GEOLOGY AND MARINE BIOLOGY
to have a constant view on what happens in the seabed
Man is gradually realizing that the immense expanse of water that is often found in front of him is not a huge landfill or even a huge basin, but the fulcrum on which the existence of our planet revolves. With this in mind, fortunately, new projects and studies are emerging, aimed at better defining the parameters found in marine and oceanographic waters, and studying the changes that are made every day of which we know nothing.
The excellent news is that something is moving in Italy too.
Off the coast of the marine area of the Cinque Terre (in Liguria) a project is underway to place sensors on the seabed for measuring the following variables: wave width, salinity, temperature, tides.
So far nothing new, we often try to characterize marine areas through these parameters but only in the first tens of meters, the difference is that through this project we will be able to have a vision of what is happening on the seabed and constantly. In fact, through a submarine cable, these data are transmitted ashore at the Environmental Education Center of the Cinque Terre Park in Torre Guardiola, where they will be used for the continuous and real-time characterization of the areas. These data will also be associated with the data taken from GPS receivers placed on the surface.
This is only the first step of the project called INSAS and is carried out by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, the NATO Undersea Research Center, the Milan Polytechnic, Tecnomare and ENI.
All this, in addition to providing us with important data on the seabed, has the purpose of measuring the deformation and altimetric variation of these, through vehicles equipped with interferometric Sonar.
It is excellent news, for the Italian and international scientific environment, that finally, even in Italy, projects of this type are starting to expand our marine knowledge.
Dr. Rossella Stocco
Note(1) Image taken from Auto Atlante, Italy 1: 250.000, Geographical Institute de Agostini, 1995
To set a password, first specify a SAS data set in one of the following:
the MODIFY statement of the DATASETS procedure
an OUT = option in some procedures
the CREATE VIEW statement in PROC SQL
Then assign one or more password types to the data set. The data set might already exist, or the data set might be one that you create. The following is an example of syntax:
|password-type = password)|
If you forget or do not know the password, you cannot get the password from SAS.В В
You can use data set options to assign passwords to unprotected members in the DATA step when you create a new SAS data file.
This example prevents deletion or modification of the data set without a password.
This example prevents reading or deleting a stored program without a password and also prevents changing the source program.
Notes: В В В When you replace a SAS data set that is alter-protected, the new data set inherits the alter password. To change the alter password for the new data set, use the MODIFY statement in the DATASETS procedure. В В
You can use the MODIFY statement in the DATASETS procedure to assign passwords to unprotected members if the SAS data file already exists.
You can assign a password after an OUT = data set specification in some procedures.
You can assign a password in a CREATE TABLE or a CREATE VIEW statement in PROC SQL.
You can create or change passwords for any data file using the Password Window in the SAS windowing environment. To invoke the Password Window from the ToolBox, use the global command SETPASSWORD followed by the filename. This opens the password window for the specified data file.
A SAS password does not control access to a SAS file beyond the SAS system. You should use the operating system-supplied utilities and file-system security controls in order to control access to SAS files outside of SAS.
Advanced simulations and 'stress-proof' models help digital bank successfully navigate uncertain scenarios
Rapid access to powerful risk analytics
Banca Progetto relies on predictive analytics and a cloud-first approach to mitigate risk, better serve clients and plan for the future
A number of new players are emerging on the global banking scene. They are not just FinTech startups, but also real credit institutions, which have two main features:
- A marked vocation toward the extensive use of technologies to enable all banking processes, whatever they may be.
- A strong nature of specialization in very specific products and services.
Banca Progetto is one of these players. It formed in 2015, following the reorganization of Banca Popolare Lecchese by Oaktree Capital Management. With offices in Milan and Rome, Banca Progetto operates in the consumer credit and corporate credit market primarily through digital channels and an intensive commercial network of agents and credit brokers present throughout Italy, without branches.
The bank has a business model that is as simple as it is effective: Banca Progetto collects liquidity mainly through deposit accounts in Italy and other European countries and provides only two credit services: medium- and long-term loans assisted by a public guarantee fund to small and midsize businesses and salary- and pension-backed personal loans to individuals. A choice that has positive impact either in terms of risk management implications or on the bank's capital health.
But what really characterizes Banca Progetto is its continuous investment in technological innovation. Banca Progetto is the first Italian bank that has completely outsourced its IT infrastructure to a public cloud, Amazon Web Services (AWS), passing all supervisory controls and obtaining the green light from the control and guarantee authorities. This choice allows the bank to be agile and flexible in its day-to-day operations and to concentrate on core activities, including risk management - which, again, relies on the use of advanced technologies such as SAS ’scenario impact simulator.
SAS spoke with Roberto Russo, Chief Risk Officer of Banca Progetto, to learn more.
It is more important than ever to modify the approach to risk management by focusing on advanced simulations and modeling of reality, moving away from the deterministic approach toward more sophisticated and effective predictive analytics. Roberto Russo Chief Risk Officer Banca Progetto
What sets Banca Progetto apart in the Italian financial landscape?
The high rate of technological innovation is one of the main features. We are the first Italian bank to have chosen - and obtained - the option of moving all our IT infrastructure to a public cloud environment. By choosing AWS cloud technology as the foundation of our innovation, we can better cater to our customers ’constantly evolving needs.
This choice allows us unlimited operational capacity in terms of volume, flexibility and availability of state-of-the-art technology and substantial control over operations. (Governance and responsibility for applications and data remain entirely in the hands of the bank.) Not having to manage the hardware is an element of great agility for Banca Progetto, also in economic terms.
Aligning with AWS becomes an important risk mitigation factor. This is due to the guarantees on service levels and also to the fact that AWS is a player that has necessarily invested in the construction of data centers in Europe. This is a mandatory step to comply with all the strict European regulations and offer high guarantees to customers. For example, we have a redundant business continuity system on three sites - or regions - one of which is in Italy, the other two in the EU.
The process was not simple. Bank of Italy, our supervisory authority, had a rigorous, firm and very thorough investigation into all the aspects of risk analysis. We showed that we were aware of the “world we were heading toward,” and how to govern it.
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the banking sector has faced unprecedented challenges. The decisions that banks and lenders make may determine if they survive the crisis and how strongly they can recover. With economic conditions outside of everyday norms, making business decisions based on historical trends is insufficient. In your experience, how will risk management change after this crisis? What has already changed?
In my opinion, instability, volatility and uncertainty will increasingly be the norm. The only thing that will be certain is change. In such contexts, it is more important than ever to modify the approach to risk management by focusing on advanced simulations and modeling of reality, moving away from the deterministic approach toward more sophisticated and effective predictive analytics.
We have to start from the assumption that there will never be any model that can predict exactly what will happen in reality however, navigating through scenarios of uncertainty requires pragmatic but innovative approaches. In this sense, the very role of risk management must be redesigned, moving from a function of mere control to a function of decision making to support the business.
In our case, we have evolved the traditional approach to risk management based on deterministic models. We have realized that, both for short-term decisions and for those to be assessed with a more prospective view in the medium to long term, it is necessary to equip ourselves with advanced analytics. We are already carrying out advanced simulations to analyze possible scenarios up to 2022. Having such sophisticated and effective risk management tools at our disposal also is a plus for the business in cultivating a constant long-term vision.
What are the reasons that led you choose SAS 'scenario impact simulator?
SAS has been a leader in advanced analytics and risk management for years and has a strong reputation in finance. I've really appreciated SAS 'vision and ability to create a tool suited to the times we live in, in the right timeframe. SAS proved to be fast in proposing technological solutions that, on the one hand, take away the burden of programming, building and fine-tuning the necessary tools from the operators, and on the other hand offer very advanced and effective functionalities with respect to the of those who use the tools themselves (ie, understanding where to go, how and with what risks).
From a business point of view, we chose SAS 'scenario impact simulator because it allows us to understand what decisions to take with the greatest possible awareness. It’s a very sophisticated and rich platform, and one of the advantages I highlight is the support of the SAS people who help us - through training and recommendations - to understand how we can make the most out of the technology.
Today we mainly use it to check the sustainability of operational and strategic business plans, simulating different future scenarios and then analyzing all impacts in these possible scenarios, from the consequences in terms of risk to the analysis of income, assets and liquidity.
We will also be using it shortly for capital planning, the document that will be used by shareholders to determine what further investments to make to support the bank's development. The better we are at simulating and understanding the impact of risk on our prospective portfolio, the more efficiently we will use capital.
Libya, freed fisherman daughter: "I cried, I'm very happy"
"I'm very happy, I'm not in the skin. After all these days and after so many illusions, as soon as I found out this morning I cried. I still haven't been able to talk to him. There are no words to express the emotions I feel." This was told to Adnkronos by Naoires Ben Haddada, the daughter of the second engineer of Medinea, one of the two fishing boats hijacked last July 1st by the Haftar militias and freed today. Naoires, who is 22 years old, is in Mazara del Vallo, in the Trapani area, in recent days her mother and younger sister of 20 years had returned to Montecitorio to protest to ask
"The emotion is really too great. Incredible finally this news has arrived and now dad is back home", he said with a voice broken by emotion, it is Insas Gemmali, the daughter of Farhat one of the 18 fishermen. A wait that lasted over 100 "long" days, Insas underlines at Adnkronos, "but during which we never lost hope. Today I heard him. He told me he was coming back, that they were getting on board, and also he was very excited ". Waiting for dad - "who should arrive by Sunday" he says - are also his mother, two sisters and a little two-year-old brother. "We also told him that dad is coming home - he says - and he was very happy". the immediate release of their loved ones. What will I tell him as soon as I hug him back? "That he must never go back to work, that he must always stay with me", he concludes.
Announced on 28 November 2017 at the Royal Aeronautical Society in London, the E-Fan X was initially planned to fly in 2020. It follows previous electric flight demonstrators: Cri-cri, e-Genius, E-Star and the E-Fan 1.2 . It will anticipate a safe, efficient, and cost-effective hybrid single-aisle airliner. Airbus and Siemens have collaborated since April 2016 on the E-Aircraft Systems House for electric propulsion components, including ground tests. It will help establish certification requirements for electric aircraft. Existing technologies cannot achieve European Commission’s Flightpath 2050 Vision for Aviation goals towards sustainable transports: a reduction of CO2 by 75%, NOx by 90% and noise by 65% new technologies are needed including electrification. 
At the 2018 Farnborough Airshow, Greg Clark, Business and Energy Secretary, announced the UK Department for BEIS will commit a part of the £ 255 million invested to develop greener flight technologies.  At the June 2019 Paris Air Show, Rolls-Royce announced its acquisition of Siemens' electric propulsion branch, to be completed in late 2019, employing 180 in Germany and Hungary.  On 19 August 2019, the compact 2.5 MW (3,400 hp) generator was run for the first time in Trondheim, Norway, before integration with an AE2100 turboprop from a Saab 2000 feeding the battery pack and a Siemens SP2000 electric motor (with a 10 kW / kg power-to-weight ratio) replacing one Honeywell LF507 engine with a Rolls-Royce AE 3007 fan, through a 3,000 volts AC / DC distribution.  By November 2019, the airframe (G-WEFX) had arrived at Cranfield to be modified first flight was then planned for 2021. 
In April 2020, the program was canceled amid the COVID-19 pandemic. 
A BAe 146 flying testbed will have one of its four turbofans replaced by a 2 MW (2,700 hp) electric motor, with provisions to replace a second turbofan. Airbus will build the control architecture and integrate the systems, Rolls-Royce will adapt the Siemens motor and the fan to the existing nacelle, bring the turboshaft, generator and power electronics and Siemens the electric motor and its power electronic control unit, the inverter, DC / DC converter and power distribution. High-power propulsion systems are challenged by thermal effects, electric thrust management, altitude and dynamic effects on electric systems and electromagnetic compatibility issues. 
An inboard 7,000 lbf (31 kN) Lycoming ALF502 is replaced with a same thrust Citation X / ERJ-145 AE3007 nacelle, but with its core replaced with the electric motor and inverter and the C-130J's AE2100 turboshaft in the rear fuselage with its air inlet behind the wing - both using the V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor's Liberty T406 core. While Rolls-Royce is experienced in industrial and naval applications, the 2.5 MW (3,400 hp) generator feeding a 3,000 V DC distribution through its AC / DC converter are firsts in aviation. Airbus supplies a 2 t (4,400 lb), 2 MW (2,700 hp) battery in the cargo holds, a 30 times step up from the E-Fan. The Siemens motor Power / Mass ratio will be higher than the 5.2 kW / kg (3.2 hp / lb) of the 2017 Paris Air Show Extra 330 demonstrator. The motor and generator are not cryogenically cooled and not superconducting for more than 15% of losses but ultimate efficiency is not a prime target. 
The Rolls generator is oil-cooled with supercritical carbon dioxide as the intermediary cooling fluid, building on Rolls-Royce LibertyWorks' power system for the Aurora XV-24A LightningStrike: a high-speed VTOL aircraft scheduled to fly in 2018 with electric distributed propulsion using Rolls' AE1107 turboshaft (with the same AE2100 core) driving three 1 MW (1,300 hp) Honeywell generators. The nacelle outer mold line will be kept to maintain the BAe 146 airworthiness approval. 
A Siemens DC / AC converter power electronics will feed the 2 MW (2,700 hp) SP2000 liquid cooled motor, eight times more powerful than the Extra 330E's Siemens SP260D, the most powerful motor flying now with 260 kW (350 hp) for 50 kg ( 110 lb). The electric machines should attain a 10-times-higher power-to-weight ratio. Pressurization, insulation and separation will avoid the corona effect: high altitude, high voltage arcing. Hybrid electric can offer improvements with present Battery Technologies: using them to boost power for takeoff and climb and electric-only descent would lower fuel burn per sector by double digits, and would reduce noise and local atmospheric emissions. 
Amazon, Apple, Google, and the Zigbee Alliance joined together to promote the formation of the Working Group. Zigbee Alliance board member companies IKEA, Legrand, NXP Semiconductors, Resideo, Samsung SmartThings, Schneider Electric, Signify (formerly Philips Lighting), Silicon Labs, Somfy, and Wulian are also on board to join the Working Group and contribute to the project.
The goal of the Connected Home over IP project is to simplify development for manufacturers and increase compatibility for consumers. The project is built around a shared belief that smart home devices should be secure, reliable, and seamless to use. By building upon Internet Protocol (IP), the project aims to enable communication across smart home devices, mobile apps, and cloud services and to define a specific set of IP-based networking technologies for device certification.
The industry Working Group will take an open-source approach for the development and implementation of a new, unified connectivity protocol. The project intends to use contributions from market-tested smart home technologies from Amazon, Apple, Google, Zigbee Alliance, and others. The decision to leverage these technologies is expected to accelerate the development of the protocol, and deliver benefits to manufacturers and consumers faster.
The project aims to make it easier for device manufacturers to build devices that are compatible with smart home and voice services such as Amazon's Alexa, Apple's Siri, Google's Assistant, and others. The first specification release of the planned protocol will complement existing technologies such as Wi-Fi, Thread, BLE, and Working Group members encourage device manufacturers to continue innovating using technologies available today.
Because of the reference to SIL and because the ASIL incorporate 4 levels of hazard with a 5th non-hazardous level, it is common in descriptions of ASIL to compare its levels to the SIL levels and DO-178C Design Assurance Levels, respectively.
The determination of ASIL is the result of hazard analysis and risk assessment.  In the context of ISO 26262, a hazard is assessed based on the relative impact of hazardous effects related to a system, as adjusted for relative likelihoods of the hazard manifesting those effects. That is, each hazard is assessed in terms of severity of possible injuries within the context how much of the time a vehicle is exposed to the possibility of the hazard happening (refer ISO262 definition of exposure) as well as the relative likelihood that a typical driver can act to prevent the injury (refer ISO262 definitions of severity and controllability). 
In short, ASIL refers both to risk and to risk-dependent requirements (standard minimal risk treatment for a given risk). Whereas risk may be generally expressed as
ASIL may be similarly expressed as
illustrating the role of Exposure and Controllability in establishing relative probability, which is combined with Severity to form an expression of risk.
The ASIL range from ASIL D, representing the highest degree of automotive hazard and highest degree of rigor applied in the assurance the resultant safety requirements, to QM, representing application with no automotive hazards and, therefore, no safety requirements to manage under the ISO 26262 safety processes. The intervening levels are simply a range of intermediate degrees of hazard and degrees of assurance required.
ASIL D Edit
ASIL D, an abbreviation of Automotive Safety Integrity Level D, refers to the highest classification of initial hazard (injury risk) defined within ISO 26262 and to that standard's most stringent level of safety measures to apply for avoiding an unreasonable residual risk.  In particular, ASIL D represents likely potential for severely life-threatening or fatal injury in the event of a malfunction and requires the highest level of assurance that the dependent safety goals are sufficient and have been achieved. 
ASIL D is noteworthy, not only because of the elevated risk it represents and the exceptional rigor required in development, but because automotive electrical, electronic, and software suppliers make claims that their products have been certified or otherwise accredited to ASIL D,  [10 ]   ease development to ASIL D,  or are otherwise suitable to or supportive of development of items to ASIL D.    Any product able to comply with ASIL D requirements would also comply with any lower level.
Referring to "Quality Management", the level QM means that risk associated with a hazardous event is not unreasonable and does not therefore require safety measures in accordance with ISO 26262. 
Given ASIL is a relatively recent development, discussions of ASIL often compare its levels to levels defined in other well-established safety or quality management systems. In particular, the ASIL are compared to the SIL risk reduction levels defined in IEC 61508 and the Design Assurance Levels used in the context of DO-178C and DO-254. While there are some similarities, it is important to also understand the differences.
|Domain||Domain-Specific Safety Levels|
|Automotive (ISO 26262)||QM||ASIL-A||ASIL-B||ASIL-C||ASIL-D||-|
|General (IEC 61508)||-||SIL-1||SIL-2||SIL-3||SIL-4|
|Railway (CENELEC 50126/128/129)||-||SIL-1||SIL-2||SIL-3||SIL-4|
|Space (ECSS-Q-ST-80)||Category E||Category D||Category C||Category B||Category A|
|Aviation: airborne (ED-12 / DO-178 / DO-254)||DAL-E||DAL-D||DAL-C||DAL-B||FROM THERE|
|Aviation: ground (ED-109 / DO-278)||AL6||AL5||AL4||AL3||AL2||AL1|
|Medical (IEC 62304)||Class A||Class B||Class C||-|
|Household (IEC 60730)||Class A||Class B||Class C||-|
|Machinery (ISO 13849)||PL a||PL b||PL c||PL d||PL e||-|
IEC 61508 (SIL) Edit
ISO 26262 is an extension of IEC 61508.  IEC 61508 defines a widely referenced Safety Integrity Level (SIL) classification. Unlike other functional safety standards, ISO 26262 does not provide normative nor informative mapping of ASIL to SIL. While the two standards have similar processes for hazard assessment, ASIL and SIL are computed from different points. Where ASIL is a qualitative measurement of risk [ citation needed ], SIL is quantitatively defined as probability or frequency of dangerous failures depending on the type of safety function. In the context of IEC 61508, higher risk applications require greater robustness to dangerous failures.
That is, for a given Tolerable Risk, greater Risk requires more risk reduction, i.e., smaller value for probability of dangerous failure. For a safety function operating in high demand or continuous mode of operation, SIL 1 is associated with a probability of dangerous failure limit of 10 −5 per hour while SIL 4 is associated with a probability of dangerous failure rate limit of 10 −9 per hour .
In commercial publications, ASIL D has been shown aligned to SIL 3 and ASIL A is comparable to SIL 1. 
SAE ARP4761 and SAE ARP4754 (DAL) Edit
While it is more common to compare the ISO 26262 Levels D through QM to the Design Assurance Levels (DAL) A through E and ascribe those levels to DO-178C these DAL are actually defined and applied through the definitions of SAE ARP4761 and SAE ARP4754. Especially in terms of the management of vehicular hazards through a Safety Life Cycle, the scope of ISO 26262 is more comparable to the combined scope of SAE ARP4761 and SAE ARP4754. Functional Hazard Assessment (FHA) is defined in ARP4761 and the DAL are defined in ARP4754. DO-178C and DO-254 define the design assurance objectives that must be accomplished for given DAL.
Unlike SIL, it is the case that both ASIL and DAL are statements measuring degree of hazard. DAL E is the ARP4754 equivalent of QM in both classifications hazards are negligible and safety management is not required. At the other end, DAL A and ASIL D represent the highest levels of risk addressed by the respective standards, but they do not address the same level of hazard. While ASIL D encompasses at most the hazards of a loaded passenger van, DAL A includes the greater hazards of large aircraft loaded with fuel and passengers. Publications might illustrate ASIL D as equivalent to either DAL B, to DAL A, or as an intermediate level.