Toru Iwaya - Artist - Works
Toru Iwaya, the works
STYLE: CLOWN POIRROT
Accordionist in exile
Original title: Bou Mei No Akoudeon Hiki - Accordionist in exile
Dimensions: 19.4 x 13.5cm
Circulation: 75 pieces, numbered and signed
Technique: etching, 3 plates used for printing (destroyed after printing)
If you would like more information, write to Toru Iwaya ([email protected]) (in Italian, English or Japanese).
If you are an artist and you wish to publish your works on this site, write to the address [email protected]
The «Proieizioni» by Bruno Munari. Pt. II
... Luca Zaffarano's story on Munari's "Projections" continues, trace of the intervention on Bruno Munari's Projections which was held on June 3, 2014 as part of the international study day that the Museo del Novecento in Milan dedicated to the artist and as part of the «Munari Politecnico» exhibition at the Museo del 900 in Milan, curated by Marco Sammicheli and Giovanni Rubino.
Continuous focus projections.
The first exhibition in which Munari presents the continuous focus slides was held in Milan at the Galleria del Fiore in May 1955, although previously, to be precise in February 1954, the magazine Domus published a photograph of a specimen of a slide prepared just for the multifocal projection . The invitation to the Milanese exhibition announces that the artist "will project his recent fixed color compositions in variable colors such as day and night with two continuous fires ".
In the double photograph (of the following figures) of a multi-focal slide from 1952 it can be seen that the composition is made with layers of yellow plastic materials on a red background. A skein of film tangled like a kind of cloud emerges from the slide. The development in the space of the micro composition allows not to have a single point of focus of the image, allowing you to create images that are very different from each other. The gradual displacement of the focus allows a virtual movement, a kinetic and chromatic effect which, despite its short duration, can take the form of an abstract film.
The first image directly recalls the ambiguous and mathematical form of the Concave-convex suspended in an evanescent atmosphere of blurred color. The second image recalls the motif of a very organic composition. The continuous movement of the focus from the first to the second image allows the artist to create a painting of a film system.
In 1959 Munari designed a boxed game for the Danish company in Milan, which was given the name of Box for direct projections. In the package leaflet Munari states that the package contains: "all the material needed to make small transparent compositions to be projected in color (such as those that Munari has projected in New York and Stockholm, in museums and in private homes) a new technique for visual art ".
In the following photograph you can see one of these works from the Vodoz-Danese Collection in Milan and notice how the composition obtained by superimposing colored and transparent material emerges from the slide frame.
Film painting, polarized and light boxes
In 1952-1953 Munari created another variant, rotating a Polaroid filter in front of the projection lamp. The polarized lens has a microscopic crystal structure that acts as a filter for all those frequencies that do not cross the material with perpendicular incidence. Therefore, by moving the filter in front of the projector lamp, an infinite number of continuous variations can be obtained.
Painting can also disappear as long as the art remains, Munari writes in the 1961 Bompiani Literary Almanac.  In the 1960s Munari will continue this research by first producing bright boxes of polarized painting called Polariscop and then producing short films of experimental cinema that illustrate certain results of experimentation in the perceptual field.
This research stems from the exploration of the possibilities offered by the Polaroid filter. The film produced by the American company consists of transparent sheets that have the characteristic of filtering some components of the light spectrum based on the degree of incidence of light. Munari therefore thoroughly studies this material to identify its characteristic properties and to understand how this industrial product can be used in visual communication and, obviously, with what aesthetic results.
The effect of the Polaroid filter becomes visible by placing colorless material between a sandwich of filters, in particular with the rotary movement of the one closest to the observer, a virtual movement of the composition created by the artist is created. Some of these light boxes named Polariscop they have a single Polaroid filter on the bottom and a switch to turn on the neon light placed inside the work. The composition, made with material fixed to the bottom - a bottom made up of a slab of polaroid - looks just like in figure 14, that is, unattractive and hardly convincing. The viewer is given a transparent disc - the second filter polaroid - suggesting to bring it in front of your eyes, rotating it as you like while observing the work. The wonder is often revealed in a sudden explosion that leaves no doubt about the pleasantness of the experience.
In hindsight, this simple experiment contains two crucial characteristics of the way of understanding art and its social usefulness. On the one hand, the surprise, the spectacular act as a very strong lever in order to bring the public closer to the poetics of a highly innovative and non-traditional artist. On the other hand, the pictorial composition, made with poor material, almost from nothing, arises from the action of the spectator himself who is operationally involved in the process of image formation. The artist is assigned the task of creating a framework, a work space and well-defined rules (a certain material, a given composition, rules of use), the viewer is instead assigned the task of creating at will, for pure aesthetic satisfaction, a painting that adapts to his own sensitivity, without forcing or impositions. By rotating the outermost filter it is in fact possible, in the 360 degrees of a complete revolution, to obtain innumerable shades from the decomposition of the light that passes through the colorless plastic material and the two layers of polarizing filter of the sandwich.
Munari has never been a painter in the most traditional sense. It has always been so in its own way, through unusual, innovative methodologies and approaches, open to technology and innovations.
A multiplicity of images
Painting is no longer an image, but a multiplicity of images, no longer static. These experiences offer us the opportunity to reflect on the very shape of the world, a dynamic world, in constant evolution, which can only be represented and understood through a (poetic) staging of this same continuous transformation. If reality does not rest, to paraphrase the futurist Boccioni, painting, emerging from the frame of a painting, becomes a space that can be visited, crossed, immaterial, becomes an environment of light, it is a visual, spatial, total and enveloping experience. In Munari's art - as was pointed out by the critic Carlo Belloli - "it is difficult for one of its objects or images to stand still for long: everything moves, either due to the air, or due to the optical effect, or other possible stimuli "  .
Language has the triple dimension of color-space-time as its domain of definition. Through the use of light and projection, luminous environments are created, through the rotation of the polarizing filter virtual chromatic movements are created.
The revival of a chrome-kinetic painting, theorized since the 1920s by exponents of the Bauhaus school, finds a refined reinterpretation in the bright environments of Munari in the early 1950s. The works of the Milanese artist precede many works that, starting from the second half of the fifties, alternate on the theme: from the electropainting of Frank Malina, to mobiles luminous by the Italian Nino Calos, to the chromo-kineticisms of Gregorio Vardanega and Martha Boto, to the playful, civic and collective experiences of the Parisian group of the G.R.A.V. (Groupe de Recherce d’Art Visuel), to the works of Julio Le Parc, Heinz Mack, Nicolas Schöffer and many other international protagonists of kinetic currents.
«If you insert a piece of cellophane between two polaroid discs as if to make a sandwich and look at it against the light, you can see that the cellophane, colorless, has taken on various colors. If you slowly rotate one of the two Polaroid discs, the colors change to complementary ones. This is the simple physical phenomenon to be studied. It is a question of knowing: how many colorless plastics are there that give colors? What color do they give? How can they be used? How does the color vary? Is it possible to obtain shaded colors and colors in geometric sectors? What inclination must be given to a certain plastic material to obtain the desired color? How can all this become an object of visual communication, information and expression? How can these materials be altered to have light sensitization? What textures can be made? What happens with the color? "  .
Among the main exhibitions, in which Munari presents polarized projections, we remember the exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in Stockholm in 1958, at the National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo in 1960 accompanied by electronic music by Toru Takemitsu, at the Ruzante Theater in Padua. and in the "Gruppo N" headquarters in 1961, at the 1966 Venice Biennale with a personal room and in the same year at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York, at the collective exhibition "Campo Urbano" in Como in 1969, at the Hayward Gallery in London in 1970 in the collective exhibition «Kinetics» and in many other exhibitions.
 Bruno Munari, Bruno Munari's direct projections, in «Domus», n. 291, Milan, February 1954 Ibid.
 Achille Perilli, Fabio Mauri (edited by), Investigation: death of painting ?, in Bompiani Literary Almanac 1961, Bompiani, Milan, 1960
 Carlo Belloli, Italian Designers. With Bruno Munari, the gallery of characters who have influenced the evolution of the Italian artistical costume continues, in Ideal Standard January 1965 n.1-2, Milan
 Bruno Munari, Design and visual communication, Laterza, Bari, 1968.
The international study day, organized in conjunction with the "Munari Politecnico" exhibition, was organized by Marco Sanmicheli and Giovanni Rubino (curators of the exhibition) and sponsored by the Massimo & Sonia Cirulli Archive of New York with the participation of Pierpaolo Antonello (Univ Cambridge, UK), Zvonko Makovic (Univ. Zagreb, HR), Matilde Nardelli (UCL, UK), Maria Antonella Pelizzari (NY Hunter School, USA), Jeffrey Schnapp (MetaLAB, Harvard, USA), Margherita Zanoletti (Univ. Cattolica, Milan, IT). The projections were the subject of a short conference at the end of the day.
(1) Bruno Munari, slides (with extrusion of plastic material) for dynamic painting installations through a variable focus projection, 1952, collection of the Jacquelin Vodoz Foundation, Bruno Danese, Milan, photo by Artribune (2 and 3) Bruno Munari, two images obtained from the same slide for Multifocal Projection, 1952, Jacquelin Vodoz Foundation collection, Bruno Danese, Milan, photo by Roberto Marossi (4) Bruno Munari, multifocal projection slide, 1952, Jacquelin Vodoz Foundation collection, Bruno Danese, Milan, photo by Roberto Marossi (5) Bruno Munari, a moment of the polarized projection of 1953 on the facade of the Palazzo Ducale in Sassuolo as part of the exhibition «Bruno Munari. Exact fantasy », curated by Miroslava Hajek and Luca Panaro, Philosophy Festival, Modena 2008 (6 and 7) Bruno Munari, two moments of a Polariscop, 1960s, Giancarlo Baccoli collection, Brescia, photo by Pierangelo Parimbelli (8) Bruno Munari, direct screening, 1950, Jacquelin Vodoz Foundation collection, Bruno Danese, Milan, photo by Roberto Marossi.
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TORU IWAYA - WORKS. The artist uses the etching technique in the realization of his works. Writes Toru Iwaya, artist since 1972
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