Shrub roses: how to grow, planting and care, reproduction and pruning, photo
Rose flower is a representative of the Rosehip genus, which has existed on Earth for almost forty million years and now numbers about 250 species and more than 200,000 varieties. The etymology of the word "rose" originates from the ancient Persian "wrodon", which changed in Greek to "rhodon", which the Romans transformed into the familiar word "rosa". Wild roses, not inferior in beauty and aroma to the most exquisite garden varieties, grow in temperate and warm regions of the Northern Hemisphere. And in modern cultural gardening, a huge number of varieties and hybrids of roses pleases the eye and arouse admiration not only among flower growers and landscape designers, but also among people who are completely far from these occupations, who simply know how to appreciate beauty.
Roses are not only amazingly beautiful flowers, but also easily cultivated, therefore they are widely used in green building. The cultivated species of this plant are divided into garden roses and park roses, and of all the known groups of garden roses, bush roses, hybrid tea, floribunda, grandiflora, polyanthus roses, climbing roses, miniature and ground cover roses are most in demand. Today we will try to tell you in as much detail as possible about roses that form bushes, and climbing, or curly roses, is a separate topic, which we will talk about another time.
Planting and caring for roses
- Landing: in the middle lane - in late April or early May, in warm regions - from early September to mid-October, in the first half of a cloudy day.
- Bloom: some varieties bloom only once a season, but there are some that bloom several times.
- Lighting: bright light in the morning, light partial shade in the afternoon.
- The soil: well-drained, acidic (pH 6.0-6.5), with deep groundwater.
- Watering: not frequent, but plentiful, however, the bushes of the first year are watered every two days. The rate of water consumption per bush is 10 liters. The best way to moisturize the rose garden is drip.
- Pinching: in the year of planting in the first half of summer, to stimulate tillering, pinch the ends of the shoots and remove all the buds.
- Cropping: in spring, summer and autumn. The main pruning is spring.
- Top dressing: if fertilizers were placed in the hole when planting, the plants are no longer fed in the current season. From the second year, feeding is carried out four times per season.
- Pests: aphids, spider mites, cicadas, whiteflies, scale insects, beetles, caterpillars and sawfly larvae.
- Diseases: powdery mildew, downy mildew, rust, marsonina, chlorosis.
Read more about growing roses below.
The rose plant, depending on the species to which it belongs, forms bushes of various shapes - from narrow pyramidal to spreading. And the height of the bush depends on belonging to a particular species and ranges from 25 cm to more than 3 meters. Rose bushes consist of two types of branches: main, or uterine, and annual shoots. The leaves of the rose are odd-pinnate, with ovoid or elliptical leaflets with a serrate edge and two leaf-like stipules. The length of the peduncle of the rose is from 10 to 80 cm, the flowers of the rose are large - from 2 to 18 cm in diameter, and they amaze the imagination with a variety of shapes and colors. They can consist of five or one hundred and twenty petals, they can be single or form inflorescences, including from three to two hundred flowers.
Depending on the shape of the flower, there are peony roses, pompom, cupped, cone-shaped, flat, saucer-shaped, spherical and others. As for the color of flowers, only bright blue roses have not yet been bred, and all other colors and shades, as well as all kinds of their combinations, are widely represented by a huge number of varieties and hybrids, which continue to appear almost every year. And although the flowering of a rose is, in principle, one of the most amazing phenomena, roses in the garden, gradually changing from one color to another during the flowering process, can cause admiration even among sophisticated professionals.
Roses differ not only in a huge number of shapes and colors, but also in a variety of enchanting aromas.
Features of growing roses in the garden
Rose is the queen of flowers, and requires an appropriate attitude towards herself, and if you decide to plant a bush rose in your garden, you should know what she loves and does not tolerate. We present to you a list of the advantages and characteristics of the rose - after all, the queen has no shortcomings and cannot have:
- modern spray roses are the most winter-hardy of all existing species, but, nevertheless, they require shelter for the winter, and you will have to tinker with wrapping the rose, since its bush has a larger volume than roses of the hybrid tea group or the floribunda rose;
- the rose is not as capricious as it might seem, but annual pruning of the bushes is required, both formative and sanitary;
- pruning re-blooming spray roses in the fall is necessary;
- prickly bush roses;
- Shrub roses are sprawling shrubs that look great as single plants, as a group, and as a hedge.
When to plant
The best time to plant roses is autumn, from early September to mid-October, and it is better to buy seedlings for rooting in the fall, on the eve of planting, and not in spring, because at spring fairs they usually sell those rose seedlings that were not sold out in the fall. Be careful when buying: examine the planting material and select healthy, strong specimens. If you are fortunate enough to buy good seedlings, take care of the area where you plant them.
The rose loves light, and if you can find an area away from large bushes and trees, which is in partial shade in the afternoon, you can count on your rose to bloom profusely, long and brightly. It would also be good if the groundwater at the site is not located close to the surface, so that the site is not located in the lowland, and the wind blowing the rose bushes is neither north nor northeast. And, of course, do not plant roses where they have grown for years.
The soil for the royal plant needs a well-drained and sourish - pH in the range of 6-6.5, the rose does not put forward other requirements for the soil, although the more fertile the soil, the more beautiful the flowering of rose bushes will be.
How to plant
Immediately before planting roses, shorten the roots of the seedlings with a sterile sharp tool, remove dry roots, cut the stems at a height of 15-20 cm and immerse the roots in water for several hours before planting. Dig a round hole with a diameter of 40-50 cm. The depth of the hole should be 10 cm deeper than an earthen ball with roots. Loosen the bottom with a pitchfork. The easiest way to determine how deep the hole should be is by the location of the grafting site: when planting, it should be buried 3-4 cm into the ground.Mix the soil selected from the hole with compost in a ratio of 3: 1, add a handful of wood ash, and into the hole pour out a bucket of water with the heteroauxin tablet dissolved in it.
How to plant roses correctly so that they take root faster? Dip the root of the seedling into the hole and gradually sprinkle it with soil, holding the seedling by the stem, constantly compacting the soil. Make a circular roller at a distance of 30 cm from the seedling so that an irrigation area forms and water does not flow out of its borders, spud the seedling to a height of 15 cm and arrange shading for it for a week and a half. Watering the rose next time will need to be in two days. If the seedling is in a container, water it abundantly before planting, pour some soil with compost into the pit, lower the container with the seedling on it, carefully remove the container and fill the gap between the earthen ball and the pit wall with soil. For the rest, proceed as described above.
The distance between seedlings of bush roses, depending on the variety, should be from one meter to two. The distance between the rows should be the same.
If you plan to plant roses in the fall, you need to start preparing for two months before planting. In the area where the groundwater is close to the surface, it is necessary to organize a raised flower bed for the rose garden, otherwise the roots of the plants will suffer from waterlogging and rot, and the bushes will have an unhealthy appearance. Since the soil is rarely perfect, bring it to a state suitable for a rose, and although the plant is not capricious in this regard, its appearance will largely depend on the composition of the soil in the area.
Dig up the area with humus and fertilizers, adding for each square meter of area a bucket of manure or garden compost, peat, two glasses of bone meal and wood ash, and 30-50 g of superphosphate. If the soil is too clayey, add a bucket or two of sand for every meter. When it's time to plant the rose, follow the instructions in the previous section. Roses planted in autumn are completely covered with earth for the winter.
Planting in spring
If winters are too cold in your area, plant roses in the spring, from mid-April to mid-May, when the soil warms up to 10 ºC. It is advisable to carry out the preparation of the site, which we have just described, at least a month before planting. For seedlings, too long are shortened and diseased and dried roots are cut off, shoots are shortened to a height of 10-15 cm, so that 2-4 buds remain on them.
If the seedlings have been waiting for planting for a long time and their roots have dried up, keep them in water for a day to swell, and immediately before planting, dip them in a dung-clay mash. Part of the soil prepared, as described above, is poured into the pit with a slide, the seedling is placed on this mound and, holding it by the stems, gradually fill the roots with the rest of the soil, compacting the soil so that there are no voids left in it. Do not forget to deepen the vaccination site by 3-5 cm.
After planting, the rose is watered abundantly, then spud high. As soon as the first shoots appear, rake off the soil with which you spud the seedling, and mulch the soil around the bush with a layer of peat or humus 5-8 cm high. Areas with non-repaired roses are mulched with chips or pine bark.
Caring for roses in the garden
In the first year after planting, the rose bush is just forming, so your main task is to pinch the ends of the shoots, stimulating tillering, and remove barely outlined buds in the first half of summer, so that the flowering of the rose does not weaken the young bush. In the second half of summer, allow the buds to form and only then remove. In general, a bush rose grows quickly, becoming a hardy strong plant, and it will create much less trouble for you than an indoor rose, standard or climbing.
How to care for roses to keep them comfortable and healthy? The list of necessary measures for the care of bush roses includes regular pruning of shoots, watering, weeding and loosening the soil on the site, as well as introducing the dressings necessary for the rose into the soil. Let's talk about everything in more detail.
Roses do not belong to excessively moisture-loving plants, watering roses is carried out as needed - as soon as the soil on the site dries up, that is, not often, but abundantly, and only the bushes of the first year of growth are watered every two days. In the spring, intensive watering is needed, since young leaves and shoots are growing. Watering roses in summer, especially hot and dry, will have to be more often, but in general, the rate of water poured under each adult bush is ten liters. Watering is carried out with a not very powerful stream, so as not to wash off the soil from the roots. The water should not be cold.
At the end of summer, when the flowering subsides, the water rate is reduced so that excess moisture does not stagnate in the soil and does not pose a threat to the development of fungal diseases in the roots of the rose, and, nevertheless, the soil must be saturated with moisture for the winter. It is best to water the roses in the morning, before the heat begins, or in the evening, but at such a time that occasional drops of water on the leaves have time to dry before night. The best way to irrigate is drip.
Caring for a rose involves regular feeding. The first year after planting, the rose does not need fertilizing, but from the next year, fertilization becomes mandatory.
The first, double dressing of the rose, is applied in the spring, at the beginning of the growing season, the second - at the time of bud formation, the third - after flowering, the fourth - before the lignification of the shoots. In the spring, after pruning the bushes, 20 g of ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate is applied to one m² of the plot.
After two weeks, repeated application of nitrogen fertilizers is carried out. During the budding period, the top dressing consists of 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt for each m². All these fertilizers for roses can be replaced by the application of "Kemira universal" at the rate of 30-40 g per m². After flowering, bush roses are also fertilized with complex fertilizers with microelements. From the end of July, they stop feeding the rose with nitrogen fertilizers. In August-September, potassium salt and superphosphate are added to the soil at the rate of 30-40 g per m².
You can alternate the use of mineral fertilizers in the rose garden with organic ones. How to feed roses, what kind of organic matter is better to use? Chicken droppings, slurry and wood ash.
Sooner or later, you will have to replant your roses, as they tend to grow, losing their decorative effect, and you should know how best to do this. You can transplant a bush in April or October, although spring transplants are more successful. Before transplanting, cut your bush rose by 20 cm, remove weak and broken branches, and tear off all the leaves. If your bush is grafted, its root system goes deep into the ground, and if the bush is rooted, then its roots are located superficially in the ground.
Considering these features, dig your rose out of the ground along with an earthen lump, but do not worry too much if you damage the peripheral roots in the process - they will recover after a while. Place the root ball on a cloth to make it easier to move the bush. You can plant a bush in a new place together with a cloth, which will gradually rot in the soil. Spill a fresh hole well with water. Transplanting a rose bush follows the same principle as the initial planting.
And remember: the grafted bush is buried so that the grafting site is 3-5 cm underground, the own-rooted bush is planted so that its earthen lump is flush with the soil surface.
Diseases and their treatment
If roses grow in unfavorable conditions, they weaken, their resistance to diseases decreases, and they can be exposed to pests. Among the diseases that affect weakened rose bushes, most often it is necessary to deal with powdery mildew, downy mildew (peronosporosis), rust, marson's roses (black spot), chlorosis.
If fungal diseases of roses can be cured with fungicides - a three percent solution of copper sulfate, a one percent suspension of colloidal sulfur, then chlorosis, from which the rose turns yellow, develops as a result of a lack of certain elements in the soil, and primarily iron. You will have to do a soil analysis, finding out, due to the deficiency of which element, the leaves of the rose turn yellow, and eliminate the cause by adding salts of the missing nutrient in the recommended doses to the soil.
Pests and the fight against them
Insects that damage the flowers, leaves and stems of a rose can be divided into sucking ones, which include aphids, ticks, scale insects, cicadas, or rose whiteflies, and gnawing ones, represented by beetles, sawfly larvae and caterpillars.
Sucking pests they pierce the tissues of the ground parts of the plant and feed on their cell sap, which causes disruption of physiological processes and leads to twisting and falling of leaves, the death of shoots.
Gnawing pests violate the integrity of the organs of the rose, and this leads to the fact that the growth and development of the plant slows down, the flowering becomes not so abundant, and the rose loses its decorative effect. You can fight pests as they appear, but in order to avoid a harmful invasion of insects, it is enough to carry out the spring preventive treatment of rose bushes until the buds swell with insecticides such as actellic, karbofos, rogor or spray the plants with a solution consisting of 2 g of kerosene diluted in 10 l of water.
In the fall, after pruning the bushes, rake and destroy all plant residues and fallen leaves and treat the bushes and soil under them with the same preparations in case the pests have settled down for the winter in the soil under the bushes or in the cracks in the bark.
When to trim
As you can see, planting and caring for roses is not so difficult, but the most time-consuming type of caring for rose bushes is pruning them, which serves as an incentive for shoot growth and abundant flowering. Pruning should be carried out in spring, summer and autumn, and the main one is spring pruning - it not only relieves the rose of unnecessary shoots, but also forms a bush.
Summer pruning is more sanitary - one rosebud is left from several buds, which gives a larger flower, wilted flowers and set fruits are removed.
In the fall, pruning is necessary to prepare the bushes for wintering - they cut out dried, broken and weak shoots that take away nutrition from healthy branches.
How to trim
Before the buds on the branches swell, cut out all damaged and weak branches on the bush, as well as those that are directed into the thick of the bush, after that it will be better for you to see how to further form the bush. If you find that two branches are interfering with each other, leave the one that is more conveniently located. A younger branch with a lighter bark is also preferred.
If you grow a grafted (grafted) rose, you will surely come across the fact that in the spring many shoots sprout at the base of the bush, taking away the strength of the plant, and if you are looking for an answer to the question of why the rose does not bloom, then the reason is precisely in this basal growth ... Leave only the strongest, most powerful, tall shoots that will already give flowers this summer, and remove the rest without regret.
If you do not know how to properly prune roses after flowering, do it at your discretion, leaving at least two buds on the shoots, and do not be afraid - after cutting, the rose is actively overgrown with new greenery. Be careful only with pruning old roses, which are no longer so easy to restore the shape of the bush, or if the soil on the site is too poor in nutrients.
In the fall, all wilted flowers are removed from the bush, as well as damaged, immature and growing shoots inside the bush. Do not forget to process all cuts with a garden pitch.
Reproduction of roses
Roses reproduce in vegetative and generative ways. Vegetative methods include:
- reproduction by dividing the bush;
- propagation by cuttings;
- reproduction by offspring;
- reproduction by layering;
- reproduction by grafting.
The generative method is seed propagation.
Growing roses from seeds
Usually, the seed method is used when breeding new varieties and hybrids, it is practiced only for wild-growing roses, and not all types of roses give full-fledged seeds. Rose seeds are harvested in the reddening phase of the fruit - at the end of July or in August. They are cleaned and stored in damp sand for four months at 2-5 ºC for stratification. The following spring, they are soaked for several hours in heteroauxin or another root formation stimulator and sown to a depth of one to three centimeters, and on top they are mulched with humus or peat.
When the seedlings develop 2-3 leaves, they are planted in such a way that a distance of 6-8 cm is maintained between the seedlings, and between the rows - 20. In the summer, mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil in the garden at the rate of 40 g of nitrogen, 60 g of phosphorus and 10 g potash per m². The whole next year, the seedlings are looked after, watering, weeding and feeding, and from August the grown seedlings can be used as a rootstock.
One of the most reliable propagation methods is by cutting roses, and if you do not know how to grow a rose from cuttings, take our advice. Propagation of roses by cuttings involves the rooting of two types of stem cuttings - lignified and semi-lignified. This method is more often used to obtain planting material when propagating park or indoor roses. At the beginning of flowering, the green shoots of roses begin to grow stiff, and at this time it is time to cut the cuttings.
Only green or too lignified shoots are not suitable for cuttings.
The length of the cutting is about 8 cm, the thickness is about the size of a pencil, the upper straight cut should go half a centimeter above the kidney, and the bottom cut, made at an angle of 45º, should go directly under the kidney. Thorns and leaves are removed from the lower part of the cutting, leaving only two upper leaves, which are shortened by almost half. The lower cut is treated with phytohormones before rooting.
How to root a rose? Plant the cuttings at a distance of 15-30 cm from each other in a shady part of the garden in a groove with sand 15 cm deep, apply sand around the cutting, water the soil and cover the cuttings with foil, building a greenhouse over them. Lift the cover from time to time to ventilate the cuttings, or make small holes in the film to allow the cuttings to breathe. Water and feed the cuttings, remove weeds, and loosen the soil from time to time. If buds begin to form, remove them: for cuttings it is not flowering that is important now, but the formation of a strong root system.
For the winter, cover the cuttings with a double layer of insulation, and on top with polyethylene. Next spring, remove the insulation and start accustoming the cuttings to their habitat by opening the film. Cuttings are grown on the growing bed for two years, and on the third ripe seedlings are planted in permanent places.
Roses are planted on young seedlings of wild species - rose hips. The best species for a stock is considered to be a dog rose (Rosa canina) and about 20 of its forms, which have high winter hardiness and a powerful root system. Small-flowered, wrinkled, cinnamon, loose and others have also proven themselves well as a rootstock. Inoculation by budding is carried out in the summer, in mid-July:
- clean the root collar of the stock from the soil, remove the lateral shoots;
- make a T-shaped incision on the root collar (vertical stick - 2.5 cm long, horizontal - 1 cm). Gently push the bark at the incision site so that the kidney can be placed in the incision;
- select a ripe stalk on a varietal rose, remove the leaves and the top from it, cut the peephole from the bottom upwards, capturing a layer of wood. Remove excess wood carefully;
- insert the peephole into the T-shaped incision on the rootstock, carefully remove all excess parts, wrap the grafting site tightly with an eyepiece;
- after three weeks, check if the bud has taken root to the stock: it should swell, but in no case turn black.
On the eve of winter, spud the grafted plant 5 cm above the graft. In the spring, carefully fold the ground away from the grafted bud, remove the film, and cut the rootstock 1 cm above the graft. When the shoot from the grafted bud begins to grow, pinch it over 3-4 leaves. Take good care of the grafted rose, and by the fall you will have a powerful plant with a good crown ready to transplant to a permanent place.
Dividing the bush
In this way, only self-rooted (not grafted) roses reproduce. In the fall or spring, before bud break, dig out the bush and use a sharp sterile tool to divide it into parts so that each of them has its own roots and at least one shoot. Then treat the cuts with crushed charcoal and plant the cuttings in the usual way. After dividing the bush, polyanthus roses and floribunda take root best of all, and if you divided the bush and planted the cuttings in early spring, you can still see abundant flowering of roses on these bushes this year.
Reproduction by layering
In this way, you can get new bushes from both self-rooted and grafted roses. For reproduction, shoots growing at the root collar are used: in early spring, make circular cuts in the bark on such a shoot, bend it down and put it in a shallow groove previously dug, fix it in the middle with a wire bracket or a hook and throw loose moist earth on top so that the tip of the shoot remains on the surface ... Tie the top to the peg, giving it a vertical direction.
During the summer, keep the soil above the cuttings slightly damp. In the fall, your cuttings will take root, but it will be possible to separate it from the mother plant only next spring.
Garden roses after flowering
Roses have faded - what to do? After the roses have faded, watering is gradually reduced, and in September they stop altogether. In mid-August, fertilize the bushes with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Try not to allow the active growth of young shoots, since they are unlikely to have time to ripen and disappear in winter.
Since the beginning of autumn, caring for roses consists in weeding and loosening the soil on the site. Prepare a dry mixture for hilling bushes for the winter: mix the earth with peat or sand. When the night frosts come, sprinkle the rose bushes with this mixture to a height of 15-20 cm and cover this place with foil so that it does not get wet from the rains. In September, you can plant and transplant roses.
Preparing for winter
Carry out the autumn pruning of the bushes: remove all damaged, dry, unripe and diseased branches, cut off the unripe ends of the shoots, treating the cuts with garden pitch. Ideally, the length of the shoots after pruning should not exceed half a meter. Remove all leaves from the branches and from under the bushes - it is advisable to burn them. Preventively treat the bushes and the soil under them with one percent Bordeaux liquid or a similar preparation to destroy pests and pathogens that have settled in the soil or in cracks in the bark for the winter.
When the nighttime cold intensifies to -6-8 ºC, cover the bushes with spruce branches or dry healthy foliage. You can cover the bushes with insulating material, but then you will have to make sure that the roses do not come out under cover in winter. The insulation is laid on a frame of two criss-cross arcs, and covered with polyethylene on top so that the insulation does not get wet.
Spread poisonous rodent baits around the area. When snow falls, throw it on top of spruce branches or foliage, and then your roses will not be afraid of any frosts. If you covered the roses with insulation and foil, during the thaw period, raise the covering material for a while so that the bushes do not cheat.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Pink
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Shrub Information
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Flowering Shrubs Pink (Rosaceae) Plants on K Plants on P
Shrub roses: how to grow, planting and care, reproduction and pruning, photo - garden and vegetable garden
Wild roses, sometimes called rose hips, grow naturally in the Northern Hemisphere. The genus of the rose is one of the most difficult in the family. It includes about 250 species that differ in morphological characteristics.
As a rule, these are shrubs up to 2 m in height with drooping or erect branches. There are types of roses with shoots creeping along the ground or catching on the trunks and branches of nearby plants, shoots rising to a great height.
Some grow in the form of low, dense shrubs - ornamental during the period of lush flowering. The foliage of roses is odd-pinnate, with ovoid, sharp-toothed leaves, with two stipules adherent to the base of the petiole.
The flowers are fragrant, solitary, bisexual, or clustered in inflorescences. Flowers up to 12 cm in diameter. The corolla is formed by five petals of red, pink, yellow, white, crimson color. There are many stamens, many pistils, located along the inner wall of the receptacle.
Sometimes wild roses have flowers with more than 5 petals, with all this, some of the pistils or stamens turn into additional petals. Thus, double flowers appear. In some, the number of petals can be large (in a wrinkled rose up to 180). As a rule, double flowers are larger and more decorative than simple ones.
Most species of temperate rose hips bloom from May to July. Subtropical, evergreen, wild roses bloom continuously. The fruits ripen in September, gradually acquiring a yellow, red or brown color and remain on the branches until winter. The overgrown receptacle is juicy, fleshy, berry-like. Inside it there are many fruits - angular nuts with a pointed top.
Rose is an easy cultivated plant, it is widely used in landscaping, when creating soil-protective plantings. Rose is a drought-resistant plant and not demanding on the soil. Most types of roses are light-requiring, grows well in moderately moist soils. Rosehip reproduces vegetatively and by seeds. Garden forms of roses are propagated by dividing the bush, cuttings, cultivated roses - by grafting.
Rosehip, gave rise to 200 thousand varieties of beautiful roses, living on the planet for 40 million years. Rosehips are not inferior in beauty to many cultural varieties. The rose is worthy of widespread use in landscaping. Among the variety of ornamental plants, these plants are very popular.
Not all flowers can be compared to roses in color of flowers, richness of forms, aroma and duration of flowering. Rose is one of the most ancient cultures. The rose has been grown since ancient times. A huge variety of varieties and hybrids are widely used in park construction.
Rose varieties with photos and names
Until now, the abundance of varieties of these attractive flowers has not allowed scientists to form one definite classification. This fact is explained not only by the abundance, but also by the significant similarity of the features and conditions for growing with each other.
So, in a year, about 10 hybrids can be bred, described and presented to the people. Each breeder describes his hybrid bred according to the growing conditions, which does not always agree with the opinion of other breeders and scientists.
Primarily, garden roses Are bush varieties, which are subdivided into several subspecies: shrub and shrub.
Shrub varieties are represented as Armada, Ballerina, Cornelia, Evelyn, Felicia and others. And shrubs in the form of: Belvedere, Simpati, Flammentants, Hamburger Phoenix and others.
Bush roses the most unpretentious, easy care is noted for them, since they only need watering and timely pruning.
These flowers do not bloom for a long time, although the minimum period is about a month. But the amazing beauty of the bushes, planted with some landscape design skills, makes for a wonderful greenhouse.
It should also be noted that bush varieties are divided into several types, among which the most popular groups are distinguished:
English roses are highly resistant to pests and diseases. They are artificially bred types with numerous varieties of bud colors. The varieties of the English group delight flower growers with double flowering during the summer.
The French rose is the oldest group of garden varieties. They are distinguished by low shrubs, but rather coarse foliage.
Tea roses are the most beautiful roses, which today are practically not grown in garden plots, because their finicky to weather conditions does not allow growing an attractive flower bed.
Shrub varieties include ground cover, polyanthus and park roses. They also grow as bushes, but most breeders claim to be different.
Ground cover roses
Groundcover roses are not in vain considered as a separate variety.
Firstly, although they grow in the form of shrubs, their shoots are closer to the ground.
Secondly, they are unpretentious to weather conditions, they are easy to keep in winter until spring.
Thirdly, their flowering begins in early summer and ends with the onset of frost.
The ground cover group also has about a hundred varieties, the bushes of which
can grow from 20 cm to 1.8 m in height. The most popular varieties include:
- Fairy - flowering begins only in the middle of summer, but the buds bloom in just a few days. There are so many of them that the foliage is not visible because of them.
- Avon is a low grade that is used for planting "living carpet", which is often used in landscape design.
- Swani - bushes reach only 60 m in height, but 1.5-2 m in width, which is used for planting a "background".
Of course, people are more and more interested in what roses are unpretentious and winter-hardy... Here we can single out the most "universal" in the applicable criteria of Leonardo da Vinci, Westerland, Black Magic and others.
Polyanthus roses have a second name - multi-flowered. They received a similar nickname due to the number of inflorescences on one bush. Polyanthus shrubs reach a height of only 40-60 cm, so they are often planted as a living curb and other fences. They are resistant to weather conditions.
Among the polyanthus species, there are such varieties as:
- Cameo - the most abundant in flowering of all polyanthus species
- Animo - the tallest bushes, reaching a height of about 90 cm
- Gloria Mandi - has the smallest number of inflorescences, the bush reaches a height of at least 50 cm
- Angelic - has the smallest growth, no more than 30 cm, therefore it is often grown as a carpet.
What color are polyanthus roses? For convenience, all varieties, of which there are more than 70, are divided into shades of buds, where red, white, pink, orange, yellow shades can be distinguished. Hybrids can have "mixed" coloration.
Park rose is a variety of cultivated rose hips, which is represented by a variety of colors and shapes of buds. If these varieties are properly cared for, large shrubs can be grown, reaching a height of 1.5 m.
The most popular varieties include Jacques Cartier, Chloris, Minutes and others.
Those who do not have garden plots can plant the presented beauty at home, on the windowsill. For this, there are special miniature roses, among which there are varieties:
- Baby Masquerade - lemon-colored buds and low flowers, reaching only 35 cm, make the presented variety the most popular for growing at home
- Daniela is a new variety, bred by breeders in the early 90s, has pointed petals on the buds and a height of only 15 cm
- Debut - pleases flower growers with small, but numerous buds, the flower looks elegant, since it has a height of only 15 cm.
Climbing roses are so named because, due to the peculiarities of their growth, they are used for vertical decorative gardening.
Climbing shrubs should be carefully groomed to achieve the desired effect. Among the most popular varieties are Pierre de Ronsard, Santana, Laguna, Polka.
Peony roses were bred by the English breeder D. Austin, and later received a second name - Austin roses.
The most popular varieties include Constance Spray, Pat Austin, Shakespeare, Keith and others. Florists are attracted by the variety of colors presented by the variety of shades and unpretentious cultivation.
Floribunda and Grandiflora
Roses of the Floribunda and Grandiflora species are distinguished in separate groups. These varieties were bred by breeders in different ways, but they are similar in appearance and growing conditions, so they are often confused, which is in principle unacceptable.
The buds of the varieties are quite small, and the bushes themselves can reach from 30 cm to 1.2 m.
Agrotechnology for growing roses
Among the variety of forms for the rose garden, they choose the multi-flowered, tea-hybrid and climbing form of the plant. Experienced gardeners can find dwarf, ground cover and erect tall varieties of roses.
In order to enjoy the flowering of this "queen" in your garden as long as possible, it is recommended to know all its strengths and weaknesses:
- Hybrid forms are distinguished by a high degree of frost resistance, but it is better to cover young plants for the winter.
- In order for rose bushes to grow and develop well, it is necessary to carry out pruning, shaping, and sanitary every year. Autumn pruning of secondary flowering plants is mandatory.
- Planting a culture is equally presentable, both as an independent plant and in group plantings. Especially, roses look beautiful when decorating hedges and alpine slides.
- Not only competent planting and choice of varieties ensure long-term flowering of the bush, it is also necessary to properly care for it.
Yoshta care in the garden
Growing yoshta, like black currants, is quite simple. At the same time, it is much easier to care for such a hybrid compared to a gooseberry, since it does not have thorns. All that needs to be done is to loosen the surface of the trunk circle in a timely manner, remove weeds, feed and water, and also protect the plant from diseases and pests.
In April, you need to loosen the site for the first time in a season. In this case, the surface of the trunk circle is loosened to a depth of 4 to 6 centimeters, and the soil between the rows is loosened from 8 to 10 centimeters. The soil is loosened once every 15–20 days. To reduce the number of loosening, watering and weeding, you just need to cover the surface of the site with mulch. Mulching also helps to create favorable conditions for the growth and nutrition of yoshta. It is recommended to mulch the site with peat or humus. Make sure that the surface of the trunk circle is slightly damp and loose at all times. If weeds appear, immediately remove them from the site.
Such a plant must be protected from various diseases and pests. To do this, it is necessary to systematically carry out timely treatment of the plant every year for prevention purposes. So, the treatment of the shrub is carried out in the spring before bud break and in the fall, when all the leaves fall off, and the dormant period begins. For processing, use a solution of copper sulfate (1%), Bordeaux mixture (1%), Nitrafen (1%) or urea (7%). When using urea, you will not only protect the yoshta from various diseases and pests, but also feed it with nitrogen. Processing should be carried out only when the outside air temperature is at least 5 degrees.
How to water
It is necessary to water the shrub systematically, while using a sufficient amount of liquid. If the plant lacks moisture, then this can lead to a delay in its development and growth. In this regard, it is imperative to ensure that the surface of the trunk circle is always moist during the entire season. During irrigation, the soil should get wet to a depth of 0.3–0.4 m, this is where the root-forming layer is located. On average, 2-3 buckets of water are taken per 1 square meter of the plot during irrigation.
Water the yoshta in the morning or in the evening when the sun goes down. Experienced gardeners advise making shallow (about 10-15 centimeters) grooves around the bush, which should be located 30-40 centimeters further than the crown projection. It is into these grooves that water needs to be poured during watering. On the outside of the groove, you need to make limit rollers from the ground, which should be 15 centimeters high. How often the shrub will have to be watered is influenced by the weather, the moisture permeability of the soil, and whether the area is mulched or not.
The near-trunk circle of the yoshta must be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or peat). The amount of mulch used per 1 bush should be about 20 kilograms, this organic matter will not only prevent the rapid drying of the soil and its cracking, but will also become a source of nutrients for the bush.
Up to three years of age, the shrub needs such an amount of mineral fertilizers as 20 grams of potassium sulfate and from 30 to 40 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter. After the plant is 4 years old, the amount of phosphate fertilizers should be reduced to 25-30 grams, and potash fertilizers should be increased to 25 grams per 1 square meter.
In autumn, wood ash must be poured under each shrub, which is taken in a volume of 500 ml.
Hybrid tea roses
The species was bred by multiple crossing of remontant and tea roses. Hybrid tea roses are a short bush (about 65 cm) with large leaves and flowers. The diameter of the flowers reaches about 10 centimeters, they can be either single or form inflorescences. The flowering period is long and is divided into 2 stages. After a month of flowering, a two-week pause begins in the early varieties and a monthly pause for the later ones. After this time, the plant begins to bloom again, and stops only in late autumn. Such compact bushes look great in home beds and flower beds.
The Flamingo rose variety, like the animal itself, after which they are named, has a pale pink color. The flowers of this plant, under the influence of sunlight, fade along the edges of the petals, and become silvery-pink. The flowers themselves are goblet in shape, each measuring from 9 cm to 11 cm in diameter. There are about 25 petals in the bud. The aroma is weak. Flowers are solitary, located on long shoots. The bush is at least 1 meter high, constantly forming new young shoots, which soon also begin to bloom. The flowering period is very long, from the end of June to the beginning of frost.
It is a beautiful variety with unforgettable purple flowers. The buds are oval in shape, but slowly opening up, they become double flowers of nostalgic shape. Each of them has about 35 petals. Flowering alternately, the buds are formed gradually as the previous flowers wither. They can grow up to 15 centimeters in diameter and have a wonderful aroma. Climatic conditions can affect the shade of the flower, in the warm season they are more crimson, and after the onset of cold weather they turn purple. Long, double flowering. The height of the bush is about 120 cm, and the width is 75 cm. It is well branched, erect. The plant has a high resistance to diseases, tolerates cold well. The only drawback is that the flowers are afraid of rain.
Is it easy to care for bush roses?
Shrub roses grow quickly enough, becoming strong, hardy plants, they are not too picky, and it is much easier to care for the bushes than for standard or climbing roses. And compared to indoor roses, street bush roses look like real "Spartans", capable of withstanding any weather and habitat conditions.
In order for the rose bushes to develop well and delight you with a beautiful intense flowering, it is advisable to plant them in a sunny place, protected from the wind, with deep groundwater. Roses love heavy, humus-rich, slightly acidic soil that allows air to pass through well. When planting, a certain distance must be observed between the seedlings, depending on the variety of roses.
Shrub roses are watered sparingly as the ground underneath dries up
The main care for shrub roses is regular pruning:
- in the year of planting the seedling, the buds that form are first removed (in the second half of summer, the buds are allowed to bloom), until they are the size of a grain, and also pinch strongly growing shoots
- in subsequent years, in the spring, damaged and weak shoots are cut off, those from crossing branches with a darker bark are removed
- strong branches growing in the center of the bush are cut
- frozen buds on the left shoots are removed to the bud, which is well swollen
- in the summer, dried shoots and wilted flowers are cut off along with a peduncle
- to prevent the development of diseases and to ensure airing of the bush, blind shoots are cut
- pruning and those branches that violate the outline of the crown.
Shrub roses are watered sparingly, as the ground under them dries up. During the summer, the plants are fed twice with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. For the winter, it is enough to huddle the bushes, it is not necessary to cover them.