Diseases of blackberries and the fight against them in the garden
Becoming an increasingly popular culture, blackberries are confidently settling in our summer cottages. But here it can be trapped by pests and pathogens, which may well ruin the crop, ruin the plant, or at least add hassle to the gardener. It is advisable to recognize them as early as possible in order to start the fight in time. That is why you need to know what the main diseases and pests can threaten it.
Infectious fungal diseases
It should be noted that infectious diseases, that is, those caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, equally threaten blackberries and raspberries. If both of these related crops grow on the site, then they may have the same diseases, which means that therapeutic and preventive measures will have to be extended to all plants.
Most often, blackberries (like raspberries) are exposed to fungal diseases. Spores are easily carried by the wind or on the paws of insects, overwinter on plant debris or in the upper soil level. They usually affect weakened plants with impaired immunity. It so happens that the infection began, but did not fully manifest itself due to the strength and health of the plant, and the next year it will be much worse. This is one of the reasons for the mandatory destruction of fruiting shoots, they are recommended not only to be cut out, but burned so as not to give the disease a single chance. Many modern varieties and hybrids have resistance to fungal diseases, but it does not give one hundred percent protection, so it is better to know the most important thing about common diseases in order to try to prevent them or recognize them in time.
Septoria or white spot can get on a clean area with planting material, and then it spreads very quickly. At the end of rainy May, round light brown spots appear on the leaves, which gradually turn white, after a while black dots appear in the middle of the white spots with a brown border, they gradually merge, the entire affected surface turns brown and falls out. First, the leaves on the shoots of the second year are affected, and then on the young ones. If you do not stop the process, then it will reach its maximum during the ripening of the fruits, and all plants will suffer until autumn. The berries will rot, the young leaves, twigs, shoots seem to be covered with mucus.
Stems are affected in the fall, and symptoms may not be seen in the first year of shoot growth. Light spots appear on the lower part of the shoots, which are almost invisible on green shoots; they can be noticed on differently colored branches. They can appear near the kidneys, on internodes, it is difficult to notice them until black dots appear, then cracks. The bark on the affected areas peels off, curls. The bush suffers, but grows: the affected buds die, and if the shoot is affected, then a short, weak twig develops from the nearest bud.
High humidity, shade, thickening of the bush - these are conditions favorable for the development of septoria. They also contribute to the appearance of another fungal disease specific to blackberries and raspberries - anthracnose.
At the end of May and the very beginning of June, small purple spots appear on the root suckers, young shoots of replacement from below, which then merge, turning into grayish with red ulcers, in the middle of which the tissue cracks. The bark around the sores begins to flake off. On the leaves, spots are located along the veins or edges, the affected tissue dries up and falls off. On brushes with fruits, these spots form a closed ring, the entire brush withers, not a single fruit ripens. On ripe fruits, gray ulcers form.
If the disease is not stopped, then the tops of young shoots will be covered with a thick crust. Such shoots can die in winter due to severe weakening, and if they survive the cold, then the yield will be minimal, since fruit buds almost did not form during the illness. And the mushroom will bear fruit - small black dots will appear on the crusts, this is its fruit. They overwinter on the affected branches, on plant debris, on weeds, and in the spring they will occupy an even larger area. Therefore, the fight must begin immediately, when the slightest signs of defeat appear.
Resistance to such diseases is shown by healthy bushes, and for good growth and health they need to be fertilized on time. Therefore, experts recommend applying a complex mineral fertilizer in the spring so that 1 sq. m produced 9 g of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. In the fall or spring, you need to give the blackberry humus and compost, at least 3 kg for each bush. It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the land around the bushes - remove the weeds in time, completely remove the leaves in the fall, burn the shoots, even if no fungal infections have been noticed. All land between and around the bushes should be well dug. And in the spring, after the first loosening under the bushes, it is useful to mulch the ground with a thick layer (7 - 8 cm) of straw with manure or peat. And when buying new seedlings, you need to inspect them very carefully so as not to bring affected specimens to the site.
Another blackberry lover is the phragmidium ruby mushroom, which induces a disease known as rust. This fungus produces different types of spores at each of its five stages of development. All stages affect the plant in different ways, and spores increasingly infect it and the surrounding plants.
First, small light brown or orange specks appear on the leaves at the beginning of summer, spores ripen inside them, which cover the stems, leaves, petioles with a sticky mass. Then this mass dries up, over time turns into a film, and the leaves, petioles and stems are covered with convex orange pads, in which the next spores ripen. Then the affected stems turn brown, orange ulcers appear on them. The mushrooms survive the winter well and continue to harvest the plant the next year. Spreading further along the stems, it causes them to dry out.
In the middle of summer, new spores fly out of the orange pads on the underside of the leaf and continue to infect the blackberry. Closer to autumn, the leaves are covered with black pustules, these are regular spores, they settle on fallen leaves to survive the winter, and from spring everything repeats again, but with greater force, young strong shoots are affected.
To protect the plants, they need to be carefully examined, and at the very first manifestations of infection - urgently take measures to disinfect. Garlic infusion shows a good result in the fight against fungal diseases. Take 300 g of garlic, chop, pour 3 liters of water, insist for a day. Then the strained infusion is diluted with warm water (twenty times) and the bushes are treated with it, preferably in the afternoon. The same product can protect against pests - ticks and aphids.
You can treat the entire ground part of the plant with milkweed infusion, you just have to rub all the shoots, leaves and stems with a small brush or a brush. For this product, milk greens (300 g) are crushed, left for a while under the sun, then poured with a liter of water, insisted for 5 hours, filtered. This treatment must be repeated every other day. It will take no more than four treatments for the plant to fully recover.
Treatment of plants with sulfur is excellent against fungal infections. But it can be carried out if the air temperature does not drop below +18 degrees, otherwise there will be no result. For 10 liters of water, you need to take 100 or 150 g of colloidal sulfur.
For prophylaxis in the spring, when the leaves are just blooming and in the fall after harvest, you can spray the bushes with Bordeaux liquid. But only it should be neutral or slightly alkaline, acidic threatens to burn the leaves. You can check the prepared liquid with litmus paper - a red color should not appear on it after contact with the liquid. Some gardeners find it better to use Burgundy liquid because it doesn't contain lime. To prepare it, take 10 liters of water, 100 g of copper sulfate and 50 g of soda ash. Sugar is also added so that the liquid sticks to the greens. Before using any drug, you need to make a test on one branch.
Didymella or purple spot affects the leaves less than the petioles, shoots, and buds. First, purple-brown spots appear on the stems, then they grow, they encircle the shoot in a ring. This leads to drying and brittleness of the petioles, leaf fall, the buds do not develop, they turn black, and the stems can dry out if severely damaged. Flowers and berries are not affected, but the fruits grow weak, small, sour, may not ripen. This is also a fungal disease, it occurs with high humidity on too dense bushes. Prevention - the fight against thickening, destruction of fallen leaves, cleanliness in the aisles. You can also treat it by spraying with garlic tincture, Bordeaux or Burgundy liquid.
Powdery mildew and botrytis or gray mold attack the berries. Powdery mildew covers the berries with a white bloom, can affect shoots, more precisely, the very points of growth, young leaves. Such berries cannot be eaten, all affected parts of the plant must be destroyed. Botrytis causes berries to rot during storage. Berries affected by it also cannot be eaten, they are not suitable for processing. It can damage shoots by settling in internodes; shoots infected with it usually freeze out in winter. Placing shoots on trellises, without thickening, with the possibility of constant ventilation, will reduce the possibility of disease to a minimum. If it could not be avoided, then the means of treatment and prevention of all fungal diseases are the same as in the fight against rust.
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It is customary to call the reaction of plants to an excess or deficiency of certain micro- and macroelements as non-infectious diseases, because imbalance in nutrition often causes the leaves and shoots to dry out, and does not allow fruits to ripen normally.
For example, an insufficient amount of nitrogen in the soil weakens the growth of the plant, its green parts turn pale, turn yellow, the leaves can simply fall off in the middle of summer. Such a plant blooms weakly, the fruits grow small, may not ripen, young shoots hardly develop. And an excess of nitrogen leads to the appearance of brown spots on the leaves, to their coagulation and premature fall.
The appearance of a dark brown border along the edge of the leaves indicates a lack of potassium. The leaves curl, because parts of the leaf plate grow unevenly, they can lose green, become too pale or bluish. The berries also ripen unevenly, their center may become too soft. If there is too much potassium, then the shoots grow slowly, the internodes lengthen, dark spots of dying tissues appear on the brightening leaves, the leaves fall off.
Lack of phosphorus slows down the growth of blackberry leaves, their color changes from dark green to reddish-bronze and black when dry. Leaves fall off, flowering and fruit ripening is postponed in time and slows down. But an excess of phosphorus makes the leaves brighten and discolor from the middle, and at the edges they acquire a brownish border.
If there is little calcium, then young leaves grow more and more pale, and the old ones retain their healthy rich green color. The apical buds do not develop, the upper parts of young shoots often dry up, and the ovaries decompose. Too much of this element, as it were, does not allow the shoots to grow - internodes come closer, the leaves gather in rosettes, the leaf tissue between the veins changes color, sometimes it is filled with water.
With a lack of iron, chlorosis of the leaves occurs - the entire space of the leaf plate between the veins brightens, as if fading. At the same time, the berries dry out, shrink. An excess of iron leads to similar results: young leaves are completely discolored, and the berries dry out.
The lack of magnesium stains the leaf plate between the veins in red, against which the green stripes of the veins look very elegant, then they also turn red, and the leaves fall off, starting from the lowest ones. Actually, we admire this process in the fall, but in the middle of summer it testifies to the magnesium hunger of the plant. If the leaves darken, stretch out, breaking the proportions, and then curl up and fall off, then there is too much magnesium.
When a beautiful pattern appears on the upper young leaves, between the green veins the plate first turns yellow and then turns brown, then the leaf falls, then the blackberry clearly lacks manganese. If there is too much manganese, then the sheet becomes covered with spots, bends, wrinkles.
Excess and deficiency of basic nutrients are equally harmful to the growth of blackberries, it is best to try to maintain the right balance. This is possible if you carefully observe all the changes that occur during the growing season, then you can notice and correct the situation in time.
Blackberries growing in the garden can be attacked by various pests, most often insects, which can harm all parts of the plant. But this is not necessary at all. The gardener's knowledge of the main enemies can help to avoid meeting the blackberry with them.
In the upper layer of the soil, in humid lowlands, the bear lives and reproduces - a large winged insect that is perfectly adapted to dig the ground in order to lay eggs in it. Large larvae become adults only next summer, and all this time they spoil the roots of shrubs, vegetables, root crops growing on the site - everything that can be profitable. Summer residents fight the bears cruelly and mercilessly, otherwise you can lose the entire crop and all the plants on the site. They are collected by arranging traps, poisoned, bait with match heads in the traps, in the fall they are lured into pits with manure. All these activities are quite capable of driving away pests.
Khrushches also pose a considerable danger to the roots, young May beetle larvae gnaw thin roots, and adults are able to bite off the rhizomes of the stems, thereby destroying the entire bush. And they live among the roots of our plants for 5 years before turning into a pupa, then only after 1.5 years the beetle flies out. If the May beetles have settled on the site, then you need to collect the larvae. To do this, the bush must be completely dug up, shaken off all the soil from the roots on the litter, and then sift it, selecting all the larvae. Before planting the bush back, its roots and the ground in the pit are watered with a tobacco solution (100 g of tobacco dust is taken for 10 liters of water). You can dip the roots into a clay mash, adding tobacco dust to it.
Raspberry shoot aphids, raspberry nut-making, raspberry shoot gall midge, which is also called a raspberry mosquito, are capable of damaging blackberry shoots. All these pests settle on their own, lay eggs and add larvae in (or on) young blackberry shoots. The affected branches must be ruthlessly cut and burned, otherwise the parasites will destroy the entire plant. Treatment with tobacco or garlic infusion works well. Many gardeners treat bushes with hot water in early spring before buds wake up. This is a very good method of struggle, but not all plants can easily endure such a shower themselves. If you decide to apply it, then first you need to try on a couple of shoots, then see how they perceive it, whether the buds will not suffer.
The leaves are often affected by aphids, mites, and the raspberry leaf sawfly. Bushes are saved from aphids with infusions of garlic or tobacco, a more effective drug is nitrafen. For ticks, infusions of tobacco, garlic, onion peels are used, adding liquid soap to them. If the temperature rises above +18 degrees, you can treat it with sulfur, if herbal preparations did not help. Against the leaf sawfly, a solution of carbolic soap is also used.
Raspberry bud dust and raspberry-strawberry weevil are capable of destroying fruit buds, inflorescences and ovaries. They are collected mechanically, washed off with herbal preparations, in the most extreme case, you can use karbofos.
In order to prevent pests from blackberries, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness between the bushes and in the upper layer of the soil - remove plant residues, dig up and loosen the soil, destroy infected leaves and shoots, mulch the ground under the bushes.
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Before bud break
At this time, stem pests (sapwood, bark beetles) are active - and you need to fight with them. No less important during this period is the prevention of cytosporosis, black and common cancer of pomes, tinder fungi.
Trees need to be whitewashed in early spring
Applied drugs: copper sulfate (0.8 kg per 10 liters of water), slaked lime (4 kg per 10 liters of water), paint glue or paste (0.2 kg per 10 liters of water).
Raspberry beetle (Byturustomentosus F)
This pest is capable of causing massive damage to the entire plant, damaging everything - from leaves, inflorescences to stems, roots. An insect 4 cm in size has a grayish-black color, densely covered with yellow-rusty, dirty-gray hairs.
For wintering, the beetles go into the soil, and in the spring they go outside, begin to eat the flowers of gooseberries, blackberries, currants, and many fruit trees. But these pests give preference to raspberries and blackberries.
Beetles can strongly eat leaves, leaving holes in foliage, flowers, buds. Berries can also be affected, and rot quickly forms on them.
Eggs are laid in flowers or in a fresh ovary. It is an excellent breeding ground for pest larvae. As the larvae develop, they fall to the soil and remain there until pupation. In autumn, pupae turn into beetles, which also prefer to winter in the soil, without appearing on the surface for a long time. Some part of the larvae remains there until pupation until next spring.
- To prevent the spread of the raspberry beetle, digging up the soil under the bushes in late autumn or early spring is used. Gardeners advise dusting the ground with tobacco dust or ash.
- Do not leave rotten berries on the bushes.
- When buds appear, about a week before the blooming of flowers, the blackberry is sprayed with solutions of actellik, spark, kemifos, fufagon, kinmix. You can alternate these solutions.
Stem and root diseases of pear and their treatment, photo
Diseases of pears and methods of control are very different, as well as preventive treatment to protect against the appearance of diseases. The defeat of the roots or bark is the hardest to recognize, since at the first manifestations of the disease, the pear leaves turn black, but this does not mean that the reason is precisely in them.
Black pear cancer (Latin Sphaeropsis malorum Peck)
The popular name of the black pear crayfish - "antonov fire", appears for several years. It affects the bark of the trunk and skeletal branches - small cracks appear, which quickly increase in size, the bark gradually breaks and the cambium is exposed.
Characteristic brown spots can be found along the edges of the cracks. Such spots look like wet ones, in fact, they are open wounds, into which pathogenic microbes or spores of fungal diseases can easily get into.
Pear leaf and bark disease - Black cancer
The affected bark must be cut off with a sharp knife, capturing part of the healthy one. The wound is treated with copper sulfate and covered with clay mixed with mullein. In the fall, fallen leaves must be disposed of. The following varieties of pears have high immunity: August dew, Samaryanka.
Cytosporosis (Latin Cytospora)
The causative agent of pear cytosporosis is the fungus Cytospora leucostoma. In the people, this disease is called "stem rot". The bark in the affected area becomes reddish-brown and begins to dry out. The cause of the disease can be sunburn and frostbite.
Pear diseases and methods of dealing with Cytosporosis
The affected bark, as in the case of black crayfish, is cut off and covered with clay. It is necessary to regularly remove dry and damaged branches, whitewash the trunks for the winter. Choosing such pear varieties as Moskvichka and Yanvarskaya, you can forget about Cytosporosis.
One of the most dangerous pear diseases is a bacterial burn of pome crops. It is this that turns out to be the reason when finding out - why the leaves of the pear turn black, while the treatment is necessary complex. The causative agent of the disease is Erwinia amylovora bacteria, which can be spread by insects, wind or rain.
The first signs of the disease appear when the pear blossoms. The inflorescences wilt quickly and turn a dark brown color. Leaves curl and turn black, but do not crumble. Shoots and bark begin to die off.
Pear diseases: photo of a bacterial burn
Starting on one branch, the disease can very quickly affect the entire plant. Pear varieties that are not resistant to fire blight often die, and resistant varieties tolerate it to one degree or another, and after a year or two they can restore their productivity. Muratovskaya, Yanvarskaya and Moscow pears are quite easily tolerated by a bacterial burn.
If a fire blight is found, it is necessary to immediately cut off the affected shoot, grabbing 15-20 cm of healthy wood, and burn it. The garden tools should be thoroughly disinfected after finishing work.
Often, gardeners treat the cut site with antibiotics (2-3 tablets per 1 liter of water). The whole plant is also sprayed with the resulting solution. With the onset of the growing season, repeated processing with Bordeaux mixture is carried out, up to nine times per season.
Honeysuckle pests and control
For honeysuckle, not only fungal ailments are dangerous, but also harmful insects. Pests that have settled on the leaves and branches of a bush can seriously disrupt its vital processes and lead to a weakening of the plant.
How to treat honeysuckle from aphids
The honeysuckle aphid is a dangerous pest that can kill a shrub in a short time. Usually, 2 types of aphids can be observed on honeysuckle:
- apical - the insect infects the tops of the shoots, the leaves curl and the growth of the plant stops
- green - this aphid spreads evenly throughout the shrub and feeds on leaf juices.
Symptoms of spring honeysuckle pests are yellowing and curling of leaves. On closer examination, small green or grayish insects can be seen on the leaf plates. Aphids usually appear in early summer, the second wave of infection occurs in early July.
Aphids, with a strong spread, can destroy all the green mass
The fight against the pest is carried out with the help of insecticidal preparations - Aktara, Rogor and others. It is best to prophylactically treat the shrub in early spring, before the buds appear, in order to eliminate the larvae of the pest. Summer treatment for aphids brings low results; it is quite difficult to eliminate insects with massive infestation.
How to process honeysuckle from scale insects
Scabbards of various species are a common pest of most berry bushes. They also affect honeysuckle, usually infection occurs in the spring with the arrival of heat, when the larvae of the pest wake up.
The adult scale insect is a small insect with a hard carapace, hence the name. Pests settle mainly on the lower surface of foliage and at the places where cuttings attach to branches. Since the scabbard draws vital juices from leaves and shoots, honeysuckle under its influence quickly weakens and begins to lose its green mass.
The scabbard draws juices from the shoots and leads to the death of the bush
You need to fight the scabbard with the help of Actellik or Rogor insecticides. Processing is carried out in the middle of summer, you need to spray the bush twice with a break of 14 days. Also, spring preventive spraying of the bush will not harm, it will allow you to cope with the pest even at the larval stage.
If honeysuckle grows in the shade and with high humidity, then the shrub often infects the honeysuckle mite. You can recognize this pest by the uneven spots on the lower surface of the leaves and by the browning of the foliage closer to August. Infection with a honeysuckle mite leads to the fact that at first the edges of the leaf plates are deformed, a dark bloom appears on the surface of the leaves, and then the crown of the bush simply falls off.
Mite pests cause browning and shedding of foliage
You can eliminate the honeysuckle mite with the help of special solutions - Actellik, Mavrik, Tedion and others. The first spraying should be carried out in June, then the honeysuckle should be treated twice more before the end of the growing season.
The development of the honeysuckle bush in the garden is harmed by fingerwing - a small gray butterfly, the caterpillars of which feed on the fruits of the plant and even its bones. The honeysuckle fingerfly does damage mainly to the crop, the fruits, due to its effect, darken, shrink, do not ripen to the end and crumble to the ground.
Fingerwing pest eats developing honeysuckle fruits
Honeysuckle fingerwing can be removed with the help of Inta-Vir solution, which is safe for ripening ovaries, and with the help of homemade tinctures on the tops of potatoes and tomatoes. Aggressive insecticidal preparations for saving honeysuckle fruits are not recommended. The crop after such spraying will become unusable, and in any case, you will have to say goodbye to it.
Rose leaf roll
Leafworm is a small brown butterfly that lays eggs on the bark and leaves of honeysuckle. The caterpillars hatched from the eggs feed on the juices of foliage, buds and shoots, in the process of their vital activity, wrapping up the damaged areas of the bush in a light cobweb. If left unchecked, it can seriously damage the honeysuckle and destroy the green parts of the shrub.
Rose leaf roll is able to destroy the green mass of honeysuckle bushes
Insecticides Actellik and Elesar help well against the leafworm pest. It is recommended to process plantings several times per season. The first spraying should be carried out in late April or early May in order to immediately eliminate most of the awakened larvae.
The choice of a method for treating currants depends on the type of pathogen, weather conditions and the stage of vegetation of the bush. Chemicals and folk methods are used to fight diseases. They differ in the way they are applied and in their effectiveness.
How to spray - currant care products. Good remedy - Bordeaux liquid
There are several dozen names of chemical agents to treat and protect the berry plant. Especially popular are preparations of complex action, copper-containing compositions. It is recommended to spray currants with the following preparations:
- Bordeaux liquid... The main substance is copper sulfate. Used in the form of 1 or 3% solution, it affects most pathogens of fungal diseases.
- Discore... Domestic pesticide of contact and systemic action. The active ingredient is difenoconazole. Suitable for routine garden processing, seed dressing.
- Vectra... Complex fungicide aimed at treating fungal and bacterial infections. Contains bromuconazole. Valid for 2 weeks.
To increase the efficiency, you need to process it twice with an interval of 10-14 days. Immediately after the procedure, it is not recommended to water the soil, apply top dressing. Work at the beginning of the growing season and after harvest.
How to fight and heal with folk methods. How to process during the ripening of berries
They have low efficiency, but do not affect the taste and quality of the fruit. Alternative control measures can be used at any stage of the growing season of the bush, the recommended processing interval is 2 weeks. Effective remedies that can be used to treat a plant:
- soaking the roots of seedlings and spraying (you can carry out the procedure even when the currants begin to bloom) with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate
- treatment of leaves and shoots with serum at the rate of 1 liter per 10 liters of water
- dusting the leaves with wood ash. Learn how to use ash for fertilization here.
- use of 5% iodine solution (10 ml per 10 liters of water).
To prevent infection, systematic pruning should be carried out, as well as the composition and quality of the soil should be monitored. It is necessary to feed the currants. Young plants are susceptible to diseases, therefore, in order not to have to fight them, care in the first year of growth is especially important.