Interesting

Vertical method of growing pumpkins on arches

Vertical method of growing pumpkins on arches


A green fence on which healthy and tasty pumpkin fruits grow

Our garden plot is over 40 years old. There is a place on the site and loved ones pumpkins.

Many years ago, the impression was created that we were living in a communal apartment: from all sides we could see the neighboring gardens and buildings. Our site was well visible from everywhere, and there was nowhere to hide from prying eyes. We found, I think, an interesting way out of this situation, which can be used by many other gardeners and summer residents - we began to grow pumpkin. Of course, we have grown it before, but horizontally, and now we have moved it to a vertical position. We have allowed these plants to curl along the tall arches that we display every year in the garden. To make them look decorative, connect them together by building a tunnel. On the arches, pumpkins liked to grow, because she loves open, sunny places. The plants, without occupying a large area of ​​the garden, grew very actively all summer, tightly wrapping around the arches with the help of antennae and climbing high up them. The pumpkin thanked us with such a bountiful harvest that it would not have held on to the arches if their base were not metal.

This is how we grow pumpkins. At the foot of each arch, at a distance of 10-15 cm, it is enough to plant 2-3 seedlings so that they wrap around it and form a dense curtain. When two true leaves appear, we tie each plant to an arch. In the future, this procedure is not required. Since this culture is very demanding on heat, it is necessary to sow seeds after spring frosts. In order not to wait a long time for it to encircle the arches, we germinate seeds in pots, and after the frost stops, we plant the seedlings in open ground. Pumpkin loves loose, manured soil and adequate moisture. Plants will not interfere with fertilizing containing organic fertilizer in liquid form. The addition of nitrogen to the pumpkin is not required if the soil is well manured before sowing.

Of all the pumpkin varieties, we really liked the nutmeg types of pumpkins: Honey Guitar, Vitamin, Pearl, Nutmeg, Butter, Golden Club, Honey, Intercept, Halloween, Miracle Yudo. But our most beloved is the Honey Guitar, this pumpkin without a flaw, it is a pumpkin for all pumpkins. First, it can be stored anywhere: under a bed, behind a sofa, on a wardrobe, etc. Secondly, it is stored until the next harvest, and the longer it lies, the tastier it becomes. Thirdly, it is well cut, its peel is soft, the pulp is tasty with the smell of watermelon, it doesn’t even smell like pumpkin, you can eat it raw. Fourthly, it is very fruitful and grows quickly, the fruits are tied under each leaf and grow by leaps and bounds. And, finally, the main quality - the pumpkin can be used for a long time, it is elongated, and inside it has only delicious pulp, the seeds are in the upper round part. You cut off a piece for cooking, and the rest can be stored on the windowsill or table.

In open areas, to create pumpkin compositions, you can use not only arches, but also supports of a different shape, for example, a straight trellis or a pyramid. She, thanks to her powerful greenery, protects not only from prying eyes, but also from the sultry sun rays where trees do not grow. In addition, it gives extraordinary beauty to the garden area.

Pumpkins of portioned varieties are interesting and very tasty: Winter watermelon, Sugar cauliflower, Japanese, Carrot sweet, Orange melon, New, Medicinal, Honey melon, Nutmeg beauty, Spanish, Golden pear, Winter A-5, Winter sweet, Stepanovskaya, Korenovskaya - fruits these varieties have small, orange-red pulp, firm, very sweet. And the size is convenient - cut and eat.

Everyone who wants to grow delicious and sweet varieties of pumpkin can send their seeds by cash on delivery. I also offer many other interesting varieties of vegetable, medicinal, flower crops. I will send a catalog for orders. I'm waiting for an envelope with o a + 1 clean.

Write: Brizhan Valery Ivanovich, st. Kommunarov, 6, Art. Chelbasskaya, Kanevsky district, Krasnodar Territory, 353715.

Valery Brizhan, experienced gardener


Butternut pumpkin: varieties, photos, descriptions, reviews, outdoor cultivation

Good day to all readers!

Today I want to tell you about pumpkin varieties with photos and descriptions of this most useful vegetable. Many varieties have been grown by gardeners for many years and enjoy well-deserved fame. There are also new varieties that you need to try to grow on your site.

Gray and butternut squash can be eaten raw in salads.

The content of the article

  1. Hard Bark Pumpkin Varieties
  2. Large-fruited pumpkin varieties
  3. Butternut Pumpkin Varieties
    1. Video describing pumpkin varieties

Large-fruited varieties usually keep well.

The most common among gardeners are three types of pumpkin:

  • Hardcore
  • Muscat
  • Large-fruited
  • Decorative - this type is also gaining popularity.

Variety "Acorn" - this pumpkin is also called "acorn". Because its small fruits outwardly resemble acorns. The pulp is orange-yellow with a sweet taste. The outer skin can be of different colors. From dark green to orange and their combinations (green with orange dots).

Variety "Aport" - mid-season pumpkin, almost round, orange peel without a pattern. Bush plant, fruits grow up to 7 kg.

Juicy, orange-yellow, crispy flesh. Impressive with sweet creamy taste.

Variety "Smile" - early ripening pumpkin. Ripens in 85 days. On a neat small bush, 7-8 fruits grow on average, and maybe up to 15. Small pumpkins - 1.5 kg. average. Bright orange with light stripes.

A characteristic feature of the variety is its beautiful flowers and good keeping quality. At room temperature, it lies quietly until January, without losing its taste. The pulp is sweet, aromatic, crunchy, 3-4 centimeters thick.

Sort "Spaghetti" - the name of this variety is "talking". When cooked, the pulp breaks down into fibers, resembling spaghetti. The shape and color of the fruit resembles a melon. Unripe pumpkins are greenish. Fully ripe fruits have a light yellow rind.

Variety "Vesnushka" is an early maturing bush-shaped variety. Small fruits up to 3 kg., With a light green skin with light spots.

Yellow-orange pulp, very tasty - tender, sweetish, with a pear flavor.

The variety is fruitful, well stored. Loves good watering.

Variety "Kustovaya Gribovskaya 189" is an early ripening variety. Until the first harvest is not more than 98 days. Fruits are oval, elongated, light orange peel with dark green and black spots, weighing about 4 kg.

Orange pulp, excellent taste.

The Dachnaya variety is a mid-season variety. Fruits are oval, orange-green, weighing up to 4.5 kg. Bright orange pulp, juicy, tender, sweet with vanilla aroma, great taste.

A very productive variety, suitable for growing in all regions. After harvest, it retains its taste for 4 months.

Variety "Kustovaya Oranzhevaya" is an early-maturing plant with short lashes, growing compactly. The fruits of this pumpkin are round, orange, weighing up to 5 kg.

Orange thick flesh up to 7 cm, excellent taste. This pumpkin is well stored for a long time, unpretentious to growing conditions, and tolerates drought well.

Large-fruited pumpkin varieties

Basically, these are the most cold-resistant and unpretentious varieties. Some varieties can weigh up to 100 kg.

Variety "Rossiyanka" - early ripening pumpkin, climbing. The fruit looks like a bright orange top weighing 3-4 kg. Orange, sweet flesh with a delicate melon flavor. The variety is characterized by cold resistance, good yield.

The "Ordinary" variety is the most widespread pumpkin. Fruits can be up to 25 kg. But the smaller they are, the tastier and sweeter they are.

Variety "Gribovskaya Zimnyaya" - late ripening (ripening in 140 days). A plant with long lashes. Fruits are flattened, weighing more than 3 kg. gray.

Bright yellow or reddish flesh. Excellent taste - juicy, tender, sweet, dense, up to 6 cm thick. Stores well.

Variety "Winter Sweet" - late-ripening pumpkin with long lashes. Flattened fruits about 6 kg. The rind is dark gray, segmented.

Yellow-orange pulp, very tasty - juicy, thick, sweet. Recommended for baby food and juice making. Drought tolerant.

Variety "Healing" - early maturing, this variety is recommended for dietary nutrition. The peel is gray, thin. Orange, crispy, sweetish, juicy pulp.

Stores well. Resistant to low temperatures up to -2 ° C.

Variety "Kupchikha" - mid-early table pumpkin. Recommended to grow in different regions. Fruits are flattened, light orange, smooth, weighing 15 kg or more. The fruit tastes good. Can be stored for up to 5 months.

Variety "Sweetie" is a mid-season variety with long lashes. Grows well in fertile land. Fruits ripen simultaneously up to 8 pieces, an average of 2.5 kg. Reddish peel with green spots.

Bright orange, very tasty pulp - juicy, crispy, dense. Contains 8% sugars, 1% carotene, a lot of vitamin C. Yield.

Variety "Kherson" - medium late climbing pumpkin. Fruits are flat, gray-green in color with gray spots, weighing 4-6 kg. Crispy, orange, sweet, juicy flesh, very tasty. Drought-resistant, thermophilic variety. Stores well.

Variety "Volzhskaya gray" - mid-season pumpkin with long lashes up to 8 meters. Fruits are light gray, almost round, weighing up to 8 kg. Yellow or orange flesh, average sweetness and juiciness. Stores well, drought resistant.

Variety "Kroshka" - mid-season, climbing pumpkin. Fruits are light gray, flatish, weighing up to 3 kg. Yellow, not very juicy flesh - sweet, dense.

Variety "Altair" - gray peel. The pulp is very juicy and sweet, yellow-orange in color. You can eat it raw.

These pumpkins have excellent taste, long shelf life, but are more capricious in cultivation and are more suitable for southern regions. These pumpkins can be eaten raw. It's not scary that they are so sissy. In harsh climates, they can be grown through seedlings. Fruits can be picked a little unripe, they will ripen at home.

Variety "Butternat" - this variety is found under the name "Nut" and "Muscat". Outwardly it looks like a pear. Fruits are small up to 1 kg. Orange, juicy, sweet and aromatic pulp. It can be stewed, boiled, baked, but it is better to eat it raw. This variety contains a lot of useful vitamins and minerals.

Variety "Bylinka" - Gray peel. Juicy and sweet, bright orange pulp. Delicious raw.

Variety "Vitaminnaya" - late-ripening pumpkin with long lashes. Green, oval fruits weighing up to 6 kg. Very delicate pulp, tasty and sweet (sugar 5-7%), bright orange, crunchy. Contains an increased amount of beta-carotene, useful raw, for baby food and juicing.

Video describing pumpkin varieties

Not all pumpkin varieties with photos and descriptions are listed here yet. There are many more. But I think you will choose the pumpkin to your taste. I will write about decorative pumpkin and its varieties in another article.

The pumpkin belongs to the genus of herbaceous plants and is of the pumpkin family. The fruit of the plant has a round, oblong or flattened shape, covered with hard skin, with yellow, creamy, orange flesh.

Today breeders have created a large number of species, but not all of them are suitable for cultivation in our environment.

The most common types are:

  • hard-faced
  • large-fruited
  • nutmeg
  • large-fruited.

They are divided into three types, depending on the purpose of the fruit:

  • stern
  • dining room
  • decorative.

The table view is intended for culinary needs, the fodder one is used for feeding livestock, and the decorative one is used as a decoration and a sweet treat.

Butternut pumpkin on the garden and table: the world of dessert pumpkins

Butternut squash has a juicy, fibrous pulp with a pineapple or nutty flavor. In shape, they can be round, oval, flattened, ribbed. The color of the peel is most often dyed beige or orange. In the phase of technical ripeness, they can be decorated with bright green, white stripes or spots.

Mexico is considered to be the birthplace of butternut squash. And it is not surprising: only here you can find the largest and most delicious representatives of this species. Not only taste, but also size are impressive. In Mexico, they grow huge and weigh over a hundred kilograms.

Today, everyone can choose their favorite variety and grow it in the garden.

Butternut pumpkin is a favorite delicacy of children. It has a sweet pulp, a pleasant aroma and contains a large amount of vitamins: magnesium, manganese, vitamin A, potassium, vitamin C. This species accumulates sugar content, juiciness and aroma during storage. To keep it as long as possible, you need to pluck it with a tail.

Other nutmeg varieties also have a pleasant taste and aroma.

One of the most common in the domestic market. It is distinguished by an early return of the harvest, cylindrical fruits up to 3-4 kilograms.

Belongs to the largest nutmeg varieties. Its fruits reach eight kilograms and are distinguished by a delicate, aromatic pulp of a bright orange color.

The French pumpkin variety reaches up to 20 kg, has dark red skin, pale yellow juicy and sweet pulp, which is suitable for cooking and is used as a feed product.

The Italian beauty differs from others in its bright corrugated fruits with small pimples on the skin. It weighs up to 10 kg, has a sweet orange pulp and a pleasant aroma.

To grow a butternut squash in a garden bed, you need to make an effort, as this species requires attention and care. In central Russia, not all "muscat" have time to give a full harvest, so it is better to plant them with seedlings. The distance between plants should be from 60 cm, they like sunny areas, loose soil and abundant watering.

Fodder pumpkin in the country farm

Fodder pumpkin is a valuable, juicy food for farm animals. Its fruits are amenable to processing and are used for harvesting silage with grain waste, fresh feeding.

Useful properties of feed pumpkin

  • Increased growth in pigs.
  • The amount of milk yield increases and the fat content of milk rises.
  • Promotes an increase in the reproductive capacity of animals.
  • High yield level due to large fruits.

The disadvantages include the lack of a pleasant aroma and low culinary properties.

Pumpkin variety Stofuntovka is a popular mid-season with high yields. The plant has spherical fruits, which are covered with yellow or orange skin with a grayish tinge, are excellent keeping quality and are well stored during the winter period, are not damaged during transportation.

Volzhskaya gray 92 - resistant to diseases and dry weather. The plant bears fruit in the Volga region and gives the richest harvests. The mass of grayish-white flat-round fruits exceeds 25 kg. The pulp is medium-sized, quite dense, has a rich yellow color with an orange tint.

Decorative balls in the garden and in the garden

Decorative varieties are very popular among gardeners and gardeners, due to the variety of shapes and colors. Small melons, mushrooms and bubble pears look beautiful on gazebos and along fences.

The pumpkin variety is well known to all gardeners. Its fruits weigh no more than 300g and resemble bright orange oranges.

The fruits are no less attractive - round, slightly ribbed balls have a milky-white skin color and look spectacular in compositions and as decoration on arches.

Mini pumpkins weigh up to 500 g - they have a pale yellow rind. The yellow color is complemented by green stripes and white dots. The variety is intended for creating decorative compositions.

Pumpkin variety Kleine Bicolor is distinguished by pear-shaped fruits, divided in half by a clear contour line. Two contrasting colors, yellow and green, add a special decorative charm, making it a favorite of florists.

In Latin, Cucurbita maxima var.turbaniformis is represented by various forms that differ from each other in color and size. According to their form, they can be divided into several varieties:

  • star-shaped (pumpkin-crown)
  • warty
  • pear-shaped
  • tangerine.

The variety of types and forms of this pumpkin variety is very large and it is impossible to classify all of them. Gardeners and gardeners can only replenish their collection with new varieties every year.

The agrotechnology of ornamental varieties is no different from caring for musky species. Plants are planted in a permanent place at the end of May. If the summer is short, then it is better to do it in a seedling way. Ornamental plants require loose soil and frequent watering.

Representatives of this species are most often bushy forms, but they are also found with long lashes. They are used to mask outbuildings, decorate fences, gazebos. Plants' lashes are heavy and need a strong support for use in decor.

The best pumpkin varieties for the Moscow region and Central Russia

The Moscow region and the middle strip of Russia are suitable for growing all types of pumpkin, but there are varieties that are distinguished by high yields in this strip.

The curative pumpkin variety is distinguished by an early return of the harvest and good winter hardiness, is valued for its pleasant aroma, taste and color. A special advantage is the early ripening of the fruit and the long storage period (six months). The pumpkin has a specific shape and a beautiful pattern on the skin. Its juicy pulp makes it ideal for making juices and purees.

It is grown in open ground by seedlings. Seedlings are sown in cups in April, and at the end of May they are transferred into the soil. Subject to the thermal regime of 20-25 degrees, seedlings appear on the eighth day. Before planting in the soil, it is necessary to harden the seedlings, gradually accustoming the plants to open air.

It is recommended to sow seeds in the soil in June, when the earth warms up and there will be no return of frosts. The plant is demanding on lighting, prefers a non-thickened planting and responds well to fertilization.

The pumpkin variety Gribovskaya has long been loved by gardeners and gardeners. It is ideal for recycling and long-term storage. Sugar and dry matter levels in pumpkin increase with optimal shelf life. The pumpkin taste is preserved until the next harvest. It is intended for dietary and baby food.

Gribovskaya has long lashes, which allows for a rich harvest. The fruits are large in size (4-8 kg), smooth milky skin and bright orange pulp. They perfectly carry long distance transportation.

It has light orange ovoid fruits. Ripe pumpkins are decorated with wavy green patterns, have a sweet taste and delicate aroma.

Seeds of "Gribovskaya bush 189" are sown directly into open ground at the end of May.

Belongs to very early varieties. The plant bears fruit in 70 days, after the first shoots appear. They are oval in shape and have a sweet taste. Fruit weight ranges from 2 to 4 kilograms. The main advantage is high yield and cold resistance. For optimal results, the seeds are sown into the soil after the ground warms up to a temperature of 12-15 degrees. The plant is demanding for regular watering and loosening of the soil.

Sweet gourmet pumpkins

Pumpkins with a high sugar content include sweet varieties: Crumb, Bolshoi Max, Atlant, Almond.

The earliest of this group is Tiny. The first crop can be taken 90 days after germination. It attracts gardeners because it does not require a lot of space. The low weight allows you to use all the pulp in one go.

The largest representatives of this group. Their weight reaches 50 kilograms. Both plants are late maturing and have a rich aroma and a pleasant, very sweet taste.

When grown outdoors, it is better to plant them in sunny areas, near a fence, or a wall. All types of sweet pumpkin are perfectly stored throughout the winter, and their juicy pulp becomes even sweeter over time.

A little about pumpkin and history

In the wild, this type of pumpkin grows in the countries of Central America - in Mexico, Peru, Colombia. Fruits can have different shapes and colors, respectively, and weight:

  • cylindrical
  • oval
  • pepper-shaped
  • rounded.

Most often in the open field grow elongated muscat pumpkin, as well as "cylinders" and "pears". In all of them, the peduncle has a special pentahedral shape. The weight is different, from 1 to 8-10 kg, there are also giant specimens reaching 100 kg.

The peel is flexible, thin. Inside, almost all the pumpkin is filled with pulp, the seed chambers are very small and are compactly located in one place. The pulp is juicy, fibrous, tender, and has an orange color. Different varieties can have shades: cream, amber, dark yellow. The taste is sweet, a very pleasant aroma of nutmeg is felt.

It is believed that small butternut squash tastes best.

Butternut pumpkin has different names: "butternut", "nut", "moskhata" and others, but regardless of its name, this culture has earned popularity among gardeners. In Russian regions, a large one does not grow, after all, this vegetable is thermophilic, but with good care and sowing through seedlings in the open field, you can get pumpkins up to 5-7 kg (depending on the variety).

In addition to being an incredibly tasty vegetable, the orange beauty also has numerous beneficial properties. The composition of the pulp of butternut squash contains a large amount:

  • vitamins A, C, B, B6, E, K and others
  • potassium, magnesium, manganese.

The vegetable is dietary, low-calorie, widely used in baby food. In terms of carotene content, pumpkin is "ahead" of carrots, so it should be eaten by those who have vision problems.

Pumpkin fruits are false berries, they help to remove harmful toxins from the human body, contribute to the healing of the kidneys, and slow down the aging process of the body. It is useful to use a delicious vegetable to improve blood clotting, people suffering from heart disease, as well as those who wish to improve immunity.

Pumpkin should be on the menu without fail, as it improves metabolism, maintains masculine strength and helps preserve the beauty of lovely ladies and burn "extra" pounds. Traditional healers consider this vegetable to be very useful for cancer patients. By the way, in medicine they use not only pulp, but also pumpkin seeds. They are very effective in combating various parasites of the human body, and pumpkin seed oil is used in the treatment of the prostate gland in men.

And, of course, butternut squash has found its way into cooking. Its pulp is best consumed fresh, using in salads. Mashed potatoes, various side dishes and cereals are delicious, and excellent pancakes can be made from pumpkin contents. Small pumpkin is stuffed, and you can take vegetables or meat as a filling. Pies with pumpkin, halva and candied fruit are popular.

Features of choosing a place for a pumpkin

Since this type of pumpkin "came" to our region from warm continents, special conditions are needed for growing vegetables in the open field. Butternut pumpkin is very demanding on heat, so gardeners in the middle lane and more northern regions need not only to select early-maturing varieties, but also to grow vegetables through seedlings.

For planting, you need to choose sunny areas, while it is better to make high ridges. So the Muscat "southerner" will be warmer and more comfortable. The ridges should be illuminated by the sun all day, protected from the winds. The best soils are light, loamy, without moisture stagnation.

Pumpkin grows best on ridges where green manures, legumes, cabbage or onions were grown before it. You can not plant nutmeg (like other types of pumpkin) on areas after cucumbers, melons, potatoes.

It is better to prepare the garden in the fall, then you can add fresh manure. If the work was not carried out in the fall, then in the spring the site is dug up, adding rotted compost or last year's mullein, you can also add superphosphate.

Growing and caring for butternut squash

In most Russian regions, this pumpkin is grown as seedlings. To do this, you first need to prepare the seeds, as well as containers for seedlings and soil.

Sowing dates are approximately the end of April, although it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of the region. It is believed that pumpkin seedlings should be 3-4 weeks old, strong and healthy. So, based on this, you need to choose a suitable time for sowing seeds for seedlings.

  1. Before planting, the seeds must be soaked in a pink solution of potassium permanganate, in time - for about 30 minutes.
  2. Then they are soaked in any growth stimulant.
  3. Next, you need to rinse the seeds, put them in a damp cloth for germination.

Sprouted seeds are placed in pots with soil mixture, two in each. The pots should have a diameter of at least 10 cm, so it will be more convenient to transplant later.

You can cover the containers with foil and put them in a dark and warm place. But as soon as sprouts appear from the ground, the pumpkin is transferred to the lighted windowsills and the shelter is removed. Seeds usually germinate very quickly and it is important to keep the plants from shading so they do not stretch out.

If the sowing was carried out in two seeds in a pot, then after a while one is cut off, leaving the strongest and strongest. After two weeks, if the weather permits, you can take out pumpkin seedlings to a loggia or balcony, hardening it. But it is necessary to control the temperature and avoid sudden changes in it. Pumpkin is a very thermophilic plant, and you should not expose it to stress in the form of cold.

When caring for seedlings, it is necessary to water them regularly, since under the sun the soil in pots can dry out quickly.

A remedy from which plants grow by leaps and bounds! Just water your plants with it Read more ...

Usually, by the end of May - beginning of June, the soil on the ridges warms up, and the seedlings can already be transplanted to a permanent place. When planting, the soil temperature must be at least + 10ºC, otherwise the seedlings will hurt and may die.

The planting scheme in the open field is chosen arbitrarily, but it must be remembered that there should be a distance of at least 60 cm between the seedlings. Nutmeg gourd, like other types of melons, needs space and a large feeding area.

The agricultural technology of this culture is simple, there are no specific and complex techniques. After planting the seedlings, it is recommended to cover the pumpkin with a non-woven material, this will protect young seedlings from the hot rays of the sun, save them from recurrent frosts.

  • watering
  • feeding
  • weeding.

It is especially important to remove weeds in the first weeks after planting the seedlings, until the pumpkins themselves are in full force. Later, when the plants get stronger, they form whips, and the leaves begin to cover the nearby space, the weeds themselves will stop growing, so you only need to slightly loosen the soil.

A plant in an open field tolerates drought well, but will reward with a harvest if regular watering is provided. Only in this case the vegetable will grow intensively, and the fruits will be poured. Before the ovaries appear, they are watered once every 7 days, later - at least once every 10-14 days.

Adult plants "drink" at least five liters, while the water should not get on the leaves of the vegetable.

Water the nutmeg pumpkin only with settled and warm water, temperature - not less than + 18-20ºC.

Loosening is mandatory, as this contributes to the saturation of the soil with oxygen.

Pumpkins respond well to the introduction of mullein, ash, so you should feed the nutmeg beauties several times a season. Recommended:

  • for the first feeding, use mullein infusion (diluted with water 1:10), and you can also add about 25-40 grams of superphosphate
  • for the second feeding (already during the flowering of the pumpkin), a complex fertilizer is used, as well as potassium sulfate or ash.

During the flowering period, as well as the ripening of the fruits, organic matter is excluded from dressings.

It is effective to use green "tea" for dressing: infuse nettle in a barrel (about 7-10 days) and water the plants with this infusion.

Usually such fertilizers are used by gardeners who prefer to do without "chemistry" when growing vegetables.

One more point: pumpkins are not self-pollinating plants, and therefore bees or bumblebees are needed to "help" transfer pollen from a male flower to a female one. But you should not count on such pollination, so it is recommended to do the procedure manually.

To do this, they find a male flower with a stamen covered with pollen (usually it is the "peasants" who begin to bloom earlier), carefully remove the petals from it, and then touch the stigma of the pistils of the female flower with the stamen.

The procedure is best done early in the morning, when there is no heat during the day.

Determining where the male and female flowers are is very simple. The female flower immediately below it has a slight thickening - the future fruit, while the male flowers do not have this, and immediately after the peduncle there is a stalk.

If you want to get large and sweet fruits, then you need to properly form the pumpkin bushes. One plant can have many ovaries, but it is impossible to provide all of them with food. Therefore, in order for the pumpkins to grow and ripen well, no more than two or three pumpkins are left on one bush. All other ovaries are removed.

Pinch the stems (about 50 cm after the ovary), remove excess shoots. Also, to improve nutrition, they make a powder of the stems. What need to do? Gently spread the pumpkin lashes, and sprinkle them with soil in several places. The stems will give roots that will additionally feed the bush.

Two weeks before harvesting, pumpkin watering is stopped. Also, if necessary, you can cover the plants with non-woven material.

The pumpkin is harvested starting at the end of August, but again, it all depends on the conditions of the particular area. Butternut squash does not tolerate even the slightest drop in temperature, so it is advisable to remove the fruits before possible cold snaps.

Pumpkins are removed only in dry weather, carefully cutting off the fruit with a pruner. The stalk is left, the "tail" is about 3-4 cm.

When harvesting, you must be very careful with the fruits, trying not to damage the thin skin of the butternut squash. Only fruits with a whole skin and a stem with a "tail" will be stored for a long time.

This type of pumpkin, under the right conditions, can live well into spring. The best storage temperature is + 12ºC, although nutmeg is quite good at room temperature. Many people believe that the longer this pumpkin is stored, the better and tastier the fruit pulp will be.

Experts recommend ripening butternut squash for at least two months in a dark place. Then the pulp will be ripe, acquire a rich color, aroma, and the skin will slightly harden, and will have a clearer pattern.

How to deal with pumpkin diseases and pests

Sweet butternut squash is not only popular with humans. If the rules of cultivation and crop rotation on the site are not followed, the plants are affected by spider mites, as well as melon aphids.

  • plant plants according to the scheme, avoiding thickened plantings
  • weed the beds regularly
  • loosen the ground.

If pests are found, you will have to use special preparations that are purchased in specialized stores. From folk remedies are recommended:

  • soap solution (200 grams of laundry soap shavings are taken in a bucket of water)
  • infusion of wormwood.

Slugs, which usually appear on rainy and cool days, can do a lot of damage. Effectively apply against them the treatment of plants with ash, tobacco dust, spray the plants with infusions of chamomile, wormwood, garlic.

The most dangerous diseases are:

  • white rot (treatment with a solution of copper sulfate helps)
  • bacteriosis (for prevention, treatment with copper chloride is used).

With white rot, you can also sleep on the damaged areas with crushed charcoal, fluff lime.


Multilevel garden of boxes.

If you are sorely lacking space to grow in your garden, use vertical space. To do this, build a multi-level mini-garden out of the simplest wooden boxes. According to the information, in this way it is possible to grow greens, strawberries and other plants with small roots.


Gardening in June: Things to Not Forget

  • In June, you should treat the apple tree for scab, and the gooseberry for powdery mildew. If you did this already in advance, then repeat spraying on young ovaries.
  • Young weeds can be destroyed with Roundup, and perennial weeds can be cut at a depth of 2 cm with a Fokin flat cutter. They will become a kind of mulch that will protect the soil from drying out.
  • If small orange spots suddenly appeared on black currant bushes, then most likely they were struck by goblet rust. Treat plants with honey-containing or biological products, for example, "Hom", "Fitosporin" or "Zircon". The same means can be used to spray the leaves of cherries and gooseberries (if they turned yellow early that year).
  • To prevent aphids from settling on your bushes and trees, systematically spray the plantings with infusion of pine needles, citrus peels or onion peels. You can also use the biopreparations Fitoverm, Zdorovy Sad, Perimor. It is interesting that the most reliable and natural helpers in the fight against aphids are ladybugs and their large black larvae. The predatory gall midge also helps to get rid of aphids. It lives on legumes and spice-flavored crops, so we do not recommend spraying these plants with pesticides. For more details on how to destroy aphids, read our previous material.

  • Raspberries should be treated with Fitoverm from the weevil. If there are no raspberries on the site, it can do with weeds, so they need to be constantly mowed in early summer at an early age.
  • To prevent the grass from clumping on the site, be sure to mow it. You can start mowing lawns and removing weeds.
  • In June, honeysuckle ripens, which birds willingly feast on. In order not to be left without a crop, throw nets on the berry fields; coarse-mesh from fishing line will do.
  • In dry windy weather, you need to water strawberries, black currants, sea buckthorn, raspberries, planting root crops and cabbage. As soon as the raspberries reach a meter in height, cut the ends of the branches - this will allow the shrub to bear fruit throughout August.
  • All plantings can be fed with infusion of weeds or any nitrogen fertilizer.

  • In early June, late carrots, black radish are sown, seedlings of cucumbers, early ripening varieties of tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkins, beets, annual flowers, dahlias and gladioli are planted in open ground. In addition, peonies, phloxes, irises and asters are fed with ash, which is sprinkled on wet soil around the plant and slightly covered with soil.
  • To prevent the appearance of gray rot on raspberries and strawberries (especially in wet weather), spray the bushes with the biological products Fitosporin or Zircon.
  • Roses, raspberries, zucchini, pumpkins, cucumbers are fed with an infusion of fresh manure (1:10), and cabbage plantings are watered with milk of lime (1 glass per 10 liters of water) or a solution of calcium nitrate (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) against keels. Annual asters are watered with Fitosporin solution or sprayed with Zircon against the black leg.

  • To prevent black currants and gooseberries from infecting the sawfly larvae, at the end of the month, remove the ripening berries ahead of schedule and burn them.
  • Be sure to cut off the fading brushes of lilacs, tulips, daffodils, lupins and delphinium (we cut the last two at the root, without leaving even a hemp).
  • If the plants in greenhouses are slowly setting fruit, then once every 10 days in the morning spray them with the preparations "Ovary" or "Bud".
  • Strawberry bushes can be attacked by a penny slobber (or spit). In this case, pour over the strawberries with very hot water with the addition of potassium permanganate.

  • In June, potatoes are huddled for the last time. If you suddenly notice pests (Colorado beetles or different larvae), spray the plantings with the Sonnet preparation. Do this procedure once a season before flowering. By the way, you can also spray lilies with Sonnet.
  • At the end of June, do not forget to spray tomatoes against late blight and cucumbers against bacteriosis with Fitosporin.


GARDEN

Description and varieties. Roses are one of the oldest and most magnificent flowers known since ancient times. The rose was admired by the ancient Greeks and Romans, its beauty was sung by the medieval minstrels, the monks grew it in the monastery gardens and tried to develop new varieties. For many centuries, the rose has been a symbol of beauty; it was with this flower that it was customary to compare the beauty of a woman. They began to grow and select the best types of roses in the Ancient East, in China, India, Asia Minor. But the actual breeding work on the breeding of rose hybrids was widely deployed in European countries only in the 18th century.

1. Flower. 2. Escape with a flower. 3. Bud. 4. Fruit. 5. Unpaired leaf. 6. Five-bladed sheet. 7. Young one-year escape. 8. Long-term lignified shoot. 9. Axillary kidney (eye). 10. Wild shoot or top from the stock. 11. Vaccination site. 12. Root collar. 13. Rhizome

Until the 19th century, roses dominated in Europe, blooming once a season. By the end of the century, there were already about 4000 such varieties. And only pos-

varieties appeared that were distinguished by the ability to re-bloom. This gave impetus to breeding work on their hybridization and the development of new varieties, which became the original forms for creating the main groups of modern roses.

The genus of roses belongs to the Rosaceae family and unites more than 300 species growing in a temperate climate, varieties, forms and more than 20 thousand varieties. Cultural roses belong to the most numerous subgenus - rose, which includes 135 species. Roses are deciduous, less often evergreen, multi-stemmed shrubs ranging in height from 35 cm to 2-2.5 m and short (up to 12 m) strongly branched vines with thin shoots creeping along the support or creeping along the ground. Shoots and leaves of various sizes and shapes, however, there are forms without thorns, flowers are double, semi-double, of the most diverse shape, color, single or collected in corymbose or paniculate inflorescences, fragrant and odorless. The centuries-old culture of roses in various climatic and soil conditions, the emergence of a huge variety of garden forms and varieties of a rather complex origin with different biological characteristics and decorative qualities made it necessary to combine them into garden groups. Although such a combination is very conditional, it helps to navigate in the choice of assortment and the development of cultivation techniques.

In the modern garden classification of roses, more than 25 thousand roses are distinguished, represented by 56 classes or garden groups. All the existing variety of roses can be primarily subdivided into old and modern roses.

Old and modern roses

The border date that makes it possible to divide the great variety of roses into two large groups of old and modern roses is 1867, officially considered the year of the birth of the first hybrid tea variety of roses La France. This truly revolutionary variety in terms of the development of breeding was bred by the French breeder Poyo and laid the foundation for the creation of all modern hybrids and varieties of roses.

Thus, old roses include all garden varieties of roses bred before the appearance of the hybrid tea variety, and modern roses - all varieties and hybrids obtained after 1867.

Old roses include various types of so-called park roses, Gallic, French, Damascus, centifol, Portland,

Bengali or Chinese, bourbon, noiset, tea and remontant roses. Modern roses are represented by the following garden groups of roses: hybrid tea roses, polyanthus roses, floribun-da roses, grandiflora roses, miniature, plaited roses.

This group includes garden forms and varieties belonging to 10 species of European and Asian rose hips, their varieties and hybrids. The varieties of park roses are of hybrid origin; they were created using wild-growing forms of roses and various types of rose hips. It is thanks to this that park roses are distinguished by their unpretentiousness, increased winter hardiness and resistance to diseases and pests. Most park roses overwinter successfully without additional cover. These roses propagate by cuttings, layering and separation of young shoots. For planting, park roses prefer well-lit areas, but they can also tolerate light partial shade. Park roses bloom once a season, not for a very long time, but extremely abundantly. Flowers of the new season are formed in park roses on old lignified branches, so they practically do not require pruning, which also makes it easier to care for them. There are early flowering varieties. Park roses are prized for the beauty of a large bush, abundance of greenery and lush bloom. Park roses are planted singly or in groups and are used as decorative plantings, hedges, flower beds and as tapeworms.

The most common species in this garden group of roses are the common rose and the wrinkled rose, or rugosa rose. The common rose is characterized by a thin branchy structure of a bush with gracefully curved arched branches. The height of the bush can reach 3 m. The bush is very decorative due to the light transparent structure of the plant and beautiful glossy foliage. The flowers are medium-sized, no more than 3 cm in diameter, single or collected in an inflorescence of 3-5 flowers. The predominant color of flowers is pink, pale pink, light cream, white. Blooms in June, profusely for 2-3 weeks. Wrinkled rose, or rugosa, is distinguished by a dense structure of a bush, consisting of numerous thick erect branches, densely covered with large and small thorns. Straight shoots begin to branch towards the top. The bush can reach 2 m in height,

The branches are covered with highly shriveled dark green large glossy leaves, the flowers are of medium size up to 7 cm in diameter or larger up to 10-12 cm in diameter. Flowers can be simple and semi-double, single or collected in an inflorescence at the end of the shoot, 3-5 pieces. The predominant color of the flowers is purple-red, rarely pink and white. It usually blooms in June for quite a long time - up to 4 weeks - and very profusely. Rugosa rose flowers have a wonderful delicate aroma. Many varieties of rugosa rose have been bred, differing in size and color of flowers; they are valued for their ability to re-bloom during the season, decorativeness of rapidly growing bushes, winter hardiness and unpretentiousness.

Tall park rose bushes can be planted along the fence to create a beautifully blooming hedge

This garden group of roses was obtained in the 19th century in France by crossing Damask and French roses with a tea rose. The main advantage of remontant roses is the ability of repeated flowering inherited from tea roses as the original species, as well as the beautiful shape of the flower. From French and Damask roses, remontant roses got resistance to low winter temperatures. Bushes of remontant roses are tall, strong, up to 2 m tall. The flowers of remontant roses are large, up to 10 cm in diameter, rounded-thicket-shaped, double with a strong aroma, collected in 3-5 flowers on the shoot. Prevailing colors: white, pink, shades of red. Remontant roses bloom twice: the first time is very abundant in June for 3-4 weeks, the second time in late August - mid-September. In central Russia, where by this time there has been a significant

lower temperatures, autumn flowering is weak, and in cold years it is completely absent. The critical temperature for remontant roses, when they can hibernate without shelter, is -12 ° C, so roses should be carefully covered for the winter. With the advent of hybrid tea roses, remontant roses have somewhat lost their former popularity, but are still loved by many gardeners and are used for landscaping, creating combined flower arrangements in which remontant rose bushes can act as a screen or background.

The group of hybrid tea roses can be considered, perhaps, the most numerous and popular of all garden rose groups. As already mentioned, the appearance of the first hybrid of this garden group of roses was a real revolution in rose breeding. The first hybrid was obtained by crossing a remontant and a tea rose and named "La France". This hybrid laid the foundation for the creation of many wonderful varieties, combining the best qualities of the original forms: tea roses gave the hybrids an exquisite flower shape and beauty of color, and remontant ones - the ability of multiple flowering during the season, a certain winter hardiness and resistance to diseases. Flowers of varieties of hybrid tea roses are distinguished by the beauty of constitution, richness of colors and wonderful aroma. Flowers are large, up to 15 cm in diameter, double, single, located on the peduncle of 7-9 pieces. The predominant colors are white, pink, lilac, yellow, orange, red and many transitional shades. Now there are two-color copies of hybrid tea roses. Hybrid tea roses bloom from late June to autumn very abundantly. Mass flowering lasts from late June to late July, and then, after a short dormancy, a second wave of flowering occurs, continuing until late autumn. Thus, hybrid tea roses are distinguished by almost continuous flowering. Hybrid tea roses are not as cold-resistant as park and repair roses. The critical temperature for them is -10-12 ° C, so they require careful shelter for the winter and, if available, overwinter well. Today, more than 2,000 magnificent varieties of hybrid tea roses have been created, differing in the height and shape of the bush, the structure of leaves from delicate to hard leathery, the size and degree of doubleness of the flower, the color of the flowers.

Polyanthus, which means multi-flowered roses, were bred in France in the 19th century as a result of crossing a dwarf multi-flowered rose with a Chinese tea rose. The resulting hybrid had a short (up to 40 cm) compact bush covered with numerous small flowers. The first variety of polyanthus roses was bred in 1875 and named "Packer". The most valuable qualities of polyanthus roses are good winter hardiness and very abundant long flowering, which takes place in several stages and becomes almost continuous. Blossoming of polyanthus roses begins in the second half of June and lasts until the end of September. The flowers of polyanthus roses are small (up to 3 cm in diameter), semi-double and double, collected in a lush corymbose inflorescence at the end of the shoot. The inflorescence usually consists of 30-40 flowers, but their number in some varieties can reach up to 100. It is the abundance of flowers on the bush that Polyanthus roses owe their decorative effect.Prevailing colors: shades of red, orange, pink, white. Interestingly, the flowers of polyanthus roses are practically devoid of aroma. For overwintering polyanthus roses, a light shelter is enough, since this group of roses is distinguished by good winter hardiness. Due to the compact shape of the bush, polyanthus roses are widely used in ornamental gardening as part of various flower arrangements, to create elegant borders, for group plantings.

This is the most striking modern group of roses in all qualities. Roses of the floribunda group, which means profusely blooming, were obtained at the beginning of the 20th century by crossing polyanthus roses with hybrid tea roses and soon conquered all breeders and rose lovers. Strictly speaking, hybrid-polyanthus roses were obtained directly from the crossing of polyanthus roses with hybrid tea roses, and only in the course of further breeding work and crossing the new hybrid with other varieties of roses were floribunda roses obtained. This group occupies an intermediate position between small-flowered and large-flowered, re-blooming roses. From hybrid tea floribunda roses, they inherited an elongated perfect flower shape, doubleness, a wide range of colors and aroma, from polyanthus, they received good winter hardiness, a compact bush shape, exceptional multi-flowering and the ability to practically

continuous profuse flowering. Later, the floribunda group expanded and now combines roses with a very different habitus of a bush: from dwarf no higher than 30 cm to powerful vigorous 150 cm in height. Floribunda varieties of roses also differ in the size and shape of flowers, which can be small and large, up to 10 cm in diameter, simple, semi-double and double, as well as the size of the inflorescence. Inflorescences can be few-flowered, medium and multi-flowered. The number of flowers in a multi-flowered inflorescence can be up to 150 pieces. The floribunda group now unites all varieties of roses, the shoots of which end in corymbose inflorescences with flowers approaching in shape to the flowers of tea-hybrid roses. The color of the flowers is very diverse: red, orange, coral, yellow, pink, lavender, white and many shades. Due to their decorativeness, brightness, variety of colors, beautiful bush shape, as well as resistance to diseases and adverse weather conditions, floribunda roses are becoming more widespread and are widely used in various forms of decorative flower decoration. They look great in curbs, group plantings, as tapeworms. There are standard forms of floribunda roses. Floribunda roses are also widely used for cutting.

Grandiflora roses are a new garden group obtained relatively recently, in the 50-60s of the XX century, by crossing tea-hybrid roses and floribunda roses. In their decorative qualities, shape and size of the flower, they are close to hybrid tea roses, but the abundant and prolonged flowering of the Grandiflora rose was inherited from the floribunda roses. However, the new hybrid is distinguished by a significantly higher winter hardiness, vigor and vigor of the plant than its original forms. The Queen Elizabeth variety is considered the ancestor of this group of roses. The bushes of roses of grandiflora reach 2 m in height and are distinguished by a strong structure. The flowers, resembling hybrid tea roses in shape, are collected in small inflorescences, not as lush as in floribunda roses. Roses of grandiflora bloom very profusely and for a long time, from the second half of June to mid-September. Prevailing colors: red with shades, pink, white. Roses of this garden group are widely used for decorative design, in the form of group and

single landings, for cutting. There are standard forms of grandiflora roses.

The varieties of this garden group of roses are obtained from the crossing of low-growing forms of Chinese roses with polyanthus roses, as well as individual varieties of other groups. As the name suggests, this group is characterized by a compact, low (no more than 30 cm) bush and small flowers 1–2 cm in diameter). The leaves of miniature roses are also small, fresh dark green, glossy. The bushes look very elegant and are appreciated for their elegance, decorativeness and a somewhat fancy look, reproducing large rose bushes in miniature. The color of the flowers is very diverse, pure or with an additional color element in the form of stripes or borders. Prevailing colors: white, pink, purple, red, orange, there are also two-color varieties. Flowers can be single or collected in an inflorescence at the top of the shoot. Many varieties have a strong, pleasant aroma. Miniature roses bloom profusely over a long period of time, almost until frost, there are forms with repeated flowering. A valuable quality of miniature roses is their high winter hardiness and good resistance to diseases and pests. Currently, breeding work is being carried out in the direction of further development and improvement of these qualities.

Miniature roses are also in the form of ground cover roses. Their flat-growing creeping bushes with their long creeping shoots densely cover the soil, forming a carpet of greenery and flowers. The flowers are small, collected in bundle-like inflorescences, there are forms that are capable of re-flowering. Due to their low growth and the ability to grow, forming whole pink curtains, ground cover roses are widely used to create original flower arrangements, bright color spots on lawns and as a framing of lawns. Ground cover roses also look beautiful on the slopes, natural garden terraces, on the slopes of various sites. They go well with flowering tree and shrub forms and elegantly flowering annuals.

The small compact form of miniature rose bushes allows them to be used to create elegant dense borders, low hedges, as a frame for flower beds. There are standard and potted forms of miniature roses.

One of the most beautiful varieties of ground cover roses with silvery pearl pink delicate flowers was bred by Japanese breeders and is called Noemi.

Roseomantik (white non-double flowers), Im-menzev (soft pink non-double), Repandia (pink non-double), Lavender Dream (dark pink semi-double), Snow Capet (snow-white, small, double), Sommermerchen (intense pink, small, semi-double), Zamewind (deep pink medium, semi-double), Fairy (light pink, small, terry).

Climbing and semi-climbing roses

The original form for creating climbing climbing roses was wild roses, forming long creeping shoots. A common feature of all climbing climbing roses is strong and flexible long shoots that can curl along a support, rush strictly vertically up to a height of 4 m or hang gently, forming a cascade of flowering branches. The group of climbing roses includes, first of all, real climbing roses, or ramblers. They are characterized by fast growth, their flexible thin creeping or drooping shoots reach a length of 2 to 5 m and need support. The flowers are small, not more than 4-5 cm in diameter, semi-double or densely double, collected in a pyramidal paniculate inflorescence, which can contain up to 10-15 flowers. The predominant color of flowers: white, pink, red, most varieties do not have a pronounced aroma. These climbing roses bloom once a season, but for a rather long time, abundant lush bloom can last up to 5-6 weeks, starting in mid-June, depending on weather conditions. Roses bloom on the whips of last year, along the entire length of the wintered shoots, so for the winter they need to provide a reliable shelter in order to prevent the shoots from freezing. It should be noted that climbing roses in general are quite thermophilic plants, and it is preferable to grow them in areas with a warm climate, where they can overwinter without shelter. Climbing roses are sensitive to dampness, which can come from the walls where they climb, or develop in the thickness of the climbing plant itself. Dampness can provoke the occurrence of fungal diseases, which is highly undesirable. Climbing climbing roses most often need support, since they are devoid of special supporting organs in the form of suckers or tendrils inherent in other climbing plants. However, there are a number of forms and varieties of climbing roses that form strong shoots,

which can climb up the wall without additional support, using their thorns as grasping organs. Such roses include the Claymber type of roses (literally "creeping") with strong strong stems. They can rise without support to a height of up to 6 m, large flowers are collected in inflorescences of 5-7 flowers, there are varieties that bloom for a long time 1 time per season, and re-bloom luxuriantly and abundantly throughout the summer.

The group of climbing roses also includes large-flowered climbing roses, the varieties of which were bred as a result of crossing the multiflora rose, in particular its Carnea variety, known in Europe since the beginning of the 19th century, and the Vihura rose, which was brought to Germany from China in 1861. , with samples from other garden groups. The main direction in which the breeding work was carried out was the creation of varieties with powerful strong arched shoots. The flowers of this type of roses are large, collected in small inflorescences of up to 5 flowers, have the ability to bloom again. A special place in the group of climbing climbing roses is occupied by the forms and varieties of roses bred since 1940 by Wilhelm Cordes. They are part of the group of climbing roses under the code name Cordesa roses and are vigorous tall bushes 2-2.5 m tall with strong climbing shoots. Flowers of different varieties differ in size and degree of doubleness and are non-double, or simple, semi- and densely double, collected in small lush inflorescences. Roses of Cordes bloom very luxuriantly and abundantly until autumn, they are distinguished by good winter hardiness and resistance to diseases.

Standard roses in full bloom are extraordinarily decorative: a cloud of flowers raised above the ground by a high stem seems to float in the air

The group of paluplet roses stands out to a certain extent conditionally and combines rose varieties characterized by a strong high volumetric growth. It includes upright shrub or semi-climbing roses 2-2.5 m high, which are essentially park roses, capable of re-flowering. They are distinguished by increased winter hardiness and resistance to diseases in comparison with climbing climbing roses, but they also necessarily require shelter for the winter.

From many varieties of climbing roses, you can form standard forms on a strong, fairly high stem with beautifully hanging soft cascading branches. Usually, to obtain standard (or half-stem) roses, a cultivar is grafted onto a wild rose stem at a height of 50 to 150 cm.For grafting, large-flowered and multi-flowered varieties of roses are chosen, and to create a weeping form of standard roses for grafting, curly roses are taken, mainly the form of rambler ... Stamp forms are unusually decorative and resemble outlandish flowering trees. They can be used as a compositional center when creating various flower arrangements, as well as as tapeworms when decorating, for example, a lawn. In single plantings against the background of emerald grass, standard roses look very elegant.

Climbing climbing roses occupy an important place in the creation of vertical landscaping and are absolutely indispensable for the creation of arches, trellises, vaulted passages, galleries, decorative flower columns, pyramids, walls, for the decorative design of entrances, gazebos, pergolas, balconies and walls of buildings. If you fix the roses on the support only up to a certain level, their lashes will gently hang down, creating a cascading effect. Climbing climbing roses can be used to create romantic corners in the garden with a bench and long garlands of roses hanging over it. Climbing roses also go well with a wide variety of small architectural forms.

White Scotch (white, medium, semi-double flowers), Jon Bicolor (orange with yellow, medium), Teano (pink, medium, semi-double), Damascus (from pale pink to red, large, double), Apba (white-pink, white, large, simple and terry), Centifolnaya (deep pink, large, strong double), Pink Gro-tendorst (pale pink, medium-sized, terry),

Lutea Plena (yellow, large, double), French, or Gallica (dark pink, medium, semi-double and double), Madame Ballou (purple-red, medium, semi-double), Griseldis (bright pink, medium, semi-double).

Frau Karl Druschki (white, large flowers) Ul-rich Brunner Filz, Hugh Dixon, Miss John Laing (red, medium, dense, terry) Alfred Colomb (red, medium, double) Georg Arende (light pink, very fragrant): Helen Keller (bright carmine red, medium, double) Dobrynya Nikitich (pink).

Hybrid tea roses Red

Criteron, Alegro, Norita, Satan, American Praid, Baccarat, Dame de Coeur, Ankle Walter, Angelica, Mr. Lincoln, Mirandi, Concorde, Super Star, Chrysler Imperial, Alexander, Duft-Volke, Rose Gojard, Ferry Porsche, Crimson Glory, Tatiana, Crepe de Chin, Red Rock. Pink and lilac

Winerwald, Lady X, Fortune. President Ma-tion, Flamingo, Royal Haynes, Mainzer Fast-nacht, Silver Star, Summer Queen, Electron, Pink Favorite, Folklore. Yellow and orange

Amsterdam Gold, Landora, Peer Gynt, Joya, Madame Meilland, Dee Welt, Doris Tistermann, Gloria Day, Super Star, Feuerzauber, Grander Jenny, Harry Whitcroft. White

John F. Kennedy, Silver Jubilee, Charavnitsa, Moscow Morning, Perfume de la Nege, White Swan, Eve-ning Star, White Masburnice, White Christmas.

Border King (bright strawberry red flowers), Orange Triumph (orange red), De Ruyters Herald (intense red), Le Ponceau (wine red), Excelzior (bright crimson pink), The Feri ( pink), Eulalia Berridge (light pink), Maryse (creamy white).

Alain, Cordula, Allotria, Gabriella, Anna Cocker, Gustav Fram, Lilly Marlene, Zorina, Picasso, Lichterlo, Mercedes, Nordia, Highlight, Rumba, Tornado. Orange

Marina, Matangi, Promenent, Salzburg, Orange Sensation, Samba. Yellow

Freesia, Arthur Bel, Charleston (with orange-red border), Sunsprite, Ian Speck. Pink

Santener de Lourdes, Sonya, Regensberg, Shocking Blue, Bonica 82, Blue River. White

Margaret Merrill, Iceberg, La Minuet (with red border), Akito, Jack Frost, Grus en Aachen.

Komsomolsky light (flowers are intense red, velvety, very large, slightly double), Queen Elizabeth (bright pink, double, fragrant), Stella (even pink, large, double), Leo (two-color: bright red inside and white outside , very large, terry).

Meirov, Zwergkönig, Little Bakker, Roslini,

Hummingbird, Elvina, Little Prince, Orange Meilan-

Baby Carnival (lemon yellow flower tone,

turning into pink), Bit of Sunshine, Gu-

Letta, Little Lemm and, Sonnenkind, Sunny Meilan-

Hee Ho, Daniella, Eleanor, June Time, Pink Sim

foni, Rosemary, Fresh Pink Lavender Jewel,

Zwergkönigin, Blue Perejd, Bluenette.

Flammentantz, Excelsa, Super Excelsa, Var-burg, Crimson Rambler, Heidelberg, Dortmund, Santana, Blue Rambler (flowers red to dark purple), Grus en Heidelberg, Simpati, Pas-ulus Scarlet Climber, Blaise Superior. Pink

NewDown, Dorothy Perkins, Karlsruhe, Thousandschen, Blossom Time, Rosarium Utersen, Hendel, Kampe-Shen, Lavinia, Paul Noel, Pauls Himaline Musk, Coral Dawn, American Pillar, Super Dorothy, Moning Jewel, Albertin, Sorbet. Yellow and orange

Glen Dale, Golden Showers, Madeleine Saltser, Alhi-Mist, Glory de Dijon, Goldstern, Liane, Salita, Goldener Olympus. White

White Flight, Swan Lake, Ilse Cron Superior, Bobby James, White Cascade, Harlequin (creamy white flowers).

Breeding, cultivation and care. Cultivated varieties of roses are propagated only vegetatively: by grafting with an eye (budding) and cuttings, rooting of stem green and lignified cuttings, dividing the bush and root suckers, if the mother plants are rooted, and also by layering. Seeds are propagated only by wild rose rootstocks and wild species of roses. The seeds are also used in specialized breeding work. Rose budding. The most popular method of propagation of varietal planting material of roses in gardening is summer

budding with a sleeping eye, which is carried out in central Russia in late July - early August. To begin with, it should be said that grafting is generally the most promising and reliable way of propagating roses, since a successful culture of roses in the middle lane and more northern regions is possible only if planting material is grown under local conditions. All attempts to attract planting material from other localities for open field culture end in failure. The main reason for the failure is the inability of plants to new soil conditions. Rose seedlings grown in the south on deeply drained soils have a weakly branched root system that goes deep into the soil in search of water and food. On our weakly drained soils with heavy underlying clay, a more branched

1. Cut out the peephole (shield) carefully, observing accuracy, with a sharp budding knife. The cut is made at least 8 mm above the kidney and 12 mm below it, the length of the shield should be 20 mm

2. When cutting out the eye, only a very thin layer of wood should be captured, on which the vascular bundle going to the kidney should be clearly visible.

3. Make a T-shaped cut on the root collar of the stock. To do this, first make a transverse incision of the bark with a length of 1/3 of the circumference of the neck, then perpendicular to it downward, make a longer longitudinal incision with a length of 2 cm.

4. Take the cut peephole with your left hand, with your right hand use a knife to push the bark at the incision site and insert the shield into the T-shaped incision. 5. Move the peephole down into the incision so that only the kidney remains on the surface.

6. Tightly wrap the place of budding with plastic tape.

7. Do not over-squeeze the budding site and at the same time make sure that the bark at the incision site adheres tightly to the wood, protecting the cambium from oxidation


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