How to plant a plum: tips and tricks
Growing plums from your own garden is a rather laborious process, but if you apply certain conditions and adhere to all generally accepted planting norms, you can end up with a good harvest of your favorite fruits. How to plant a plum correctly - this question worries many gardeners. To do this, you will need not only to decide on the time of planting a tree, but also to correctly choose a place, a variety of culture and plant it.
When to plant
You can plant a seedling in the fall or spring. Disembarkation times vary by region. If the seedlings manage to root normally before the winter frosts come, then it will be much easier for them to grow and develop even in the cold season. If we talk about the middle zone of our country, then it is not recommended to plant plums in the fall.
That is why most often you can find recommendations for the spring planting of a fruit tree. But under the condition of a not particularly harsh climate, if everything is done correctly, then you can grow a plum tree in central Russia. In this case, you should not overuse dressings in order to prevent excessive overgrowth of branches, and also not to provoke a root burn. It is also not necessary to deepen the planting of a young tree, so that the bark does not overlap, which can adversely affect the growth and fruiting of the culture. Also, you can not tie the seedling with hard material to the support, so as not to damage the fragile bark. These are the recommendations for planting plums in the fall.
You can also transplant the tree into the ground in the spring. Since the first buds have not yet appeared at this time, it is best to plant a tree in your garden in the already somewhat warmed earth on the site. Do not forget to cut off the damaged part of the root system beforehand. Subject to strong soil moisture, it is recommended to plant a plum tree in an elevated place.
How to choose a seat
In order to grow a good viable tree, planted even in spring, even in autumn, it is necessary to choose the right site for planting. The plum variety is largely able to determine the composition that the soil should have for its normal growth and full development. If we talk about varieties that give oblong fruits that have an oval shape, then it is recommended for them to choose clay soil. And, for example, for such an excellent variety of plums, like Renklode, it will be correct to determine the place of planting loamy black soil. If you fertilize the soil well, you can transplant the purchased plum sapling even into dry sandy loam soil. Fat type soil is a good choice for growing plum trees.
In order to feed the future fruit tree, rotted manure introduced into the ground is well suited. For the correct planting of plums, the soil must be cultivated to a depth of about 40 cm. Plums are demanding on the level of acidity of the soil - ideally, it should be neutral. It is easy to control acidity by observing which weeds prefer to grow in the area in your garden. If sorrel, mint, plantain, heather grow there - you are dealing with an increased acidity of the soil, on which, in principle, it is also possible to plant plums if liming is done. To do this, sprinkle the land with lime or ash, then add manure and dig up. When preparing the planting pit, it is made up to 60 cm deep and wide. In addition to manure, compost, double superphosphate, potassium sulfate or ash are added there.
Video "How to Plant Trees in Autumn"
Modern varieties of plums are quite diverse. The decision about which and how much to grow in your garden should be made by the gardener.
We will only tell you a little about the most popular types of plum trees. Belorusskaya is a plum variety, which is a small tree with a rounded crown. Large-sized fruits grow on it, which weigh up to 50 grams and have a sweet and sour taste. Such a crop begins to bear fruit in the fifth year from the moment of planting, and at the age of 10 years it is able to please its owner with a yield of about 30 kilograms from each tree.
Hungarian Plum is a variety of plum that has an average size of both the tree and the fruits themselves. The beginning of fruiting falls somewhere in the fifth year, you can get fruits weighing up to 30 grams. This variety has increased frost resistance, does not impose special requirements on agricultural technology. The maximum yield from this type of fruit tree, as practice shows, can be about 40 kg.
Hungarian Italian - is a medium-sized tree, the fruits of which can weigh from 30 to 40 grams. Under the condition of warm weather, the fruits perfectly retain their shape, but in cold weather, the possibility of cracking is not excluded. The harvest cannot be called regular, because at low air temperatures, the early flowering characteristic of this type of plum leads to poor fertilization. The fruiting period of such a tree begins in the fourth year after planting.
Large-fruited - is a tall tree with a beautiful pyramidal crown, with light yellow fruits that have a certain redness. Their dimensions are quite large, and the weight can be up to 65 grams. Begins to bear fruit in about 4 - 5 years. And closer to the 10th anniversary, you can collect about 25 kg of the harvest of delicious fruits from the tree.
In the fall, you should purchase seedlings and dig them in on your site, making a special trench about 35 cm deep. Cover the roots and half of the stem, laying the seedlings obliquely, fill it with earth. The soil should be compacted and shed with water.
For transplanting seedlings, a smaller hole is required than for an apple tree. Its dimensions should be about 80 cm wide and 50 cm deep. When planting plums, a distance of about 3 meters should be left between the trees. Nearby, it is advised to plant plums of different varieties, since it will be better for them to be pollinated, and the yield will be higher.
After you decide on the variety and place of planting of the seedling, it is time to plant it in the soil. For this, as noted above, a planting pit of a certain size is prepared, where about 10 - 16 kg of compost or manure, 100 - 150 grams of double superphosphate, up to about 120 grams of potassium sulfate or up to 500 grams of ash are introduced. The root collar of the tree after planting should be on the surface of the soil. Since the soil will settle somewhat in the process, the landing site should be 5 cm above ground level. After filling up the roots, compact the soil and pour with two buckets of water. After that, you need to tie the fathoms to the hammered peg using a soft twine, and then mulch with humus, peat or rotted manure.
Video "How to grow a plum yourself"
The video contains detailed tips to help you grow a large and prolific tree.
To grow a fruit crop, you must follow the subtleties and recommendations of experienced specialists. If you create optimal conditions for growth and development, then the tree will thank you with the declared yield.
The composition of the soil mixture
Knowing what kind of soil the cultivated plant likes, it is easier for a summer resident to find a place for planting. The future harvest of seedlings depends on this.
Plum grows well on clay and medium clay soil. If the soil has a high calcium content, then the tree will begin to grow rapidly and bear fruit abundantly. High acidity is detrimental to plums, as is the close occurrence of groundwater.
Breeders breed tree varieties that are adapted and adapted to growing in any climatic conditions. A summer resident, choosing a variety, must take into account the peculiarities of the climate of the region.
Some cultures cannot stand being close to each other. Therefore, when planting a tree, it is important to consider which plants are located in the neighborhood.
You should not plant a plum next to:
The tree tolerates a pear growing aside.
Plum grows well next to cherries, apples, black currants. At some distance, bushes of raspberries, strawberries, shade-tolerant flowers are planted.
Care of seedlings of remontant strawberries?
The seeds should be warm and covered with a film until sprouting. They need to be ventilated twice a day.
Gradually, increasing the frequency of airing, hatching plants must be accustomed to room temperature, and also taken out to the balcony if the outside temperature is above zero.
With this approach, seedlings are easily adapted to planting in open ground.
The moisture level is checked using drops on the surface of the film. If they appear, then the humidity is normal. TO
Apli are periodically wiped off with a dry cloth.
When the seeds germinate, and the first leaves appear on the sprouts, the seedlings will need to be cut open. The seedlings are carefully moved into separate containers.
It is quite difficult not to damage them, because they are still very delicate and fragile, so you need to use thin sticks or toothpicks for transfer. With their help, you can cut seedlings without loss.
Seedlings need to be fed.
You need to do it, guided by the following rules:
- while the sprouts are small, you need to feed them no more than one or two times a month
- regular feeding should be started when at least five leaves appear
- it is necessary to accustom to dressings gradually, and over time, they need to be produced daily.
Watering the sprouts should be moderate. In conditions of insufficient moisture or, conversely, its excess, young plants may die.
Planting strawberry seedlings in open ground
The optimal time for planting remontant strawberries in the ground is mid-May. Beds are being prepared for seedlings.
The best are narrow long beds with a width of about a meter. Plants are planted at a distance of 20 to 40 cm from each other, it all depends on the type of berry and its variety.
It is also necessary to take care of the neighborhood of other plants. Garlic growing nearby can prevent slugs from infesting the berries. And tomatoes should not be grown nearby, because they are susceptible to the same diseases as strawberries.
Planting seedlings includes the following stages:
- Loosening the soil. This will provide better growth and nutrient availability.
- Arrangement of seedling holes. Their depth should be at least 25 cm.
- Subcortex introduction. Organic fertilizers are placed in the hole, including soil mixed with ash and compost.
- Planting plants.
When planting from plants, the lower leaves must be removed. This will help to avoid fumes on hot days and not damage the foliage.
Reconstruction strawberries are known for their productivity. At the same time, planting and caring for this plant is within the power of even a novice gardener.
The most budgetary option is sowing seeds.
We hope now, knowing how to plant remontant strawberries, this tasty and aromatic berry will delight you with a bountiful harvest.
The plant needs care not only in the first year. If the peculiarities of planting plum trees are observed, then it will be easy to take care of them. By following standard farming practices, the grower will get a healthy plant from the young plum.
Strengthening fruit branches with props
So that the grown seedling does not suffer from the abundance of fruits, it is necessary to install supports for the branches with berries.
They use any available material, often branches that are forked at the top. They are installed approximately in the middle of a branch with fruits, slightly lifting it up. Such support will help to avoid scrapping. Especially with strong gusts of wind.
We take care of the near-trunk circle
The soil near the seedling needs care, through which the plum receives nutrients. It is necessary:
- removal of weeds and overgrowth
- watering and feeding.
Weed grass is a carrier of viruses and bacteria, in addition, pests find refuge in it. Therefore, its timely removal will help protect the plum from diseases and insects.
Watering and mulching
Plum loves moisture. Therefore, during the dry period, the tree needs abundant watering. How many times to water a tree per season is definitely difficult to answer. It is desirable that during irrigation the soil is soaked to a depth of 40 cm.
Watering rate for one tree is 4-5 buckets. During the fruiting period, the amount of moisture increases. Often watering is not necessary, it is necessary to moisturize abundantly.
Mulching is practiced by many summer residents, the layer protects young roots from the sun. And in more mature trees, mulch reduces weeds and prevents them from drying out quickly.
Organic fertilizers are applied once every 2-3 years, the first time they are drained does not need them. When planting a tree, humus, peat and mineral dressings are added to the planting pit.
It is necessary to care for the growing seedling in such a way that the tree does not need nutrients. Then it grows well, bears fruit faster.
The fertilizing calendar should contain mineral fertilizers, less often organic matter. It is not necessary to add a lot of nitrogen, the tree will begin to form a green mass, and there will be no fruits and ovaries.
In the fall, during the preparation of plants for winter, phosphorus or potassium is added. If the leaves on the tree turn pale, gardeners recommend spraying them with diluted saltpeter or urea.
In order for the plum to grow properly, it is necessary to form a crown. This is done in the spring or early summer. In July-August, only sanitary pruning is carried out.
When to trim
Summer residents are advised to form the crown in early spring in order to injure the plants as little as possible. Some do it in the fall, after they have harvested all the fruits. The sanitary is done during the entire growth period.
Schemes and pruning technology
Without proper formation, the plum will grow in height, making harvesting much more difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to prune from the first year of the seedling's life.
Various schemes are used. Most gardeners use simple shaping. So that the tree grows short and gives a lot of fruits:
- the first year the seedling is cut in height, leaving the conductor at a level of 1 m from the ground
- the second year, 6-7 skeletal ones are left around the central branch, the length is cut by 10 cm
- the third year, 3-4 lateral branches are left on each skeletal branch, they are shortened
- subsequent years remove all branches that grow inside the crown and reduce the growth.
With the appropriate molding, the plum will give the declared yield, which the summer resident can easily remove from the tree.
Do I need to shelter for the winter
Plum can withstand severe winters in most cases. But it is sheltered in cold weather, this applies to young trees. Older plants are mulched for the winter, covering the root system.
Landing site preparation
This stage should be carried out long before the main part. At least in the fall, if the plum is planted in the spring and, conversely, when planted at the end of the season. Many prepare a pit in a year, experts advise this particular option. The process consists of several important steps.
Where to locate
You can not plant a plum anywhere, it can grow normally and bear fruit only under favorable conditions. Choose a place in advance, free it from bushes, weeds and debris. Observe the requirements that this plant makes:
- Good illumination of the site. In the shade, the tree does not develop well, the trunk is bent, the branches are deformed. Shading is allowed, but not more than a few hours a day.
- The distance to the fence and buildings is at least 3 meters. This is necessary for the normal growth of the tree, the ventilation of the crown, and ease of maintenance.
- The place should be protected from cold winds and drafts. Plum grows poorly and bears fruit in such conditions.
- The depth of the groundwater is not less than 1.5 m. If the water stands closer, the surface root system will begin to rot over time.
- Pick up places on low elevations. The tree should not be heated by melt water in the spring.
- Make the distance between the trees in accordance with the crown size and height. For medium-sized plants, the minimum indicator is 2 m, for tall plants - 3 m and more. When laying a garden between the rows, make a gap of 4 or 5 meters, respectively, plant strictly according to the scheme.
- Do not plant next to plants that create competition for nutrition and have a similar root system. These include: raspberries, sea buckthorn, sweet cherries and cherries, currants, peaches, pears, walnuts, sea buckthorns. The best neighbors are apple trees and other varieties of plums.
Don't forget about the need for pollination. The adjacent tree must be within a 30 meter radius. Often they use a paired planting option, when 2 varieties are selected (from zoned ones, it is advisable to see a photo of the fruits, to understand which plums will grow) and place them close to each other.
Prepare the pit correctly
Light, breathable soil is best for trees. If the land is scarce or there is a lot of clay in it, it's not scary, with proper preparation the plum will grow in ideal conditions. Work to be carried out in six months or a year, to prepare the pit:
- In the selected area, dig a depression with a diameter of 70 cm to a meter and a depth of about 70-80 cm. The shape does not matter, the main thing is to remove the soil.
- If the acidity of the soil is increased, add dolomite flour. It will lower the pH level and serve as an additional fertilizer. You just need to evenly distribute the composition along the bottom of the previously dug hole.
- If there is a danger of flooding by groundwater in spring, it is advisable to make drainage at the bottom. To do this, deepen the hole by 20 cm and pour a layer of broken brick or small stones.
- Prepare a nutrient mixture. To do this, mix in equal parts compost or rotted manure with peat, add black soil (about a third of the total). Pour 75 potassium sulfate and urea, as well as 25 g of superphosphate there. The second option for saturation with nutrients is to add 2 cups of nitrophoska and 2-3 liters of wood ash.
- Fill the hole with of the volume. Spread evenly, tamp with feet or a log. Pour garden soil on top, make a small bump, since the surface will sag in any case. If after a month a hole forms on the prepared place, pour more earth so that there is no deepening.
Even in a fertile area, it is worth preparing a hole, creating ideal conditions for the survival and growth of a young tree. It must be equipped in advance so that the earth shrinks and the tree does not deepen.
How to prepare a hill for landing
If the groundwater is shallow on the site or in the spring there is a danger of flooding, it is better to prepare an elevation in which it is convenient to plant a plum in spring. This option can be used when the garden is located on the north or east side of the slope, as well as in places with very heavy and dense soil. To carry out the work like this:
- Mark out a circle with a diameter of about 2 meters. First, carefully remove the sod from the entire area so that later the grass and weeds do not germinate. It is best to go deeper by about 30 cm, remove all the removed soil, it will not be needed.
- Prepare a nutrient mixture of humus, peat and black soil in equal proportions. Add 3 liters of ash and 200 g of nitrophosphate to saturate with nutrients.
- Pour a layer with a thickness of at least 80 cm. You will get a hill, which over time can sit quite strongly, in this case add more soil so that the hill after shrinkage is from 40 to 50 cm high.
If there is a danger of destruction of the hill, it can be strengthened by placing boards around the perimeter or covering the surface with a lawn. Sodding will make the hill much stronger. Do the further work in the same way, there is not much difference where to place the tree.
Where to plant lavender in the garden: tips and tricks
How to plant lavender on the site
When choosing a lavender variety for planting, it is better to give preference to those that are adapted to the conditions of the region. In this matter, you can turn to local breeders. Lavender does not like frost and this must be taken into account when planting it. The ideal time to plant this plant in the soil is early spring. First, the bush must be placed in water for 1-1.5 hours, and then the apical part must be cut off. Lavender is planted on beds about 40 cm high. The recommended pit depth is 30 cm. All excess roots and branches must be removed. Tall lavender should be given a distance of 120 cm from the next bush, decorative - 30 cm.
Soil for lavender
Lavender of all types grows best in soil that meets these criteria:
Sandy loam or loamy
Before planting in acidic soil, the site must be neutralized with limestone or wood ash. It is also worth adding compost to the soil to ensure the porosity of its structure and increase the level of nutrients. Soil moisture can also affect lavender cultivation. Wetlands or places where groundwater is high are not suitable for planting this plant.
Where to plant lavender
When choosing lavender's neighbors, one should proceed from a combination of aromas. Some combinations can stand out with a pleasant, unusual scent, while others, on the contrary, spoil the wonderful scent of flowers separately. What to plant next to lavender and how does it combine with other flowers? Such questions often arise when planting this shrub, but not everyone finds answers to them.
Planting lavender next to catnip and sage is a good option. In the spring, lilies of the valley and daffodils will do well with it, and in the summer - sweet peas, tobacco and mirabilis.
Lavender comes in a wide variety of colors. For example, lavender Sentiva Earli and lavender Sentiva Blue have a purple hue, but if the former goes more into pink, then the latter goes into blue, and lavender Sentiva Silver is white. This plant looks best with yellow plant colors, such as purple echinacea. But this does not mean that you need to strictly follow these rules. By adding imagination and creativity, you can use other combinations and especially transform the site.
Some features of lavender care
If the climatic zone of the area in which lavender is grown is very cold, then you should not plant it in the soil. For this, a capsho or flowerpot is suitable, which will be easy to transfer to a warm room with a sharp drop in temperature. It is worth paying attention to plant feeding. For starters, you can stock up on mineral fertilizers, which are diluted in water and watered with bushes. Organic and nitrogen fertilizers also have a positive effect on the growth of lavender, but you need to be careful, as they can slow down its flowering. For a better aesthetic appearance, lavender needs to be trimmed regularly, because it grows unevenly. It is necessary to cut off too large shoots and only after the inflorescences have already faded. Such a "lavender carpet" will decorate any area and fill it with an amazing delicate aroma.
How to properly trim a columnar plum
The columnar plum is an excellent solution for those who have long dreamed of planting this tree in their area, but there was a sorely lack of space for this. The fact is that the columnar drain is equipped with small-sized crown, and the shape of the tree is such that it will not take up much space on your site.
Also, a feature of this tree is that plums do not grow on spreading branches, but along the trunk, while the branches on the sides are absolutely useless in terms of fruit. Pruning this kind of plum is done like this:
- In no case, do not allow cutting the central conductor of the tree so that there are no branches, only the side branches need to be cut.
- If the center conductor does not grow well, you can cut it off, leaving a few buds.
- When, with a healthy kidney, one shoot develops from above, the development of the conductor will continue. If it is frozen due to severe frosts, then additional shoots will grow on the plum for prolongation, as a rule, about three. Determine which of these shoots is the most developed, and it leaves, others should be removed.
- If the shoots are of high quality, but they are not needed for the plant, they can be cut off at a length of about 20 cm and used in the future for grafting a tree.
So now you have a basic understanding of pruning plums and why and when to do it. If your tree needs pruning - explore all aspects this process, or invite someone who has not been doing this for the first time to help you to prune your plum as efficiently as possible.