The narcissus - a symbol of female beauty and fertility in ancient Jewish culture - became the prevailing flower in Christian Easter celebrations to underline the promising rebirth of happiness and joy personified in the resurrection of Jesus Christ after the inevitability of death. The daffodils were taken up in Christian iconography on medieval illustration books, on altarpieces, in paintings in which the Virgin Mary appeared - such as the 'Madonna dei Narcisi with Child and Donors' (oil on panel, c. 1535) painted by Dutch painter Jan van Schorel (or Scorel) - or the Annunciation or Paradise to celebrate the triumph of God's love and eternal life over selfishness and sin.
Since the narcissus plant - native to Europe, North Africa and Asia - was introduced in China around the year 1000 under the Song dynasty (960-1279) as a bulb exchanged for commodity, the Chinese have been waiting to see its flowers bloom, symbol of luck and prosperity for the new year, a sign of renewed vigor close to the Chinese New Year. Popular housing decoration, welcome gift, the narcissus was depicted by numerous Chinese artists in ink on paper, such as Chen Jiayen in 'Bamboo, Rocks and Narcissus' (1652) during the Qing dynasty (or Ch'ing or Manchu, 1644-1911 ). The artistic modeling of narcissus bulbs has also spread to induce the plant to grow into shapes similar to peacocks, crabs, etc. In the traditional art of Chinese tattooing, the meaning of the narcissus is a symbol of good luck that leads to the emergence of the talent hidden in oneself and to ensure proper recognition in the career as a reward for hard work. Daffodils therefore represent the best gift for those who are trying to gain professional advancement and luck in life. A bouquet of these cheerful flowers, which look like sunbeams emanating from the ground and are celebrating the 10th wedding anniversary, bring happiness. A feeling of joyful pleasure and vital regrowth is conveyed by the lyric dedicated to 'I Narcisi' (1804, published in 1807 in the collection 'Poemi in Due Volumi') by the modern British poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850) recalling the emotion felt during a walk with his sister Dorothy watching an expanse of 'ten thousand' of these flowers fluttering in the wind under the trees on the shore of Lake Ullswater, near the village of Grasmere, in the county of Cumbria.
By superstition, giving a single narcissus flower predicted misfortunes, while collected and brought home would have meant that a single chick would have been born from the eggs laid in the hen house, but the spell was interrupted by instead grouping at least 13 daffodils in bunches. In the US state of Maine, superstitious people were convinced that finding only one narcissus in bloom would stop the others from blooming and that if the first one bloomed facing the viewer, then it would cause bad luck for the rest of the year. The ancient Romans believed that daffodils grew in the depths of the Elysian Fields and then planted them on graves. In the hymn to Demeter - included in the 'Greater Hymns' of the 'Homeric Hymns' (c. 7th BC) - an unseen flower, a narcissus, was about to be picked up by the goddess's daughter, Persephone (or Kore), when she emerged the god Hades from the chasm opened from the underworld to kidnap his niece by forcibly loading her on a golden chariot, pulled by two immortal horses, and lead her to his underground kingdom to marry her.
In Wales, the daffodil - called 'lily of Lent' due to flowering during this time in England - is displayed pinned on St David's Day (March 1), and it is popular belief that its early flowering at the start of the season heralds a prosperous year. Internationally, numerous associations committed to the fight against cancer have followed the example of the Canadian Cancer Society, the first to establish the 'Day of the Narcissus' in Toronto (Canada), in 1957, to raise funds (usually in one day of March), offering narcissus flowers, a symbol of hope in a new life, in exchange for a donation.
In ancient Greece it was believed that the first narcissus - symbol of selfishness, vanity and presumption - had blossomed where the mythical young hunter Narcissus fell in love with the image of himself reflected in a body of water until he died prematurely. in spring by drowning in an attempt to hug each other or, in another version, consumed by yearning, hunger and thirst, sitting alone on the shore. When he was born of a Naiad, Liriope, and the river god Cefiso, the soothsayer Tiresias had in fact predicted his fate to remain immortal until he looked at himself. The myth of Narcissus, present in numerous versions in Greek mythology, was reported by the Latin poet Ovid in the third book of the epic poem 'Metamorphosis' (8 AD approx.) And became recurrent in artistic works in oil on canvas - 'Narcissus' in 1546 -48 by Michelangelo Merisi known as Caravaggio, in 1728 by the French Rococo painter François Lemoyne, in 1937 in the 'Metamorphosis of Narcissus' by the eclectic surrealist Salvador Dalí - and in statues like the one on the north facade of the Louvre, in Paris, sculpted in 1866 by the French sculptor Paul Dubois. In the Greek myth about the tragic love story of Narcissus and Echo it was told that this extraordinarily attractive young man, so proud and proud that, with a cold and detached attitude, he shunned all the young women who were looking for him, preferring to hunt deer alone. . The beautiful nymph named Eco, hidden behind a tree, caught a glimpse of Narcissus and, struck by his beauty, fell madly in love with him. Echo could not speak, but only repeat the last words spoken by the others following the curse of Juno, who had taken away her voice to punish her for the fact that her husband Zeus induced the nymph to ensure that he could distract her in words to betray her with the other nymphs. However, after declaring herself unhappy and saddened following the refusal dictated by Narcissus's arrogance, she consumed herself in tears, pining in such a way that only her voice remained. Scenes depicting 'Echo and Narcissus' were painted over the centuries by many artists, such as around 1629-1630. by the French painter Nicolas Poussin in classical style, in 1903 by the British John William Waterhouse, famous for mythological subjects in Pre-Raphaelite style, as well as in the 'Narcissus and Echo' of the Italian Placido Costanzi (1688-1759) in the late Baroque period and of the American neoclassical Benjamin West in 1805. The goddess of vengeance Nemesis, sorry for Eco's torment, lured Narcissus to a lake to induce him to shatter his fate: bending down to drink in the clear waters, he could not resist looking at his own reflection , he fell in love without hope, he was desperate to not be able to live anymore and, in fact, he vanished as a result of divine punishment. When his Naiads sisters arrived to proceed with the burial, they found a beautiful fragrant yellow flower with a white heart in place of his body: the gods did not want to forget the beauty of the one who had been the most attractive of all. Even today, the term 'narcissist' means one who suffers from the 'Narcissus complex', loves only himself and not others.
Narcissus Meaning: Toxicity
Daffodils were considered symbols of purity by the Druids - the Celtic class of priests located in much of central Europe and on the British Isles between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. - however, the legend spread that they had become poisonous after absorbing so many evil thoughts from men. But due to the alkaloid content (lycorine, galantamine, etc.) - in the leaves and especially in the bulbs, in which narcissin is concentrated, the narcissus is really a poisonous plant. These toxic chemicals combined with the calcium oxalate crystals contained in the lymph cause urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis (cracking, peeling, erythema in the hands, subungual hyperkeratosis, i.e. thickening of the skin under the nails) mostly to workers in the floricultural sector (bulb growers, florists). In the perfumery sector, reactions may arise in contact with the essence of narcissus, with its sweet and intoxicating scent, resulting in serious allergy problems (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, etc.), even with a lethal outcome. Ingestion of the bulb causes neuronal disorders, severe multisystem symptoms (hypothermia, tremors, convulsions), gastrointestinal irritation (vomiting, severe gastritis, diarrhea) to be treated within 24 hours in grazing animals and humans in order not to risk a bad outcome. Accidental poisoning can occur by mistaking narcissus bulbs for onions, as happened in 2009 to pupils of Gorseland Primary School in Martlesham Heath, County Suffolk, England, after consuming soup during a cooking class. Starting from the 7th-9th century, it seems that the ancient Japanese traditional medicine Kampo, a re-adaptation of the Chinese herbal medicine, treated wounds with a mixture based on narcissus bulb and wheat flour.
Psychological significance of the myth
It is said that Narcissus, crossing the Styx to reach the kingdom of the dead, he leaned over the waters of the infernal river to admire, one last time, his reflected face. Despite the "punishment", the young man perseveres in his behavior but the legend of Narcissus ed Echo it is the story of two opposites. The young man is unable to look beyond himself, while the nymph is unable to focus on himself.
Two behaviors, therefore, equally harmful and unbalanced but that border on an excess and a defect. Narcissus is the view, Echo the voice. The young man is closed in his egotistic walls: he is unable to communicate, he is deprived of the tools that disregard universal communication. Echo instead, it is the perennial communicative message, empathy, the voice, which cannot stop a call, even if it is useless. The term narcissism has now entered common use.
In psychology there is both a healthy narcissism, indicating a healthy self-love and a pathological narcissism: an insane self-centeredness caused by a disturbance of the sense of self. Such pathological narcissism is a personality structure that originates in the infantile world, through what is defined narcissistic wound, generated and associated with a sense of shame.
The future narcissist tends to be a child whose childhood is characterized by a family that ignores, humiliates or represses his interests. Hence the craving for recognition, praise and the absence of empathy. Narcissus ed Echo they are, therefore, two sides of the same coin: the surplus of love for oneself, the absence of love for oneself or for the other leads to extreme, narcissistic forms of realistic visions of reality. It is only when there is a healthy love for oneself that it does not cross over into alterations, in excess or in defect, of reality.
Meaning of flowers: Hyacinths and Narcissus
By Irene | Thursday 29th July 2010
How about you know the meaning of two flowers which bloom during the spring and decorate flower beds, gardens and which are very popular as cut flowers? I'm talking about Hyacinths is Daffodils. The Hyacinth it blooms at the beginning of spring and it can be cultivated both outside, in the garden, and at home. Its flowers are a lot scented and the colors range from rose to the lilac, atlight blue. They were already cultivated by the ancient Greeks and Romans, and it was a typical tradition of Sparta celebrate during the flowering of the Hyacinths and the girls adorned themselves hair with crowns of these flowers on the occasion of the wedding of some family member.
What is the meaning of the hyacinth?
Depending on its color, the meaning changes, but in general this flower is a symbol of fun is game. It is the ideal from give away to a friend, or to a person we find nice.
The red hyacinthinstead, it is a symbol of ache.
According to the Greek mythologist, Hyacinth was a boy of extraordinary beauty even the god Apollo fell in love with him.
The two young people were always together, but also Zephyr he was in love with Giacinto, and driven by jealousy caused the death of Giacinto.
One day, in fact, while Apollo and Giacinto were playing discus throwing, Zephyrus deflected the wind. Hyacinth he was hit in the head by the disc and died.
Apollo transformed Hyacinth in a flower purple-red in color, to remember the blood of her beloved.
The Narcissus represents vanity and excessive self-esteem. There legend of this flower is known by all, and also in this case it dates back to Greek mythology.
Also Narcissus it was a very beautifull boy, of which all women do fell in love.
But he was a lot vain and he proved indifferent to their sufferings and yearnings.
Even a nymph, Echo fell madly in love with Narcissus who though he pushed it away.
Eco took refuge in one cave where he was consumed to such an extent in his pain that only her remained voice.
The gods decided to to punish Narcissus.
While yes mirrored in the waters of one pond, did not recognize his image. Yes fell in love of that face and remained bent over the water for a long time trying to touch the face that he saw reflected.
Eventually he fell into the pond and drowned. At the point where Narcissus he had been bent over to look at himself the flower was born symbol of vanity.
THE flowers speak with their language and they are not always beautiful words. Some flowers and seedlings have a negative meaning and in former times, they were used to send unpleasant messages, disliking, dislike and sometimes even of hate.
In this article you will find historical notes on the custom of sending messages through the gift of a flower.
Anemone: I feel you are distant.
Balsamine: there are difficulties in our relationship.
Leon's mouth: you are not my type! Marigold : you gave me great pain.
Bluettes: will you make me happy?
Fuchsia: I am a thrifty person.
Pink geranium: you are a foolish person.
Carnation striped: this is a no!
Red carnation: you are a hateful person.
Sunflower: our love is unstable and confusing. White jasmine: I am a shy person .
Narcissus: you are a selfish and vain person.
Hydrangea: you're too far away! Red poppy:you are a cruel person.
Primrose: I'm not a gullible person.
Daisy: please make up your mind!
Pine tree: you are a merciless person.
Red rose: I love you and you? Dandelion: don't ask, now is not the time.
Speronella: it is useless to woo me, stop it!
Violet: I am a modest person.
Mistletoe: will we overcome the difficulties?
Elegant Zinnia: did you like my gift / message? (coquetry).