How to repair country doors after winter
Many summer residents are well aware of how difficult it is to use the doors in a country house after winter. Here are some tips to help you troubleshoot the most common problems.
When the door creaks
To get rid of the squeak, you just need to lubricate the hinges with machine oil. Place an ax blade or some kind of wedge under the door to make a lever, and use it to lift it on its hinges. Then inject a few drops of machine oil into the gaps created around the hinge pins (see Figure 1). Repeat this operation from time to time, and you will forget about the boring squeak.
If you suddenly do not have machine oil on hand, you can use pieces of lead from a soft, simple pencil instead. Under the weight of the door, they will turn into a fine powder, and graphite is an excellent lubricant that lasts a long time.
The door opens or closes by itself
This indicates that the loops are incorrectly attached: not strictly vertically, but slightly obliquely. The door swings open, which means it is tilted away from the door frame. Place a piece of cardboard of the correct thickness under any of the halves of the upper hinge (see Figure 2). This is usually enough for the hinges to line up.
If the door closes itself, it is tilted towards the door frame. Place a piece of cardboard under the bottom hinge.
The door is jammed
The most common cause is loose door hinges. Replace the screws on which they are attached with longer ones. You can also use old ones, strengthening their nests. To do this, hammer in pieces of wire washcloth for washing dishes or hammer wooden plugs with glue into the holes for the screws.
Sometimes the door gets wedged also because the house has settled, and the door frame is deformed. In this case, the only way out is to give the door an appropriate slope. Place a cardboard spacer under one of the hinges as recommended above. If the bottom of the door is jammed, place a spacer under the top hinge and vice versa.
The door can also jam due to the fact that the gap between it and the door frame on the hinge side is too large. In this case, you need to deepen the hinge slots and "drown" them a little (see Figure 3). And if the skew of the door or door frame is noticeable, then it is enough to "drown" only the hinge against which it is jammed. If it is necessary to remove a rather thick layer of wood, then the door will have to be removed in order to process it from the side of the hinges, since it is much more difficult to do this from the side of the lock. After all, removing the lock is much more troublesome than hinges.
You can remove the door from its hinges like this: open it completely, place a lever under it, for example a crowbar or an ax blade, then take the door by the middle and, swinging slightly in the hinges, lift it. If the door frame does not allow this, then using a beard or thick nail, knock out the pins from the hinges and carefully remove the door (see Figure 4). You need to start from the bottom loop.
Draw a line along the edge of the door from the hinge side to which you want to remove the layer of wood (see Figure 5). The work should be done with a sharpened plane, but better with a rasp so as not to remove excess. After processing, clean this edge with fine sandpaper and tint to match the color of the door. It is necessary to hang the doors on the hinges and install the pins in them.
The door hits the floor or threshold
If the door hinges are in order, but the door still sagged, try putting washers or homemade gasket rings twisted from steel wire between the upper and lower halves of the hinges and lubricate them with machine oil. When that doesn't help, rearrange the hinges a little higher.
The door dried up and stopped closing tightly. Of course, you can nail a piece of leather, felt or rubber onto the door or on the jamb. But all these linings are fragile and spoil the look of the door. Therefore, it is much safer and more aesthetically pleasing to stick or nail a thin wooden plank onto the end of the door. The heads of nails must be "drowned". Sand the strip and paint.
The door is difficult to lock and unlock
First of all, determine how far the lock tongue is offset from the hole in the strike plate. Rub the tab with chalk or place a piece of carbon paper under it - prints will show where it goes. This can sometimes be identified by the scratches the tab leaves on the striker. If it turns out that the tongue falls below the hole, check to see if the door is sagging due to loose hinges. In this case, reinforce the hinges.
If this does not help or it turns out that the hole is shifted to the side, the easiest way out is to unscrew the striker plate and expand its hole with a file. Just try not to remove too much, otherwise the locked door will rattle.
Growing laurel at home
The magnanimous laurel can also be grown at home. If in the natural environment there are also age-old trees, as a houseplant a civilization can live for about 15 years.
Growing laurel on a windowsill
There are no special problems with caring for laurel, but it feels better than the total in conditions that are as close as possible to a subtropical climate: with good lighting, warm air and regular spraying. Even inexperienced growers can start a decorative evergreen bush. Natural phytoncides from laurel will help reduce germs, and essential oils will fill your home with a pleasant scent.
To plant a plant, you should take a pot corresponding to the size of its root system. At the bottom of the container (with a hole covered with a shard), it is required to lay a drainage layer (from expanded clay or stones). A neutral or slightly alkaline type of soil is preferable (the pH value should be in the range of 6 ... 8 units).
The pot must match the size of the root system
A soil mixture for laurel can be composed of: leaf and sod land, humus, sand and peat (in a ratio of 2: 1: 2: 1: 1). But, in principle, the plant is not demanding to the composition of the soil. You can also use universal primer from the store.
Special requirements are imposed on the soil
Young plants require a transplant every year. It is recommended to spend it in the spring. The need is determined by the degree of filling the pot with the root system.
Older laurel trees are transplanted much less often - no more than once every three years. At the same time, it is recommended to increase the content of sod land. The diameter of the pot for any transfer should slightly exceed the size of the previous container.
Conditions of detention
An important nuance is the illumination of the points where the laurel tree is installed. It is very demanding on light, even in winter. The plant tolerates direct sunlight quite well, but during peak times (around noon) it is recommended to shade it a little. In hot weather, the laurel feels good in the fresh air, so moving to a balcony or terrace will only benefit him (he is not very afraid of drafts).
Laurel is very picky about lighting
Important! After a long absence of sunlight (at the end of prolonged cloudy days or stay in the shop), you should gradually accustom your pet to bright light, otherwise burns are possible.
The temperature regime in the spring-summer stage should be maintained within 22 ... 26 degrees. In winter, this figure needs to be reduced by about 10 degrees. Civilization tolerates short-term temperature drops without any problems (even short frosts down to -10 degrees). It is not recommended to keep the pot near the radiators - the dry atmosphere affects it badly.
The culture tolerates short-term temperature drops without any problems
Watering the laurel tree also differs depending on the season. In spring and summer, it should be abundant, but without waterlogging of the soil and stagnant water. The top portion of the soil should not be overdried. In winter, the amount of water and the intervals between watering are reduced (excess moisture can provoke fungal diseases). The water should be soft, at room temperature - both for irrigation and for spraying from a spray bottle. The moisture content must be high enough therefore, moisturizing the foliage is encouraged... This is especially important in the summer. A humidifier will also be a good way out of the situation. It is recommended to wipe the leaves with a damp sponge weekly. The procedure will also help to clean up the accumulated dust. In winter, there is no need to spray the bush.
Moisturizing foliage is encouraged
In the warm season, for a growing pet, periodic, no more than once every 30 days, feeding are useful. For this, mineral fertilizers and organic matter are used. You can start feeding from February and finish in half of autumn, when the dormant stage begins. Universal formulations are perfect for plant nutrition.
Universal fertilizer for ornamental foliage plants
Much! If necessary, the introduction of nutrition is allowed once every two weeks, but an overabundance of useful components not only does not improve growth, but, on the contrary, has a detrimental effect on development.
It is recommended to prune the laurel tree in autumn (it is not recommended to abuse this procedure on young plants). Its dense crown can be given any shape. With the help of pruning, you can also adjust the height of the bush in accordance with the size of the room and the preferences of the owner. Plant height varies from 0.5 to 1.4 m.
Appearance may indicate improper care
Improper care of a laurel tree can result in a change in its appearance.
|Problem||Cause, remedial measures|
|Excessively elongated processes||Lack of ultraviolet radiation, which is solved by rearranging the pot or using additional lighting|
|Pale appearance of leaves, decrease in their size||Lack of tables in the ground. It is necessary to introduce top dressing|
|Falling foliage from the lower shoots||Excessive moisture, you need to adjust the watering order|
|Rolling the leaves||Dry air. Its humidity should be increased|
Laurel can be propagated in two ways: with seed support and vegetatively (cuttings).
The best way to grow laurel is to use seeds taken from the tree in November. After that, before disembarkation, they should be stored in a humid environment for two to three months (for example, in a cool place, in the sand). With long-term storage of organized seeds, their germination is significantly reduced.
The soil for the seeds should be nutritious and loose. Its composition was thrown higher. Before planting seeds, it is recommended to add a little wood ash to it. The mixture is distributed in pots or containers.
Much! The ground must be disinfected.
Seeds should be planted in late winter or early spring. It is important to remove the oily shell from them, otherwise the sprouts can wait for a very long time. The temperature of the surrounding environment (and the ground) should be within 18 ... 20 degrees. The grains must be buried 1 - 2 cm into the ground and the planting site should be well moistened. The container with the planted seeds should be covered with a sheet of glass or plastic. This ensures the required high level of humidity. It is necessary to ventilate daily (for a quarter of an hour). Finally, the film is removed after the seeds appear. Watering the ground should be done with a break of two to three days.
The first shoots appear from April to August (they will not have to wait a little three months). After the formation of two leaves, the plants are transplanted into separate containers.
When 2 leaves appear, the laurel can be transplanted
Much! The root of the sprouted sprout is quite fragile, so the ground should be well moistened before planting. This will help soften the soil and not damage the root system during transplanting.
The transplanted plant must be watered with water, the temperature of which is a couple of degrees higher than room temperature. For the first two weeks, it is important to protect the seedling from direct sunlight.
Propagation by cuttings
It is better to do the total germination of cuttings in March and April. To propagate a laurel tree, the branches that did not have time to lignite (annual) are used, which remain after pruning. Cuttings about 10 cm long (with two to three internodes) are cut at an acute angle. The wearable sheet is removed, the upper ones need to be cut (half). It is recommended to treat the branches with a root growth stimulant.
Bay tree can be propagated by cuttings
Branches are processed with a growth stimulant
For planting, ordinary laurel soil is used, but sand is poured on top with a layer of about 1 cm. The cuttings are buried one and a half to two centimeters. The soil is moistened. From above, the process is covered with a glass jar. The container is installed in a warm place (with a temperature of 18 ... 20 degrees).
The cuttings need to be watered periodically. Airing the seedlings should be arranged every day. Rooting takes one to two months.
The planted stalk is covered with a jar
Diseases of civilization, pests
The indoor laurel tree is rarely affected by pests and is sick. It is quite resistant to fungi and viruses. Only a violation of the rules of care can lead to plant diseases. The most dangerous enemy of laurel is considered scabbard... This pest settles on the surface of the leaves and feeds on their juice.
Shield on laurel tree
The spots of white or yellowish shades that appear in the puncture sites gradually increase in size. On the leaves is a sticky essential oil, with which the plant tries to fight off parasites. If insects are found, the infected tree must be isolated from other indoor flowers, otherwise they will soon be affected by the scabbard. It is quite difficult to deal with a pest. The shell protects it from the effects of the poison. It is necessary to eliminate the parasites manually, using a cotton swab dipped in Ankara (or in an infusion of vodka with garlic) to process the leaves. It is also recommended to change the top of the soil to protect the plant from larvae.
Signs of a spider mite
With the emerging spider mites or mealybugs (they are quite rare, but also infect the laurel tree) at an early stage, washing the leaves and stems with soapy water can be handled. If such a measure is not effective, insecticides will come to support.
Common spider mite
Can spoil the appearance of laurel sooty fungus, which is easy to recognize by large black spots. Fungicides, Bordeaux liquid and a solution of soda and herbal soap will help to defeat the disease. The plaque itself can be washed off with a sponge and water.
Properly caring for a decorative evergreen tree, you can rejoice in its appearance and pleasant aroma for many years.
With your own hands - How to do it yourself
The problem of waterlogging is always relevant. Many summer cottages are located in lowlands with clay soil or high groundwater levels. Since the end of winter, when the snow is actively melting, it is no longer possible to set foot on the site. And the water sometimes stays until mid-spring!
Gardening work has to be postponed until later ... And most of the plants are unable to survive in such conditions! Choose and plan solutions to the problem.
Preparing for planting plants in spring
As soon as all the preparatory work is completed, and the earth warms up enough, you can begin to loosen it and apply top dressing. However, you should not get carried away - too deep immersion of a shovel or a rake can damage the root system of perennials. Six centimeters is the ideal tillage depth in the garden.
After the beds are cleared of weeds and a new planting of crops takes place, the land is mulched in the vegetable garden and orchard. This serves three main purposes:
- Helps nourish the soil by adding manure or compost, and maintains beneficial moisture
- Improves soil texture
- Helps destroy weed roots.
Do not forget that a freshly dug area makes the garden and beds neat. The dacha suddenly takes on a well-groomed look. There comes that solemn moment when you can step back and admire your work.
Improving soil composition
Before applying fertilizers, it is necessary to accurately find out the PH of the soil. Knowing whether the soil is acidic, neutral or alkaline will allow you to tailor your supplements or fertilization based on what is really needed and prevent any particular nutrient from overloading the soil.
Soil PH affects the availability of nutrients and minerals to plants, as well as how well the root system functions. A very high or very low pH can lead to nutrient deficiencies or toxin build-up, which means poor growth and nitrate overload. Lime (crushed limestone) or wood ash should be added to raise the pH of the soil. Sulfur, peat, or organic materials (such as compost) can be added to lower the pH of the soil.
Optimization of the structure of the earth and its drainage properties
The structure and consistency of the soil also plays a large role in successful horticulture. Watered summer cottages are prone to fungal infections such as root rot, while soil containing too little water can lead to malnutrition and dehydration of plants. Most soils tend to fall into one of four categories: sand, silt, clay, or loam (which has an equal balance of sand, silt, and clay). Each type of soil has its own characteristics.
- The sandy substrate consists of large particles and drains quickly. Sand does not retain nutrients well, but heats up quickly in spring. Root crops, onions, legumes grow well on such land. To remedy the situation, it is enough to add humus or aged manure, peat moss, sawdust.
- Silty soils have smaller particles, which gives them a slightly mealy appearance. This type of soil retains moisture and nutrients longer. You can optimize the muddy substrate by adding coarse sand, fine gravel and compost, or well-rotted horse manure mixed with fresh straw.
- The same applies to clayey areas, which are heavily baked in summer and then swamped in winter. So that not only cabbage, lettuce and other leafy crops grow well on them, it is necessary to change the clay soil by introducing drainage into it.
- Loam is an ideal type of soil for growing vegetables and fruits. It is fertile, drains well, is easy to handle, and contains many organic substances that support almost any crop.
Before making a list of seeds and seedlings to purchase for planting, you should take a closer look at the free gifts of nature. In other words, sometimes plants left over from last year can produce seedlings and shoots that can be transplanted and grown elsewhere this season. If it is difficult to determine if some of the tiny seedlings may be suitable for planting, then you should pay special attention to the shoots that grow around the parent plant. So, before digging up the beds and mulching them, thinking that all the plants that have sprouted there are weeds, caring and economical summer residents will collect valuable biomaterial.
Thus, spring summer cottage works stretch for several weeks. Their composition and characteristics are such that everything should be approached carefully and in stages, with knowledge of the matter. Thoughtlessly loosening the beds can not only be useless, but also cause significant damage to plants. In order not to spoil your impressions of the summer cottage and to reap a good harvest, you should choose the right tactics. This allows you to gradually, but confidently move forward, to complete large volumes of work and prepare for the rest of the year. Remember, the dacha is a source of healthy pastime, gives home-grown eco-products, serves as a trainer for the body and mind. Treat her with love!
Wood ash for business use
Our ancestors knowingly used it as fertilizer. Wood ash contains about 30 elements vital for plants, and all without exception. At the same time, ash obtained from burning young trees and branches contains more potassium, old ones - more calcium. On average, 1-2 kg per 10 m 2 should be applied for plants. It is advisable to do this in the fall on clay soils and in the spring on sandy soils. In addition, ash makes the soil looser and reduces its acidity.
Slugs are a formidable evil in any garden. Instead of using chemicals, you can get rid of them in a primitive but reliable way: put boards or damp strips of cardboard in flower beds and collect slippery types throughout the day. A pile of rye bran will also become an irresistible force of attraction for slugs (and removal from the beds).
The older generation used banana peels in the rose garden. After drying and crushing, it was embedded in the topsoil.
Today, the peel is still used in the garden as a potassium-rich organic fertilizer that promotes the growth of leaves and the formation of flowers in plants. Banana peel decoction is also good as a liquid fertilizer for indoor pets.
Garlic is useful not only for people - there are also many "great things" in the garden for the "nibbler". Garlic infusion (100 g freshly chopped garlic per 1 liter of water), in which the seed is soaked for a couple of hours, will relieve tomatoes from brown rot, and ornamental plants - from powdery mildew. In addition, garlic planted around a tree or in a flower garden will scare away voles.
Eggshell as fertilizer
Our grandmothers firmly believed that it is extremely useful for the garden and even used the water after boiling the eggs for watering. Eggshells are really suitable for feeding, since 95% consists of calcium carbonate, which are well absorbed by plants and elements important for their development, such as potassium, silicon, magnesium and phosphorus. However, for greater efficiency, the shell must be dried and ground into flour, otherwise the plants will not be able to assimilate these useful substances. It is important: to make calcium easier to "migrate" into the soil, it is advisable to calcine the shell in the oven before adding.
You need to add 1-2 glasses of crushed raw materials per 1 m 2.
This problem occurs quite often. This is understandable, because a room that has not been heated or ventilated for several months in a row cannot smell good. And if we consider that in these months there were more days with precipitation, then the dampness in the room is quite predictable. It is not difficult to eliminate it - it is enough to ventilate the room well and clean it.
But it happens that dampness is accompanied by mold. Basically it "progresses" in the outer corners of the house. This is a more serious problem. Getting rid of mold is not easy and may require special products. The cause of the appearance of mold is a fungus, which has a bad effect on the human body, getting into the respiratory tract. Therefore, it is important not only to eliminate the mold, but also to determine the cause of its occurrence.