Daffodil flowers - description, types and varieties
Daffodils (Narcissus) - one of the most popular, widespread and, one might say, legendary colors. It is with the narcissist, or rather, with his name, that a very beautiful ancient Greek myth about a narcissistic youth is associated. Perhaps this legend, which made the daffodil a symbol of arrogance and coldness, is the reason that some people do not give daffodils to loved ones. But, fortunately, for many, the legend is just a legend, and therefore the beautiful flowers of daffodils have long been an invariable decoration of our spring beds.
Daffodils in group plantings have a very picturesque appearance, because the dense rows of these plants during flowering are a beautiful sight. In nature, glades of wild-growing daffodils, for example, the Valley of Daffodils in the Carpathians, are protected by law and are considered a unique natural phenomenon.
The aroma of daffodils is also beautiful, and, how many varieties, so many shades of smell. It's not for nothing that the essence of narcissus has long been used in the perfume industry.
The daffodil plant belongs to the amaryllis family, which includes over 60 different types of bulbous perennials. Daffodils are widespread in the Mediterranean, China and Central Asia. They grow in a climate similar to ours, only with higher air humidity.
Daffodils have been cultivated since ancient times. They began to be bred in gardens even before our era, not only caring for them, but also deifying them. For some peoples, the daffodil is a symbol of the family. You can grow this beautiful symbol on your site without much effort - caring for daffodils is not particularly difficult.
How daffodils grow
Daffodils are early flowering plants. They bloom en masse in May and early June. Daffodil flowers are often grown for cutting, because the structure of the plant is such that there are no leaves on the peduncles, and therefore cutting flowers does not harm either the plant itself or the daffodil bulb.
After the daffodil wilts, the leaves remain green for a long time. This allows the bulb to intensively grow roots and gain strength for wintering, because the intensive accumulation of nutrients by the bulb occurs precisely through the roots.
Daffodil flowers do not need to be removed from the soil annually. They grow well in one place for 3-4 years, but after this period it is still better to plant them, since whole families of onion babies are formed around the mother's bulbs, which becomes cramped. In addition, after digging up and separating the bulbous seeds, you get a lot of new planting material, because each baby is able to become a full-fledged bulb and give a flower.
Types and varieties
Daffodils of different varieties sometimes differ so much in appearance that by planting several varieties of these flowers on the site, you can get a bright, picturesque, multi-colored flower bed. In addition, different varieties bloom at different times (with an interval of 2-3 weeks), so your flower bed with daffodils can bloom for a very long time.
Narcissus flowers are simple and double, have a different flower structure (holly, crown, tubular, cyclamen-like) and are represented by all kinds of variations of the yellow-white color scheme. Breeders continue to develop varieties that have more and more differences. It was the various combinations of different traits that gave such a variety of varieties of daffodils.
Only natural species of daffodils are known for more than 60, and there are still hundreds of their varieties and hybrids. And there are thousands of breeding daffodils - about 35,000 varieties and hybrids.
Therefore, it became necessary to create an International classification of daffodils, which divides flowers into 13 groups: Trumpet, Large-cupped, Small-cupped, Double, Triandrus, Cyclamineus , Jonquilla (Jonquilla), Tazetta and Bunch-flowered (Tazetta, Bunch-flowered), Poetic (Poeticus), Bulbocodium Hybrids, Split-Corona, others, Allspecies.
The last two groups are daffodils obtained by crossing hybrids of different groups.
Daffodils are also divided according to the flowering time into early, medium and late flowering (flowering may depend on the planting of daffodils, more precisely, the planting time). In all this variety, you will definitely find those varieties that will not leave you indifferent and with which you will be happy to decorate your garden.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Amaryllidaceae family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
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Ismena flower. Description, features, types and care of the change
Description and features of the change
Ismena Hymenokallis-it is an exotic plant that came to us from distant, hot countries, it has many names. In the wild, such a plant is found in South and North America and the Antilles.
The most favorable conditions for such a plant exist on river and sea coasts, mountains and valleys with tropical and subtropical climates.
In Poland, it was nicknamed the membrane flower. In England, it is called nothing else than lily spider ismena because of its unusual flowers, which somewhat resemble fantastic spiders and have a pronounced lily scent. The third name for ismena is the Peruvian daffodil.
Tell about the flower change can be long, because he is so graceful and unusually beautiful that any person, even far from floristry, will not leave him unattended. Blooming hymenokallis will undoubtedly decorate any windowsill and its flowers will look extraordinary in the winter garden.
Hymenokallis (ismena) belongs to the Amaryllis family. Like other representatives of this family, it has saber-shaped long, pointed or more rounded leaves.
It blooms in late autumn or early winter (less often in summer). First, an arrow-peduncle appears, which rapidly grows up to 40 cm in height.
The flowering period of a flower is very short, only a few days, but even this time is enough to be impressed by the extraordinary beauty of white spreading, fragrant flowers.
Which, in their form, are so unusual to the eye that it may seem as if they came to us from outside of earthly civilization.
The flower of ischanging is considered a tall flower that can grow up to 80 cm. The leaves are quite large (50 cm). The flower has peduncles and up to 6 flowers grow on each.
If you look at photo and change, then from the outside it will somewhat resemble a lily, and from the inside it will look like a daffodil. The petals are twisted, mostly white, less often you can find flowers of yellow, purple and cream colors.
A characteristic feature of hymenokallis is that the flowers are capable of changing their shade from snow-white to pale cream. Some flowers have specks on their petals. It all depends on the variety. Ismena early flower. Having planted it outdoors in early spring, in early summer you can see its extraordinary flowering.
Types of change
The most popular among home growers is the Caribbean hymenokallis. The homeland of such a handsome man was the coast of the Antilles. Very long leaves, reaching from 0.7 to 0.9 meters, are dark green in color.
This species, unlike others, does not have a dormant period, and its long flowering can last more than 3 months in winter. Flowers are white, large, 3-5 pieces on one peduncle.
The next species is called early hymenokallis. Natural area Peruvian territories. Leaves are belt-shaped, 40-60 cm long. The flowering period occurs in the spring and summer months. Has a dormant winter period. The crown of the flower is white, elegant.
Narcissus hymenokallis is a child of Peru. Dark green, dense xiphoid leaves adorn the yellow flowers of rare beauty. There are varieties with white or purple shades of flowers. It blooms in July and its fragrance period lasts until mid-autumn.
Hymenokallis beautiful - arrived on our windowsills from the Antilles. Has leaves 0.6 meters long. During flowering, the plant produces up to 16 white flowers. Each is 12-15 cm in diameter. The flower is decorated with yellow stamens.
The next two types of change are cordifolia and hymenokallis tubiflor. They are similar to each other. They are distinguished by the absence of a "crown", narrow, strongly sagging petals. The foliage is elongated, slightly heart-shaped. Homeland of origin is South America.
Planting and caring for and changing
Landing and change the procedure is elementary. A flower pot needs a spacious, preferably clay, and the earth should be mixed with peat and sand.
Put fine expanded clay on the bottom of the pot and there must be a hole in the pot so that oxygen can enter the soil through it. Water this flower carefully, do not overdry, but do not overfill. From waterlogging, the roots are affected by decay.
I will change lily can be planted in the summer in fertile soil on the site. Before planting, the flower bulbs are germinated in moist, warm sawdust. You can plant a flower directly in the ground or in a special landscape container.
Planting is as follows: make holes 5 cm deep, plant the bulbs, moisten them a little and cover them with earth. On cold nights, it is recommended to cover young bulbs. At the first active shoots, water the flower sparingly.
Many grow flowers in boxes, since in early spring the flower can be planted outdoors. The flower bulbs must be planted in the box so that the "noses" are flush with the ground.
After planting, the box must be placed on the windowsill, and the care is the same as for an indoor flower. For the winter, the bulbs must be taken into the house, since ismena is a tropical plant and is not able to survive low temperatures.
To look after instead of festalis will not be difficult. She is not capricious, not demanding and change care accessible even to a beginner. The most important thing is timely watering and feeding with complex fertilizers (mineral and organic).
If the flower does not have enough water, then lethargic leaves will signal this. With an excess of water, the leaves turn yellow. The sun's rays must necessarily fall on the plant, but in no case direct.
If there is not enough sunlight, then the flower stops blooming, and it will not bloom in poor and scarce soil, without the proper amount of vitamins.
In central Russia, hymenokallis winters in a warm room. In the southern regions, it is enough to cover them with a film or fallen leaves and leave them to winter outside.
The flowering period is different for each variety, flowers can bloom at the same time or in turn. One type of change blooms for a long time, while others only for a few days.
Many varieties and types of changes require a dormant period. It must be remembered: if the flower stops blooming, this means: there is little light, the flower did not rest in winter, it is too cold in the room, they forgot to feed the flower.
Reproduction and change
Cultivate and change and propagation is very simple. There are two ways of reproduction: 1) seed, 2) bulbous. The seed method is longer. It can take up to five years for a flower to reach its peak flowering.
The second common method is bulbous reproduction. An adult plant acquires the ability to divide after 3 years of life. When transplanting, small bulbs are carefully separated from the mother plant and planted in a separate pot.
Further care for children is done in the same way as for adult flowers. They should be fed after 1 month of transplantation.
Buy change seeds or bulbs in the online store or at the flower market. One package of seeds reaches 70 rubles, and a bulbous one - up to 300 rubles per one unit of goods.
In flower shops you can buy an adult blooming hymenokallis. The price of a blooming pot culture will not be less than 1,000 rubles.
Description of the plant
Narcissus (Narcissus) comes from the Amaryllis family, includes several dozen species. It is a very popular bulbous plant that blooms in spring. In their natural state, daffodils grow on the Iberian Peninsula, in the Mediterranean, Asia.
Due to its decorativeness and relative ease of cultivation, the flower spread to North America. Today its largest producers are Sicily, Great Britain, and the Netherlands.
The name comes from the Greek language and means "stubbornness and indifference." Historians believe that the origin of the name of these flowers is due to their strong intoxicating smell and the poisonous power of the bulbs.
The decoration of the plant is unusual spring flowers, which are among the first to appear in gardens right after winter.
- Young bushes resemble tall grass. A flower stem then grows from the center of the bulb.
- Flowerappears at the tip of a leafless stem. The perianth consists of six petals and a characteristic tubular funnel. The petals are white, in shades of yellow, bright orange, pink, and sometimes red.
- Bulbs are ovoid, covered with a thin shell.
Flowering usually begins in the second year after planting.
Daffodil blooms - April, May.
Types of daffodils
There are more than 3000 varieties of daffodils, distributed mainly in southern Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia. Garden daffodils are the result of hybridization of different species. The culture also grows natural species of daffodils and their natural hybrids.
12 groups of the unified international classification of daffodils
- Tubular - the crown is long, in the form of a tube, exceeds the length of the petals or is equal to them.
- Large-crowned - the crown is tubular or funnel-shaped, more than a third of the length of the petals in height.
- Small-crowned - crown no more than a third of the length of the petals.
- Triandrus - obtained from the hybridization of the three-stalked daffodil with the garden. Small plants, flowers are collected in umbellate inflorescences, 2-4 pieces per peduncle.
- Terry - this includes varieties of a very different structure and origin with double flowers.
- Cyclamen-like flowers with a long crown and strongly bent back petals.
- Zhonkilievye - flowers are small, fragrant, 2-3 on a peduncle.
- Tacetny - flowers of medium size, fragrant, up to 12 per peduncle.
- Poetic - white, fragrant, single flowers with a short crown.
- Wild species, their forms and natural hybrids.
- Split-crown - the crown is divided into lobes.
- All others not included in the previous groups.
For many centuries, the daffodil - a graceful delicate flower with a thin stem and exquisite aroma - is considered a symbol of beauty. Its origin is associated with a poetic legend about a beautiful young man Narcissus, who fell in love with himself, seeing his reflection in the water, died of this love and was turned by the gods into a beautiful flower that has since been named after him. Over the millennia, people not only admired the beauty of the narcissist, but also wanted to make him even more beautiful and, to their credit, have significantly succeeded in this. About 900 breeders in more than 15 countries of the world worked on the creation of more than 12 thousand varieties of daffodils, which are now included in the international register.
Why is this plant so valuable (except for beauty, of course, which we will talk about when we talk about varieties)?
First, the daffodil is a perennial bulbous plant.... It does not need to be dug up annually, like a tulip, but you can and even need to be left in one place for 2 to 5 years.
Secondly, numerous modern varieties are very diverse in the shape and size of the flower., its color, plant height, flowering time. This makes it possible to successfully grow daffodils in a variety of flower beds.
Thirdly, this flower is widely used not only for landscaping, but also for cutting, arranging, growing in pots in winter.
And fourth, daffodils bloom earlier than tulips. (in the middle lane - at the end of April), and are not afraid of spring frosts, which usually damage only the tips of the leaves.
Daffodils can be planted both in an open, sunny place, and among trees, shrubs, which do not give a thick shade in spring. In an open place, they bloom earlier and more amicably, but in a slightly shaded place, the flowering is longer, the peduncles are longer, the color remains longer, does not fade.
They love loams and moisture
They grow on any soil, but they work best on loamy ones, which retain moisture well, and daffodils are moisture-loving.
Before planting bulbs in heavy loamy soils sand (20-30 kg / m2) or peat (10-15 kg / m2) is added, and clay is added to light sandy ones or, a year before planting, manure is added - 15 kg / m2. Daffodils tolerate peat well, so it can be used both for application to the soil and for shelter.
The first time a plot for daffodils is dug up in June to a depth of 30-35 cm and add humus - 15-20 kg / m2. 15-20 days before planting, they are dug up again, adding 50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt to each square meter.
The best time for planting is the second half of August - early September (this is for purchased bulbs)... If you are growing your own daffodils, dig up the bulbs first, separate the babies and immediately plant them again.
Planting the bulbs early prevents them from drying out during storage and makes it possible to develop a powerful root system before the onset of frost. Such well-rooted plants overwinter better and bloom beautifully in spring.
Before planting (for the prevention of fusarium and gray rot), the bulbs are pickled for 20 minutes in a 0.2% solution of foundationol or in a 0.2% solution of topsin M. If the planting material was damaged by an onion root mite, a large daffodil fly or an onion hoverfly , add another 0.2% karate or decis to the solution and keep the bulbs in it for 20-30 minutes, dry them and start planting.
The usual planting depth is 12-15 cm (3 bulb heights, counting from the bottom)... This provides plants with more uniform moisture and protects them from overheating in summer and from freezing in winter. Daffodils are planted in flower beds, ridges, borders along paths, in groups on lawns, in mixborders. If the flowers are intended for cutting, they are placed in the beds according to the 10 × 15 cm scheme for 2-3 years, or 15 × 20 cm for longer growing, but then the bulbs are planted deeper to slow down too rapid growth. If the weather is hot, dry during planting, daffodils must be watered.
After freezing of the soil, in order to reinsure in case of little snow or very harsh winter, I cover the plantingt with leaves or peat with a layer of 8-10 cm. Such a shelter is necessary, first of all, for terry and tacette varieties, because they tolerate frost worse.
Liberation from captivity
In the spring, daffodils need to be freed from shelter, and then the seedlings should be loosened. During the growing season, as necessary, they are watered, weeded, loosened and, of course, fed.
During periods of emergence of mass shoots, budding, flowering plants are treated with nitrofoskoy at 60-70 g / m2. The last feeding is carried out after flowering and only phosphorus (2 parts) and potassium (1 part) are added, in total - 50-60 g / m2. All top dressing is carried out with watering and subsequent loosening or mulching with humus or peat.
Daffodils are dug out 50-60 days after flowering, in July, as soon as the bush begins to disintegrate, and the leaves begin to lie down and their tips turn yellow... If you delay digging, the leaves will die off, and then it will be very difficult to determine where the bulbs are located and they can be damaged.
The dug out bulbs are slightly dried at a temperature of 17 ° C and good ventilation, and when the children begin to separate easily, they are immediately planted... It is curious that large babies, but not yet separated from the mother's bulb, lay their flower arrows and bloom, forming, together with the mother's, large two-three-apical bulbs with 2-3 flowers. Babies are separated from the mother's bulb only after the withering away of the common protective scales for the 2-3rd year. It is impossible to separate them by force, tearing them apart. Therefore, it is not recommended to dig up daffodils earlier than 3 years after planting.
Blooming in the off-season
Daffodils can be grown in an apartment and are even easier to distill than tulips. If tulips are dug up in June, then daffodils - in July. From flowering to digging, daffodils take about 2-2.5 months. During this time, the process of flower formation in the bulb is already completed.
For distillation, select healthy, hard, heavy, with an intact bottom of the onion... They should have 2-3 peaks, a diameter of at least 5 cm, a mass of about 70-80 g.
Planting technology is the same as that of tulips.... The difficulty lies only in the fact that dug out daffodil bulbs cannot be kept long after digging - neither at high nor at low temperatures. They should be planted as soon as possible in a container with soil, and then placed in a cold place (5-8 ° C). There they will take root and will remain until forcing.
30 days before the desired flowering period, daffodils are transferred to a warm room.... As our observations have shown, most varieties of various groups of daffodils can be "asked" to bloom in an apartment. At the same time, their color and aroma are even brighter and more delicate, and the peduncles are much higher than that of flowers grown in the open field.
Tenderness of colors and perfection of form
Now about the varieties. As we already mentioned, there are a lot of varieties of daffodils (more than 12 thousand), and the list is updated every year. Therefore, it is a shame that in our summer cottages they grow mainly either a poetic narcissus, or several outdated, low-decorative varieties. Daffodils do not have such bright and catchy colors as tulips, but there are much more flower shapes. Therefore, their garden classification is based precisely on the shape of the flower (all daffodils are divided into 12 groups), but their diversity is observed even within the groups.
For example, in a group of terry terry daffodils, there may be only a crown or only a perianth, or both a crown and a perianth may be terry. In the group, large-crowned crowns can be huge, large, medium-sized, flat, corrugated along the edge to varying degrees, sometimes almost double. And what a variety of flower forms is observed in the cut-crown group! Their corrugated, in the form of huge ruffles, curly crowns, sometimes cut to the base, resemble azaleas, orchids, even exotic birds in shape.
As for the color of the flowers, although soft, pastel colors prevail in the daffodil, there are so many tones and half-tones, the transitions from one to the other are so magnificent and gentle that one can only be surprised at this beauty. In some varieties, the color of the crown changes 3-4 times during the flowering period, especially in varieties with a pink crown. At the beginning of flowering, it can be golden yellow, then it gradually turns pink and in full bloom the crown is pink, and at the end of flowering it becomes creamy and creamy white. It is worth taking a close look at daffodils for a single time in order to fall in love with them forever. Of course, we cannot describe all the varieties - there are quite a lot of them, we will give only the best of them.
- Velazquez - creamy with a huge orange crown
- Sentinel - white with a yellow-pink huge crown
- China Maid - white with a white crown and bright yellow edging
- Debutant - white with a large pink crown
- Scarlett O'Harra - yellow with a very bright orange-red crown.
- Amor - huge white with an orange crown
- Professor Einstein - snow white with a bright red crown
- Kispruf - apricot with an orange crown
- Merlin - white with an orange-red crown.
- Golden Harvest - yellow with a large yellow tube
- Glacier - white with white tube
- Spelbinder - yellow with a long, almost white tube.
- Tahiti - yellow terry with a red crown in the center
- Acropolis - white terry with a red crown
- Flower Drift - white with an orange crown
- Apotheosis - yellow double with an orange crown, large petals, very strong peduncle
- Petit Fo - creamy white with a double pink very large crown of an exotic shape
- Rosie Cloud - creamy white with a double dark pink crown
- Golden Ducat - yellow terry with a yellow crown (similar to a yellow dahlia)
- Replit - white terry with a dark pink crown
- West Ward - white double with a bright yellow crown, very large, on a long strong peduncle.
- Mondragoy - yellow with a bright yellow crown
- Colorrange - yellow with a red crown
- King Size - light yellow with a huge yellow crown, very large and tall flower
- Cassata - white with a yellow lace crown, openwork, graceful
- Etinselente - white with a creamy pink azalea crown of a very beautiful shape
- Flyer -yellow with curly bright yellow strong corrugated crown
- Articol - white with a dark pink crown
- Palmares - white with a pink crown, light, airy, very elegant flower
- Ambois - yellow with a huge apricot crown
- Colamore - white with an orange-pink crown
- Riesling - yellow with a lemon-yellow, very large corrugated crown
- Delta - white with a crown in the form of a star - yellow-orange with a white edge
- Mondial - creamy white with a light yellow huge corrugated crown
- Lemon Beauty - white, with a lemon-white crown in the form of a large six-rayed star
- Moon Bird - a lemon-colored flower that resembles a flying bird.
- Havera - on one peduncle from 4 to 6 very small and graceful flowers
- Liberty Bella - on the stem there are 2 flowers 9 cm in diameter, the perianth is greenish-yellow, the crown is slightly darker
- Ripling Waters - on the stem there are 3 flowers up to 8 cm in diameter, the perianth is greenish-white, the crown is slightly darker.
- Jetfire - bright yellow with an orange tube, the perianth lobes are gracefully bent
- Baby Dole - a flower with a diameter of 7.5 cm is bright yellow, the tube is orange-yellow
- Andalusia - the yellow perianth lobes are narrow, bent back, and the narrow-funnel-shaped tube is orange-yellow.
- Cherie - creamy white very delicate and fragile flower up to 6 cm in diameter
- Hillstar - on the stem 3 bright yellow flowers up to 7.5 cm in diameter
- Step Forward - on the stem 2-3 yellow flowers with a greenish-white crown
- Suzy - on the stem 2-3 bright yellow flowers with a diameter of 7 cm, orange-red crown.
- Geranium - on the stem from 2 to 4 white flowers with a bright orange tube, very good for forcing.
All varieties of this group need shelter for the winter.
- Actea - in a flower with a diameter of 8.5-9 cm, the perianth lobes are snow-white, and the crown at the base is greenish-yellow, the entire main part is bright yellow, but dark red along the edge.
Did you know?
At the beginning of our story about beautiful daffodils, we mentioned that there are 12 thousand varieties in the world today. But breeding each new variety is a long and painstaking work. This is how N.F. Zolotnitsky: “Usually, to obtain a new variety, they take two bulbs, the color of the flowers of which is most suitable for the intended purpose, and artificially pollinate their flowers, ie. carefully remove the pollen from the flower of one bulb with a hair brush and transfer it to the pistil of the flower of the other. Then on such pollinated flowers, in order to avoid any accidents, they put on muslin caps or bags and wait until the seeds ripen. Then these latter are sown in a box of earth and, when plants develop from them, they are transplanted into small pots.
In this position, small seed daffodils remain for two years. During this time, each of them manages to develop a tiny onion, but it is still far from flowering. To get flowering, you need to transplant them into the beds and wait three or four years.
So here's how much labor and time you have to put in to get the kind of narcissist. But even here there is not always luck, on the contrary, there are much more failed pollinations than successful ones, and sometimes dozens, even hundreds of samples have to be done before you get what you want. "
During the growing season, one to three babies are laid and formed inside each daughter bulb, depending on varietal characteristics, meteorological conditions and agricultural techniques. In the first year, when a daughter bulb is formed, like babies, the remaining juicy scales are tightly connected to the mother bulb, which leads to the formation of two-, three-, and sometimes four-peaked bulbs.
This allows young forming bulbs, when unfavorable conditions occur, to additionally receive nutrients from these succulent and subsequently moving to the periphery of the scales. Renewal buds are laid annually, but, depending on the age and accumulation of nutrients, each daughter bulb is at different stages of organogenesis. When the optimum supply of nutrients is reached and all stages of vegetative development are completed, the bulb is capable of laying generative (flowering) buds.
Unlike tulips, the generative organs in daffodils are laid before the vegetation process of plants is completely finished. In the southern regions of the country, this occurs in April, in the Non-Black Earth Zone - in the second half of May. Their formation completely ends in 2-3 weeks after harvesting the bulbs. The optimum temperature for the formation of a flower bud is 17–20 ° C.