Caring for violets at home: watering, transplanting, feeding, reproduction
Houseplants Published: September 10, 2012 Reprinted: Last edits:
Violets - this is my mother's long-standing and, fortunately, mutual love. Why she adored these particular flowers, I could not understand for a long time. I myself love plants with a dense crown, large, bright. And violets - they are small, what is so much in them, I thought ...
And then I realized that I didn’t understand anything. Every year new varieties of violets appeared in our home collection, one more beautiful than the other. I myself did not notice how I got carried away with violets and began to exchange cuttings and leaves with my friends in the hope of growing a species that we did not have yet. From grandmothers selling shoots, I found more and more original varieties in terms of color or shape. But it is simply impossible to collect violets of all existing varieties in a collection!
It is a great relief for the collector that the rules for caring for violets (or saintpaulias) of any species and varieties are almost the same, but they must be adhered to.
Violets are tender and thermophilic plants. Caring for a violet at home means having enough light. If you do not have well-lit areas in your house, it is better not to plant violet flowers, since the growth and flowering of Saintpaulias depends on the amount and quality of lighting.
If you have many windows, choose a location in your home that has the most diffused soft light. Violets should be placed on the southern windowsill with caution, since they do not like direct sunlight, so on the southern windowsill you need to shade them: cover the window with curtains to the height of the flowers.
If you spend a lot of time in the kitchen, you can place flowerpots with saintpaulias in the same place. Firstly, you will be comfortable from their presence, and secondly, violets like high humidity and good light in the kitchen.
If your home violets don't have enough light, they may look pale and sluggish. The leaves will stretch upward, the stalk will lengthen, which means that the harmonious shape of the rosette will be disturbed.
In winter, violets in the evening would be nice to illuminate the flowers with fluorescent lamps, because for violets, daylight hours should last 13-14 hours.
The shops sell special soil for violets. It is very lightweight. But when watering, difficulties arise: the water does not soak it, but flows down the surface of the soil between it and the walls of the pot.
How to be? My mother has been growing indoor violets for 30 years, and when she just started breeding Saintpaulias, there were no special mixtures for sale in stores. And wow, violets grew. And my mother picked up the earth in the garden, sifted it, added a little sand, roasted it in the oven to kill the spores of the fungus and the larvae of insect pests). And one more thing: at the bottom of the pot there should be a thick layer of drainage (expanded clay) so that the roots breathe and the water does not stagnate in them.
Even the largest domestic violets look like small plants, and even if in some large species the aerial part (leaves, flowers) is lush and stately, the root system of all violets still takes up little space in the pot. Therefore, a large pot of Saintpaulia is not needed: in a spacious flowerpot, it will grow for a long time and will not bloom soon.
But too small a container will not allow the plant to fully develop. So the diameter of the pot for young outlets and children should be 5-6 cm.An adult flower will need a flowerpot with a diameter of 10-12 cm.
In addition, the size of the flowerpot depends on the type of violet. And they are in size subminiature (outlet less than 7cm), miniature (less than 20cm) and large (more than 40cm). Experienced violet lovers use this rule: the diameter of the pot should be 3 times less than the diameter of the flower rosette itself.
The main reason that prevents many people from planting violets is ignorance of the rules for watering this plant, because Saintpaulias are surprisingly capricious in this matter. They do not like drafts, frequent watering, or excessive drying out.
I water the violet plants 1-2 times a week (depending on the season). I use soft, settled water at room temperature. Some novice lovers of Saintpaulias water them, like other flowers, directly from above into the ground. But this must be done extremely carefully. Moisture should not get either on the violet leaves, nor, even more so, on the flower growth points. Stagnation of water on cuttings or leaves leads to their decay.
I prefer to water violets not into the ground, but pouring water into a pan up to 2/3 of the height of the pot. For flower growers, this is called "bottom watering". But in no case should you leave water in the pan "in reserve". Roots should breathe, not float! Therefore, 20-30 minutes after the soil is saturated with moisture, I drain the rest of the water.
Violets should not be sprayed, but like other flowers, they love moist air. Therefore, place a container of clean water next to the flowerpots, or put pieces of damp cloth or a wet sponge.
Once a month or two, you can wash the violets under the shower to wash off the dust, but after that you need to dry them very well: let the water drain, blot the remaining drops, make sure that moisture does not remain on the points of flower growth.
Reproduction of violets
Violets reproduce well by cuttings. Moreover, I planted some cuttings directly in the ground, without first growing the roots. These Saintpaulias were well received and grew rapidly.
Leaves with young roots must be planted with great care so that these delicate roots are not damaged. The stalk is planted in a mixture for Saintpaulias at an angle of 45 degrees and covered with a transparent cap so that it is kept in greenhouse conditions until new leaves appear. Read about breeding violets by dividing a bush.
It is recommended to renew the soil at Saintpaulia every 3 years. In fact, I will replant most of my violets after a year, removing all the old, exhausted and diseased violet leaves, refreshing in the shower and replacing the old substrate with a new one, and leaving the pot the same.
It is necessary to feed the violet only during the period of flowering growth; in the autumn-winter months, it is better not to overload the plant with excess minerals.
In general, for the full development of a violet, phosphorus and potassium (for forcing flowers) and nitrogen (for leaf growth) are needed. Young plants need nitrogen-containing fertilizers more, and already formed ones need potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. If an adult plant is "overfed" with nitrogenous fertilizers, it will not bloom.
Diseases of violets
Diseases of Saintpaulias can be the reason for improper care of them. Due to too dry air or direct sunlight, the leaves can turn yellow and dry out. If violets are cold or too humid, their leaves and roots will rot, and this is accompanied by diseases such as gray rot and fusarium.
From infectious diseases, the violet is sometimes affected by powdery mildew. From pests - ticks, aphids, thrips, nematodes, puffs.
Diseased leaves must be removed, and those that remain must be treated. Depending on the disease, I use Fitoverm, Agravertin, Fundazol.
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Shade-tolerant Plants on F Gesneriaceae
Indoor violets - favorite home flowers
Violets are houseplants that many people love. Its other name is "Saintpaulia". Violets can be found in almost every home; they prefer to grow it because of its beauty and easy care.
As a houseplant, the violet began to be grown only at the beginning of the twentieth century. But during this time, a large number of flower growers fell in love with her. Violet blooms almost all year round, perhaps because of this she sympathizes with flower growers. But for long-term flowering, you need to properly care for the plant and follow all the rules for its maintenance, which is quite simple to do, since violets are unpretentious.
Flower shops currently offer a wide range of violets to choose from. The many different petal colors, leaf shapes and sizes of this beautiful flower will delight anyone. But these are, of course, hybrids intended only for the home.
Growing a plant from seeds
Episation is most often grown from seed. They are best sown in late January or early February. Already in summer, a tropical plant will delight you with bright, beautiful flowers. It should be borne in mind that when sowing seeds, part of the varietal traits is lost.
Episode seeds are best sown in a nutritious, loose, ready-to-use medium without subsequent embedding, placed in a small plastic container or cup.
Cover the container with seeds with plastic wrap or glass and make sure that the air temperature does not drop below + 20 ° C.
After about 13-15 days, the first shoots appear on the soil surface. In 20-23 days after sowing, the seedlings can already be dived.
Episode care at home
Episcia is a light-loving plant. But when choosing a place for its cultivation, a reasonable measure should be observed. Excess sun rays discolor the variegated leaves of the plant. And direct sunlight dries them up and depress the episode as a whole. The best place for her is the windows of east and west orientation, traditional for most houseplants. It is not uncommon for an episode to be grown near the northern windows, if they are not shaded by trees and buildings. South windows are not very suitable for placement due to the excess of the sun. But even in rooms with south-facing windows, it can be grown with no less success by placing the flower not on the windowsill, but next to it so that direct sunlight does not fall on it. Considering that the episode is an ampelous plant, it can be placed in a hanging planter and hung in the wall between the windows. As well as an excess of light, and its lack can negatively affect the variegation of the leaves of the plant. The episode suffers especially from the lack of light in winter. Therefore, during this period, artificial illumination is desirable.
This flower perfectly tolerates high indoor temperatures regardless of the season. There is no need to create special temperature conditions for the episode. In summer, it will calmly endure the heat and + 30-35 degrees. In winter, you don't need to do anything special either. The episode does not have a pronounced rest period. But it should be borne in mind that the lower temperature limit for it is +16 degrees. The optimum temperature for growing is + 22-24 degrees.
Watering and humidity
Watering the episode should be done only as needed. Waterlogging, as well as overdrying the soil, can equally harm the plant. In the warm season, when the flower is in the active phase of development, it should be watered regularly, immediately after the top layer of the earth in the pot has dried. In winter, the development of the episode slows down somewhat and watering should be reduced, watering on the 3-4th day after the layer dries. Excess moisture during this period can harm the roots of the plant.
Note. Watering the episode should be done carefully, avoiding getting water on the leaves. It is better to use a watering can with a thin spout, for root watering, or use the bottom watering method through a pan.
Normal air humidity is very important when caring for an episode at home. She does not tolerate dry air. Traditional spraying to increase air humidity is unacceptable. Moisture should not get on the leaves of the plant. They can rot from this. Therefore, you must use any other method of humidifying the air. They are described in the article Air humidity for indoor plants. But the easiest way is to put a flower pot in a tray with wet expanded clay, pebbles, moss.
Fertilizers are applied only during the warm season, during the period of active development of the episode. She is fed every 10-14 days. For this, both specialized fertilizers for gesneria and complex fertilizers are used.
Note. If complex or organic fertilizers are used, then they should be diluted twice as much as indicated in the fertilizer instructions.
This plant has a superficial root system and low, wide pots are best suited for planting-transplants. Given that it grows quickly, annual spring transplants should be carried out. The soil mixture for transplanting can be used the same as that used for transplanting violets or streptocarpus. If there is a desire and opportunity, then the land for the episode can be compiled independently at home.
- Land sheet two parts
- Horse peat one part
- Coarse sand one part
It is advisable to add a little crushed charcoal or activated carbon and chopped sphagnum moss.
It is imperative to create high-quality drainage.
Given that the episode develops quickly, you can soon get a large and lush, but ugly and unkempt bush. Like chlorophytum, it forms daughter rosettes on the mustache shoots, which can successfully root from the pot, adding untidy splendor to the plant. This is good for a young and not particularly lush plant, but not acceptable for an adult. So keep an eye out for rosette shoots and cut them off periodically. They can be used for reproduction, or planted in a pot to a young flower.
Reproduction of the episode
The plant can be propagated by seeds, rosettes and cuttings. In amateur floriculture, seed propagation is used extremely rarely due to its inefficiency and complexity. The easiest way to propagate an episode is by rooting a child socket. To do this, it is enough to put a small pot with a mixture of peat and sand next to a pot with an adult plant, choose a tendril shoot with a rosette and dig it in without cutting off the shoot. Rooting of the outlet will happen quickly. After a couple of weeks, it will give its roots and the antennae can be cut off. The rooted socket can be transplanted into permanent ground immediately.
It is just as easy to propagate the episode by cuttings. The stalk is cut from a young, developed lateral shoot. The cutting intended for rooting should have 3-4 nodules. Further, everything is very similar to the propagation of violets by a leaf. The easiest and most visual way is to put the cutting in water and monitor the growth of roots. After they grow at least 0.5 centimeters, it can be planted in the ground. You can immediately plant an episode stalk in the ground, covering it with a transparent cap. Such rooting also occurs quickly.
The indoor Decembrist can be affected by fungal diseases, the causative agents of which can be in the infected soil. Most often, zygocactus suffers from late blight, phytium and fusarium. In the affected plant, the root collar begins to rot, as a result of which the segments become gray, pale, wither and fall off. The disease develops even more when the soil is waterlogged and if the flower stands in a draft. At the first signs of a disease, watering should be reduced and the bush should be treated with fungicidal preparations.
Of the pests on the Decembrist can settle:
Pests and diseases on the plant appear mainly due to dry indoor air, contaminated soil, waterlogging of the soil, growing a flower in a draft.
Problems of violets in pots
Like all life on planet Earth, Saintpaulias have their own problems. They can get sick or suffer from pests.
The problems (and their reasons) for this flower may be as follows:
- Rot at the roots. It appears due to waterlogging of the ground or damage to the roots by a parasite. The way out is plant rejuvenation.
- Leaf spot. Occurs due to sunburn or due to the ingress of water on foliage.
- Powdery mildew. Fungal disease that appears due to violations of the rules of care. It is treated with specialized preparations and temporary isolation from other flowers.
- Late blight. Fungus that occurs due to excessively high humidity. It is treated with rejuvenation.
Saintpaulia can suffer from living things - parasites:
- Nematode. A pest that feeds on plant sap. There is no salvation from him, the flower must be destroyed, and the pot must be disinfected.
- Mite. The most common parasite. The leaves are entangled in its web, become brittle. Get rid of it with a specialized tool.
- Sciarids. Due to the high humidity, their larvae start at the roots, midges begin to eat the leaves. Destroyed by insecticides.
For a plant such as a violet, care at home needs careful attention. Not to say that she needs something particularly difficult. It is not for nothing that it is her more often than other colors that can be found in houses and apartments.