricots, add sweetener, and then use them to make a drink called amar al-dīn. [ citation needed ]

In England during the 17th century, apricot oil was used in herbalism treatments intended to act against tumors, swelling, and ulcers. [20]

In the 17th century, English settlers brought the apricot to the English colonies in the New World. Most of modern American production of apricots comes from the seedlings carried to the West Coast by Spanish missionaries. Almost all U.S. commercial production is in California, with some in Washington and Utah. [21]

Today, apricot cultivation has spread to all parts of the globe having climates that can support its growth needs.

Uses Edit

Seeds or kernels of the apricot grown in central Asia and around the Mediterranean are so sweet, they may be substituted for almonds. [ citation needed ] The Italian liqueur amaretto and amaretti biscuits are flavored with extract of apricot kernels rather than almonds. [ citation needed ] Oil pressed from these cultivar kernels, and known as oil of almond, has been used as cooking oil. Kernels contain between 2.05% and 2.40% hydrogen cyanide, but normal consumption is insufficient to produce serious effects. [22] [ clarification needed ]

The scientific name Armenian was first used by Gaspard Bauhin in his Pinax Botanical Theaters (page 442), referring to the species as Armenian bad "Armenian apple". It is sometimes stated that this came from Pliny the Elder, but it was not used by Pliny. Linnaeus took up Bauhin's epithet in the first edition of his Species Plantarum in 1753. [23]

The name apricot is probably derived from a tree mentioned as praecocia by Pliny. Pliny says "We give the name of apples (mala). to peaches (perch) and pomegranates (grenade). "[24] Later in the same section he states" The Asiatic peach ripens at the end of autumn, though an early variety (praecocia) ripens in summer - these were discovered within the last thirty years. ".

The classical authors connected Greek Armenian with Latin praecocia: [25] Pedanius Dioscorides' ". Ἀρμενιακὰ, Ῥωμαιστὶ δὲ βρεκόκκια" [26] and Martial's "Armeniaca, et praecocia latine dicuntur". [27] Putting together the Armenian and the Mala obtains the well-known epithet, but there is no evidence the ancients did it Armenian alone meant the apricot. Nonetheless, the 12th century Andalusian agronomist Ibn al-'Awwam refers to the species in the title of chapter 40 of his Kitab al-Filaha as والتفاح الارمني, "apple from Armenia", stating that it is the same as المشمش or البرقوق ("al-mishmish" or "al-barqūq").

Accordingly, the American Heritage Dictionary under apricot derives praecocia from praecoquus, "cooked or ripened beforehand" [in this case meaning early ripening], becoming Greek πραικόκιον praikókion "apricot" and Arabic البرقوق al-barqūq, a term that has been used for a variety of different members of the genus Prunus (it currently refers primarily to the plum in most varieties of Arabic, but some writers use it as a catchall term for Prunus fruit).

The English name comes from earlier "abrecock"in turn from the Middle French abricot, from Catalan abercoc in turn from Spanish albaricoque. [28] The Spanish albaricoque were adaptation of the Arabic البرقوق (al-barqūq), dating from the Moorish rule of Spain.

However, in Argentina and Chile the word for "apricot" is Damascus, which could indicate that, to the Spanish settlers of these countries, the fruit was associated with Damascus in Syria. [29] The word Damascus is also the word for "apricot" in Portuguese (both European and Brazilian, though in Portugal the word alperce and albricoque are also used).

The Chinese associate the apricot with education and medicine. For instance, the classical word 杏壇 (literally: 'apricot altar') which means "educational circle", is still widely used in written language. Chuang Tzu, a Chinese philosopher in 4th century BCE, told a story that Confucius taught his students in a forum surrounded by the wood of apricot trees. [30] The association with medicine in turn comes from the common use of apricot kernels as a component in traditional Chinese medicine, and from the story of Dong Feng (董 奉), a physician during the Three Kingdoms period, who required no payment from his patients except that they plant apricot trees in his orchard on recovering from their illnesses, resulting in a large grove of apricot trees and a steady supply of medicinal ingredients. The term "Expert of the Apricot Grove" (杏林 高手) is still used as a poetic reference to physicians.

In Armenia, the wood of the apricot tree is used for making wood carvings such as the duduk, which is a popular wind instrument in Armenia and is also called the apricot pipe. Several hand-made souvenirs are also made from the apricot wood.


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Look at other dictionaries:

Pruno - or prison wine is an alcoholic liquid variously made from apples, oranges, fruit cocktail, ketchup, sugar, and possibly other ingredients including bread. It originated in (and remains largely confined to) prisons, where it can be produced…… Wikipedia

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Pruno - Pruno… Deutsch Wikipedia

blackthorn - as amended [lat. prūnus plum tree]. 1. (bot.) [Name of numerous species of rosaceae plants belonging to the genus Prunus]. 2. (bot., Extens.) A. [any thorny shrub or set of thorny fruits] ▶ ◀ bramble, thorn, brush. b. [each sharp point of the… Italian Encyclopedia

blackthorn - sustantivo masculino 1. Use / register: restrictive. Ciruelo… Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

blackthorn - (Of the lat.prunus). m. ciruelo (ǁ árbol)… Diccionario de la lengua española

Pruno - Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pruno (homonymie). 42 ° 25 ′ 01 ″ N 9 ° 26 ′ 25 ″ E… Wikipédia en Français

blackthorn - ► sustantivo masculino BOTÁNICA Ciruelo, árbol en algunas zonas. * * * pruno (from the Latin "prunus") m. Ciruelo. * * * blackthorn. (From the lat.prunus). m. ciruelo (ǁ árbol). * * * ► masculine… Universal Encyclopedia

blackthorn — <<#>><><<〓>> <> << [>> pruno <<] >> ‹pru · no› << 《>> ▍ s.m. <<》 >> << ♂ >> En algunas regiones, << ♀ >> ciruelo. << ★ >> << \ >> ETYMOLOGY: << / >> Of the latín prunus. << # >> <><<〓>> <><<\>><> << / >> << \ >> SINÓNIMOS Y…… Diccionario de use of the español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

blackthorn - noun An improvised alcoholic drink made by fermenting whatever ingredients are available… Wiktionary


Video: Styling prunus Bonsai by Tony Tickle