Garden cranberries - hassle-free growing
Growing cranberries in the country has always attracted gardeners. After all, you must agree that it is convenient to pick berries on your site, and you do not need to go to the forest for this, wade through thorny thickets and be attacked by insects. Garden cranberries are a great choice for berry lovers. Large-fruited varieties reach the size of a cherry, with a diameter of 2 cm, a dark red color and a high content of benzoic acid, thanks to which cranberries are valued. An 8-10 year old plantation with an area of 3 square meters can yield 15 liters of berries per season.
Growing large-fruited cranberries on an industrial scale and at home
Large-fruited garden cranberries are in high demand in the market and are always in price. Needless to say, what benefits this marsh berry has! Its healing properties have been known for a long time. It is successfully used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin deficiency, for vascular and gastrointestinal disorders, to increase the protective properties of the body, removes heavy metals, toxins, and stops aging.
Cranberries are native to North America. It has adapted well to harsh climates and acidic soil. In the USA and Europe, it has been grown for more than 200 years on special plantations, creating conditions for it that are as close to natural as possible.
Video about growing cranberries
In Russia, the industrial cultivation of large-fruited varieties of garden cranberries has also recently begun to be practiced in Karelia, the Leningrad region and Kostroma. Productivity under favorable agrotechnical conditions reaches 11 tons per hectare. On their backyard plots, amateur gardeners can also get a good harvest of this berry, provided that they are properly managed and well maintained.
The main parameters of the requirements of this plant are soil pH from 3 to 4.5 and sufficient moisture. Careful preparation of the landing site will help to ensure such conditions. But the laboriousness is worth it. After all, you get a unique opportunity - to provide your family with high-vitamin berries directly from your own plot. This is still a good earning opportunity, income for those looking for a small business idea. And you can sell not only berries, but seedlings, which are in no less demand.
The main parameters of the requirements of this plant are soil pH from 3 to 4.5 and sufficient moisture
And although cranberries are frost-hardy and unpretentious, growing them at home is laborious in terms of providing a microclimate. But one indisputable advantage - the ability to use the plantation in the same place for several decades, makes it attractive for home gardening. This fact must be taken into account first of all when you plan your landing.
Cranberry is a moisture-loving plant. Therefore, if the level of groundwater is raised on your site, then this will be a big plus. For garden varieties, the presence of groundwater at a depth of 40-45 cm will be sufficient, and for a swamp variety - 30-35 cm. The berry grows well and bears fruit on loam, sandy loam and even acidic poor soil.
The cranberry area should be sunny but well sheltered from the wind. Garden glades among trees or shrubs, well lit by the sun, are suitable. Even in winter, the plantation will delight the eye, because it is an evergreen plant.
Plantation site preparation
Growing a cranberry plantation in the garden begins with careful preparation of the garden
Growing a cranberry plantation in the garden begins with careful preparation of the garden bed. This process depends on what type of soil you have on the site. Peat soils with a shallow groundwater table require a minimum application of forces. In this case, you can do with the usual loosening with the introduction of river sand and cleaning the beds from weeds.
If the soil in the garden is not suitable for cranberries, the general procedure for the preparatory work is as follows:
- the optimal size of the cranberry is 140 cm x 400 cm or more, but you can also be guided by your own conditions, the main thing is to provide access to the plant without trampling around the garden;
- remove the top layer of fertile soil, 30-40 cm thick;
- on 2 parts of the land we add 1 part of high-moor peat, you can mix high-moor peat with low-lying peat;
- we deepen the pit to a depth of 50 cm, if the soil is heavy clay;
- we install wooden or plastic boards protruding 20-25 cm above the surface;
- on the bottom of the pit we lay drainage, with a layer of 10 cm, then the film in the holes made in it for the drainage of excess moisture;
- on it - in a layer of 15-20 cm we put chopped branches, leaves; the remains of grass, sprinkle with humus from horse manure, moisten;
Soil acidity is the main requirement for good yield beaks
- then fill the pit to the top with sour peat with the addition of sand (3 to 1);
- it is good to add another 1 part of horse manure compost and 1 part of semi-rotted pine sawdust;
- the top layer is soil mixed with peat and fresh sawdust of coniferous species;
- we use sand, sphagnum moss, pine needles, coniferous sawdust (depending on your capabilities) as mulch.
Soil acidity is the main requirement for good beak yields. Therefore, annual fertilization (sprinkling, mulching) with peat and pine sawdust, together with regular abundant watering, will become a natural factor supporting the fertility of the berry.
Growing large-fruited cranberries from seedlings
There are 4 types of cranberries, among which 2 are large-fruited and marsh, grown in conditions of industrial and home farming. Recently, early ripe large-fruited varieties of American, Polish and Belarusian selection have been popular among amateur gardeners.
Cranberry seedlings are best purchased from specialized farms
Cranberry seedlings are best purchased from specialized farms, where advanced technologies for obtaining clean planting material are applied. They can be with closed and open root systems. They can also be of 3 age categories:
- seedlings in cassettes for growing, young, aged from 7 to 9 months;
- seedlings planted in small pots, aged from 1 to 1.5 years;
- adult seedlings from 2 to 2.5 years old.
The older the seedlings, the more expensive the planting material. If you are not ready to wait 3-4 years for a harvest, try to find 4-5 year old planting material with a closed root system.
Planting seedlings and caring for them
We plant cranberry seedlings in May, in loose, airy, slightly moist and very acidic soil. We prepare the hole a little larger than the planting pot in which the young plant is located. We take out the seedling from the pot and, without breaking the coma, set it in the hole. Sprinkle with water, sprinkle with soil, mulch. Usually, the plant takes root well with such a transplant.
The watering rate for cranberries is high, the soil under it should always be moist. At least once a week, it needs to be poured heavily, and a good layer of mulch will keep the humidity for several days before the next watering. In the heat, cranberries are watered daily.
During the growing season, once every 2 weeks, cranberries are fed with solutions of complex mineral fertilizers and poured with water acidified with citric acid (1 teaspoon per 3 liters of water), table vinegar (100 ml per 10 liters of water). But you can not do this in the first 2-3 years, when there is still a sufficient amount of acids in the soil.
In the first 3 years of plant life, only weakly developed shoots are removed. When the planting is compacted, it becomes multi-tiered, we begin the thinning haircut. The main rule for the formation of a cranberry plant for better fruiting is to remove the creeping horizontal shoots and stimulate the vertical ones. Such procedures are carried out in spring or autumn. This will give more nutrition to the fruit buds and form large fruits.
If your climatic zone is characterized by winters with little snow, after abundant watering in late autumn, the cranberries are covered with a loose layer of peat. This will be both a reliable shelter and food for the next year. It is not necessary to rake the covering layer in the spring. Plants will sprout themselves through the peat.
There is another interesting way to protect the plantation from freezing of the soil - layer-by-layer freezing. At an air temperature of -5 ° C, the bed is filled with water with a layer of 2 cm and ice is allowed to form. After a while, the pouring procedures are repeated until the vegetative part of the plants is completely covered. Under such a shelter, the plants overwinter well. In the spring, excess moisture will need to be drained so as not to provoke the formation of mold.
At an air temperature of -5 ° C, the bed is filled with water with a layer of 2 cm and ice is allowed to form
Propagation of cranberries by cuttings and seeds
Cranberry is a low-growing creeping shrub whose shoots root well on their own. Such rooted young can be separated and grown in containers or in a permanent place.
Also, this culture is excellent cuttings. For this purpose, cuttings are cut and planted in moist soil mulched with a layer of sand. To maintain sufficient humidity in the environment, the planting is covered with foil and watered regularly. After 20-25 days, the cuttings will take root and give lateral shoots.
Growing cranberries from seeds is only justified if you want to get plants for decorative purposes. Varietal properties during seed reproduction are not always preserved, besides, the harvest will have to wait long enough, about 5-6 years, and even then with good care. Cranberry seeds should be refrigerated for 3 months at + 3 ° C. But even with such preparation, do not expect that they will give amicable shoots. In the first year, seedlings will require a lot of your attention. And if you don't have the time and patience, seed cranberries are not for your case. It is much easier to grow it from a cutting or buy a ready-made seedling.
Grow your cranberries by following these simple rules and they will reward you with a generous harvest of vitamin berries.
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Under natural conditions, the trunk of a tree grows up to 20 m. It is distinguished by a straight shape and developed branching. Its leaves are elliptical, 5–15 cm wide, and they fall off all year round. Fruits can be both small and large, weighing from 50 g to 1.8 kg.
Ripe avocado is rich in vitamins and fats
The peel in an immature state is dark green in color, and after ripening it turns black rather quickly. At the same time, the pulp acquires a yellow-green color and an oily structure. And the seed of an avocado is most often of a large size.
For tree growth you need:
- Air temperature +18. +20 ° C
- Good sunlight exposure
- Sufficient hydration
- Top dressing of the soil
- Wet air
- Systematic transplant.
It should be noted that in winter it is undesirable for the plant to hit the sun's rays, because this will cause the tree to start shedding its leaves.
Features of cranberries
Cranberries are a resident of the central and northern regions of our country. You will find thickets of creeping evergreen shrubs that give birth to medicinal berries in the humid places of the forests of the North-West, Siberia, the Far East, Kamchatka, Sakhalin. In culture, it is represented by several dozen varieties, but all of them are low (from 15 to 60 cm) shrubs with thin stems and a fibrous root system. Cranberries are frost-hardy, light-requiring, unpretentious, but they live only in well-moisturized places. She is able to get her own food, because soil fungi form on its roots over time, which deliver vitamins and minerals by the roots. This phenomenon is scientifically called mycorrhiza.
I have always considered cranberries to be exclusively a forest dweller. But it turns out that it takes root well in suburban areas and can live in one place for up to 30 years (in nature up to 60). It reproduces vegetatively: thin shoots, in contact with moist soil, easily form adventitious roots, which branch horizontally, going 10-12 cm deep into the soil.
The cranberry bush blooms in late May - early June, covered with drooping pink or purple flowers on long stalks. The berries ripen in late August - early September and are able to survive on bushes even under a layer of snow. Many summer residents prefer to have healing cranberries at their side and plant them in their suburban areas. Let us and you and I take care of this useful business)) But, first, let's look at how she knows how to reproduce.
Preparation: how to select and disinfect seeds
When the timing of sowing strawberries is selected, they begin to prepare. To do this, you need to select the right seeds, properly prepare the soil and carry out disinfection.
Seed selection: a few rules
To grow strawberries from seed, a stratification process is recommended. The berry growing in nature begins to sprout on its own with a sharp transition from winter to spring. When the snow melts, the seeds begin to grow. To organize such an amplitude (difference) of temperature at home, you can use a refrigerator and warm water.
Do one of the following:
- the seeds are placed in a plastic container with a lid and placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for 3 days
- put snow in the container, level it, distribute the seeds with tweezers, cover with a lid and put in the refrigerator for 3 days
- the seeds are put in melt water, changing it every day, put in the refrigerator for 3 days, when they swell, you can sow.
After stratification, the seeds are placed on a wet cloth. Those seeds that sprout can be used to grow seedlings.
How to prepare the ground?
For seedlings of remontant strawberries, the same soil composition is required as for ordinary strawberry seedlings. There are several types of formulations:
- ready-made store mix
- a mixture of sand, peat and vermicompost in a ratio of 1: 3: 1
- a mass of sod land, peat and sand, sand is enriched with manure and wood ash.
You can also use peat tablets, which are very popular for seedlings. With this method of cultivation, it is not necessary to pick the seedlings, and this procedure often harms the roots if the technique is inept.
The preparation of the substrate also includes a complete disinfection of the soil for seedlings. To make the seedlings healthy, preliminary measures are taken to eliminate pathogens in the soil. There are 2 common tillage methods:
- Steam treatment - the ground is steamed for several hours. After steaming the soil, strawberries are planted only after a week.
- Often, gardeners process the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate: it kills insects, does not allow them to lay eggs.
LARGE CRANBERRY - GROWING IN THE GARDEN
Cranberry is a marsh berry. Therefore, choose a "wet" place for her. An area under the roof drain is ideal. Even if the plantation is completely flooded with water, it's not scary. The main thing is not to plant in the shade, otherwise the berries will not have time to ripen.
Is autumn planting suitable for this plant?
Cranberries can be planted both in autumn (until mid-October) and in spring (before the beginning of the growing season). And seedlings with a closed root system (in a container) - throughout the growing season (preferably, of course, not in the heat, but in cloudy weather or on a cool evening). Cranberry plants form a continuous carpet over time. To make it convenient to harvest in the future, I advise you to make the garden no wider than 100 cm and the length you need. Dig the soil to a depth of 25 cm and fill with a mixture of peat and sand (approximately 4: 1).In this case, it is advisable to cover the bottom with a film or lay it out with a layer of clay so that moisture is retained. In no case do not plant cranberries on the ridges, otherwise you will then be tortured with frequent watering.
And mulching in this case does not save?
Until the plants grow and completely cover the soil, you can mix the sawdust with sand and sprinkle it on top with a layer of 5 cm. Then the moisture will not evaporate so quickly.
Is constant watering the only disadvantage of caring for cranberries?
In fact, yes. But do not be alarmed: the plant is quite stable, does not get sick, therefore, in order to ruin it, you still need to try. For prevention, you can spray the plantation with Fitosporin once in May (according to the instructions). But the main problem is desiccation. Cranberries do not shed their leaves, therefore, as soon as you see that they have become brownish, therefore, your plants will definitely "burn".
What is your advice about cranberry feeding?
Cranberries wake up late enough and bloom in June. Accordingly, it bears fruit late - in September-October. In the spring (approximately in the second half of May), you can feed it with a complex mineral fertilizer. But only in liquid form, so as not to burn the continuous carpet of leaves with granules. And to acidify the soil, once a month until September, it is useful to water with an electrolyte solution (5 ml per 10 liters of water).
This agrotechnical measure is necessary for the formation of plant bushes of the correct shape.
What time to trim
You need to cut garden cranberry bushes in May, when the shoots have grown to a sufficient length.
To obtain a high yield of garden cranberries, it is necessary to cut off the creeping shoots on it, thus stimulating the regrowth of young vertical ones. It is on them that the plant bears fruit.
Most of the time, pruning should be done in the spring, not in the fall. In the fall, the bushes are pruned only if necessary. The pruning form is similar to the spring one.
Beautiful evening evening primrose seeds can be grown both in pots and in beds. It all depends on the climatic conditions. The plant is unpretentious to the composition of the soil, but does not like wetlands.
Seeds are planted in boxes at the end of February, and in the soil at the beginning of May. Planting material must be placed in the ground, 2-3 pcs. into the hole, to a depth of no more than 10 mm. The distance between seedlings should be 50-60 cm.
Subsequent care of the seedlings consists in timely watering and fertilization after the first shoots appear. When planting directly into the ground, you will have to carry out the thinning procedure, since often the seeds germinate all at once.
Now you know how and when to plant different varieties of roses on seedlings. Have you already had experience with growing these flowers from seeds? Share your impressions in the comments.
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