Rape as a siderat: why and how to sow it correctly

 Rape as a siderat: why and how to sow it correctly

Any gardener sooner or later is faced with the need to improve the soil on his site. This problem can be easily solved with the help of green manure, including rapeseed - a crop that has a lot of useful properties and does not require complex care.

Features of growing rapeseed

Growing rapeseed, like any other crop, has its own characteristics that you need to familiarize yourself with in order to provide the plant with the necessary conditions.

Advantages and disadvantages of growing rapeseed (table)

  • the ability to sow twice a year - in spring and autumn;
  • fast germination - sprouts appear 4–6 days after sowing;
  • restoration of fertility and enrichment of the soil with useful substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur);
  • saturation of the soil with oxygen;
  • protection of soil from erosion by groundwater;
  • providing snow retention in winter, in summer - protecting the soil from blowing out;
  • the formation of nutrient biomass;
  • destruction of pathogens of many diseases, in particular - root rot, due to the high content of essential oils;
  • weed control, especially in berry beds.
  • exactingness to the planting site (it grows poorly in heavy and swampy areas, therefore, it will not be possible to improve them with the help of rapeseed);
  • the inability to grow in one place more than 1 time in a row (rapeseed can be sown again in the same place after 4 years);
  • incompatibility with some other crops (after rapeseed, cabbage, turnip, radish cannot be grown, and it is undesirable to sow rape in place of beets, since these crops have common diseases).

On plots previously used for rapeseed, it is subsequently good to grow zucchini, pumpkin, nightshade (tomato, pepper), cucumbers and potatoes.

Rape planting rules

It is worth knowing that there are two types of rapeseed - winter (sown before winter) and spring (sowing in spring), so always clarify which species the variety you have chosen belongs to.

The most popular winter varieties are Hardy F1, Gicolor F1, Adriana, NK Technik, Gerdi F1. Spring varieties include Salsa KL, Jerome F1, Jura F1.

Rules for growing winter rapeseed

You can start sowing winter rapeseed in the second or third decade of August, when the crop is harvested.

  1. Dig shallowly and loosen the area, remove weeds.
  2. Choose a sowing method:
    1. Into pits or grooves. Their depth should be 2–3 cm, and they should be placed at a distance of 15 cm from each other.
    2. Scatter across the field.
  3. Mix rapeseed with sand (3 parts of sand is taken for 1 part of seeds) and sow evenly using the method of your choice over the prepared area. Do not try to sow thickly, as the rapeseed will grow and take up space. The rate of seed consumption per one hundred square meters is 150-200 g.

    Before sowing, it is advisable to mix the seeds of winter rapeseed with sand.

  4. Sprinkle the crops with soil and compact a little. If you are not sowing in the depressions, drill or loosen the soil shallowly to cover the seeds.

Before the onset of cold weather, winter rape should have leaves

At the time of snowfall and the onset of frost, the plant should reach 20–25 cm in height and have at least 6–7 leaves.

For best results, winter rape can be sown together with rye.

Harvesting winter rapeseed usually begins in mid-late May, as soon as the plant has formed green pods. You can compost the mowed tops or bury them in the ground. Some gardeners prefer to water the tops with an EM-preparation (Vostok EM, Humat EM, Tamir, etc.) or water for better decay, and then dig it up. You can plant other crops on the site 2-3 weeks after harvesting.

Rules for growing spring rapeseed

It is necessary to start sowing spring rape early enough - immediately after the snow melts, when the soil temperature reaches -4 ...- 5 aboutC and will contain a lot of moisture. In the southern regions, this period falls, as a rule, in the second decade of March, in colder regions - in mid to late April. It is possible to sow spring rapeseed almost all season, until mid-August.

Spring rape can be sown throughout the season

  1. Dig up the planting site and remove the weeds from the fall.
  2. Prepare the required amount of seeds (150-200 g per 1 hundred square meters). If you want, you can prepare a sand mixture according to the same rules.
  3. Spread the seeds or the prepared mixture evenly over the area, and if you are sowing in late spring or summer, you can make holes or grooves 2-3 cm deep.
  4. Fill the grooves with soil and compact a little. If you sowed rapeseed in an open area in early spring, you can shallow or loosen the soil if conditions permit.

Spring rape grows well with mustard or vetch.

You can mow rapeseed after the pods appear on it.

Spring rape is mowed 1.5 months after sowing, when it reaches a height of 20–30 cm and forms pods. The tops are harvested in the same way as for winter rapeseed.

You can plant other crops in place of rapeseed in 2-3 weeks.

Video: features of sowing siderates

As you can see, sowing rapeseed is not difficult, the main thing is to choose the right seeds and carry out all the work in a timely manner. Follow all these recommendations and you will easily be able to get the desired result.

Planting green manure before winter

We grow all vegetables and berries for the sake of the harvest - fruits, tubers, berries. Plants use a lot of nutrients to produce this yummy. Of course, we apply various fertilizers, but in addition to a set of minerals after vegetables and perennial planting of berries, when they grow in one place for more than three years, the structure and fertility of the soil deteriorates.

The humus layer is depleted, the number of beneficial microorganisms and earthworms decreases. The soil becomes compacted, sometimes it is practically cemented, the roots no longer receive enough oxygen, the plants get sick.

In order to improve the structure and fertility of the soil, the sowing of green manure is used.

What is the value of green manure

- saturation of the soil with nutrients

- restoration of soil organic matter, humus layer

- decrease in the number of pathogens and pests

- delay in the development of weeds

- preservation of moisture in the soil and loosening

- snow retention and prevention of soil weathering

- protection against return frost in spring

Which siderates are better

In fact, there are no ideal siderates - different plantings need their own plants. To explain this is simple - siderates belong to different families of plants and have their own characteristics, for example, to clear the area of ​​keels, after the cabbage, you cannot plant other cruciferous vegetables: radishes, turnips, as well as white mustard or oil radish.

In addition, different plants have different germination times, growing cycles and soil requirements. For example, from legumes, peas grow better on light sandy loam soil, poorly on heavy soil. It is more advisable to plant beans and beans on loam.

Siderata by family

- legumes: lupine, beans, soybeans, lentils, sowing and field peas, alfalfa, sweet clover, spring and winter vetch, clover, fodder beans, sainfoin, soybeans, seradella, peas, chickpeas, clover.

- cruciferous: rapeseed, colza, oil radish, white mustard

- cereals: wheat, rye, barley, oats

- hydrophilic (hydrophilic): phacelia

In addition, siderates of various families have different functionality:

- legumes specialize in fixing nitrogen from the air

- cruciferous and cereals fix nitrogen from the soil, convert other minerals into a more accessible form, prevent soil demineralization

- increase the humus layer with a large leaf mass as a green fertilizer - rapeseed, rape

- lupine, phacelia, buckwheat, oats, alfalfa - can reduce soil acidity

- legumes, annual ryegrass, phacelia, sunflower, white mustard, oil radish, calendula, nasturtium - are able to suppress the nematode and a number of pathogens

- all siderates loosen the soil with their roots, especially lupine, beans, oil radish

- almost all green manure suppresses weed growth due to seeding density or rapid growth

- annual ryegrass, phacelia, sunflower, mustard - also excellent honey plants

Green manure and vegetable compatibility

- Solanaceous plants: potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, bell peppers, and melons: cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, squash - grow well after such siderates as rye, oats, lupine, oil radish, mustard, sweet clover, vetch-oat mixture, rapeseed, phacelia, annual ryegrass.

- The best precursors for beets are mustard, rape, oil radish, vetch, cereals. Poor green manure predecessors: corn and legumes (vetch, alfalfa, lupine, sweet clover, etc.) and rapeseed because of the danger of nematode infection.

- For carrots - all crops are good, but the best are oil radish, mustard, rapeseed, rape.

- Siderata for cabbage, daikon, radish, turnip: sweet clover, vetch, lupine, phacelia, buckwheat, oats, clover, peas, as well as cereals.

- Onions can be planted in beds where buckwheat, lupine, vetch and vetch-oat mixture, barley, phacelia acted as siderates, but in general, any siderates, except for corn and sunflower, can be precursors for garlic onions.

- But garlic is more capricious - for it the best siderates are phacelia and mustard. It is undesirable to plant garlic after any legume siderates

- Before planting legumes (peas, beans), you can sow mustard, oil radish, rapeseed, rape, you cannot - other legumes.

- The best siderates for strawberries: lupine, mustard, phacelia, oats.

What green manure to sow in autumn

If you have already decided how

e vegetables, on which plot, garden bed or greenhouse will be planted for the next season, the main crop is harvested, an urgent need to plant siderates. But not every green manure is suitable for autumn sowing. All have their own characteristics - there are spring crops, there are winter crops.

- Spring crops: oats, oil radish, rapeseed, white mustard, phacelia, which do not hibernate, their roots and aerial parts die off, but they do not completely rot during the winter. In the spring, you need to cut the roots with a flat cutter at a depth of 5–7 cm from the soil surface and mix slightly with the ground. You can shed the soil with a solution of Baikal EM-1 in order to accelerate the decomposition of the green masen sprouted in the spring, and early in the fall, at the end of summer, then it leaves before winter.

- Winter green manures: rye, vetch, rapeseed - they are sown in late autumn, before frosts, so that they will grow small tops.

Siderata before winter

Many spring green manures can be sown before winter. So, phacelia is usually sown in spring, but it is possible to sow it in October-November, after late-ripening crops - carrots, beets, late potatoes, when the site is not threatened by a large invasion of germinating weeds.

The sowing time is calculated so that the seeds do not have time to germinate, and the number of phacelia seeds is increased by 1.5-2 times, since some of them may not sprout - at a rate of 10 g / m2, we take 20 g.

The same applies to sowing mustard before winter, before frosts, it will also rise in the spring and begin work on thawing soil, but you need to sow much denser than in spring.

The advantages of winter siderates are that the plants will sprout earlier in the spring, and they will have time to grow decently before planting the vegetables. We make holes for phacelia or mustard seedlings, for example, for tomatoes. Tomatoes grow like this until early June, while there is a threat of frost - the herbs protect the seedlings from the cold. Then the aerial part of the phacelia or mustard is mowed (it can be easily removed), the roots remain in the ground, the greens are not sealed, but remains as mulch for vegetables.

Sowing dates for green manure in autumn

The choice of green manure for sowing from the second half of summer depends on how much time remains before cold weather and frost and how thermophilic the green manure is. In autumn or at the end of summer, it makes sense to sow only those spring green manures that have time to grow at least 15-20 cm, and cover the ground with a continuous carpet, protecting it from erosion by rains, preventing loss of valuable substances and soil erosion.

In general, spring green manures can be sown until the end of August, in the southern regions - until the beginning of September. You need to understand that the greening of farm fields and a small summer cottage pursue completely different goals. Large fields are sown with almost any kind of crops, including two-year ones, and only when grown in full cycle, they give the maximum enrichment of the land with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other minerals. At the same time, most siderates have a powerfully developed root system, for example, in lupine it is about 1.5 m deep, others grow more than a meter in height. Such green manure is valuable not as a green fertilizer (stems and leaves are too coarse to embed in the soil), but as an improvement in the structure of the soil (loosening and enrichment with nitrogen), as a fodder plant or a valuable honey plant. They are cleaned using powerful technology. In ordinary garden plots, the main purpose of growing green manure is to obtain green fertilizer, populate the vacated beds to protect against weeds, loosen the top layer of the earth, and protect the soil from diseases and pests. At the same time, it is very important to choose a green manure that grows quickly and is easily removed with a garden tool.

Therefore, sowing any green manure does not imply flowering, you can sow any herbs, but as soon as the crops grow up to 15-20 cm, cut everything and embed it in the soil. As a rule, in terms of selection, the cost of seed and its availability play an important role.

Mustard white

White mustard copes with these functions perfectly - it is sown in late summer, early autumn, in view of its rapid growth and tolerance to cold weather, it manages to build up greenery and prevents the loss of nitrogen and other nutrients from the soil. With frost, the plant dies, but it is not necessary to plow it into the ground. White mustard grows poorly on acidic and waterlogged soils.


Oil radish

Another early-ripening cruciferous green manure, great for sowing areas that are free by August, for example, early potatoes.
stet on all types of soils, especially good for heavy soils - loosens and structures. The radish has a small consumption of seeds, it rises quickly (in 4-7 days) and builds up its green mass, it is cold-resistant enough - it has time to grow to frost if sown later. Basal rosette of 4-5 leaves in 2-3 weeks after germination, and flowering in 30-40 days. It is imperative to mow oil radish before flowering. Although yields are greatest during pod formation, radishes are much larger than mustard and have coarser stems, so they are allowed to grow longer on farms and harvested using machinery. An ordinary gardener has a simple tool - therefore, after a month and a half, you need to mow. Like green manure, oil radish is sown in rows, 15 cm between seeds. Seed consumption is about 2-3 g per 1 sq. m.Seeds are planted to a depth of 2-4 cm.

Winter rye

Winter rye, sown in early autumn or late summer, is excellent as a green fertilizer; it will have time to germinate before frost and form lush bushes. She tolerates winter well and already in early spring, continues to grow leaf mass and roots. Two weeks before planting vegetables or berries, the overgrown green mass must be cut with a flat cutter and the rye must be buried in the soil. Winter rye as a siderat has another advantage - it is undemanding to the soil and grows well on all types of soils, including very poor ones. The disadvantage is that it does not fix nitrogen in the soil, but it gives a lot of organic matter. Sowing winter rye should not be too thick, since in spring it sprouts very amicably and too frequent shoots are more difficult to harvest. Can be sown in rows, with a distance of about 15 cm, embedding to a depth of 4 cm.

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Rape is picky about the soil, but in order to improve the structure, it is advisable to use it on heavy soils - sod-podzolic, light and medium loamy and chernozems, although it also grows on sandy loam soils. Strongly not suitable for growing in wet areas. Rapeseed as a siderat is sown in the second half of August, in the southern regions later - after the 20s - the fact is that the rapeseed culture is more tender - if sown ahead of time, the plants outgrow, begin to be affected by diseases, and overwinter badly. The optimal size of the bush, with which the rapeseed painlessly leaves before winter, the rape is about 20-25 cm high and a rosette of 6-8 leaves - it takes about 2 months.

More care is required for rapeseed - this culture does not tolerate a sharp change in weather, when after a sudden thaw (melting of snow) frost again sets in - an uneven flow of water causes root rot.
and the problem arises with excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, if the winter has little snow, you will have to throw snow on the beds with winter rapeseed. Rape is sown to a depth of 2-3 cm. Seedlings appear in 4-5 days. In spring, with a favorable wintering period, rape continues to grow, turns green and blooms by mid-May. They begin to mow it not when the green pods appear, but earlier, two weeks before the planting of the main crop. After rapeseed, you can plant seedlings of peppers, tomatoes, eggplants. The disadvantage of this green manure is not only sensitivity to root rot, but also the mass of diseases and pests that affect cruciferous plants.

It is better to sow buckwheat as a green manure in the spring, since it takes 1-3 months for its development, but it can be sown at the end of summer, in the fall, six weeks before the first frost. It can be sown after potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers. Shoots appear on the 9-10th day. Mow during flowering - first flowers about a month after germination. Blooming buckwheat retains delicate foliage and stems, rotting well. It grows on all types of soils, including poor ones, gives good organic matter, does not store nitrogen in the soil, but converts phosphorus into a form readily available for vegetables. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to get seeds, store buckwheat will not work (it is steamed or fried), green seeds are needed.

Vetch or mouse peas - legumes are used both for organic matter and for saturating the soil with nitrogen, as well as suppressing weeds in difficult areas. Vika is more capricious - it grows only in slightly acidic areas, does not tolerate dryness. Vika is an early ripening plant, it grows well leaf mass, protects vegetables from snails and slugs. It can be planted under any vegetables, including under cabbage, when it is unacceptable to sow cruciferous siderates, but it cannot be planted in front of legumes (peas, beans). Vetch is often included in green manure mixtures with rye, rapeseed, ryegrass and other herbs. The seeding depth is 1-3 cm. It is possible to mow and embed in the soil within 60-65 days after sowing.

Mustard as an environmentally friendly soil fertilizer

Fertilizing the land at the summer cottage is worth not only with chemicals, but also with the introduction of natural remedies: onion husks, eggshells, tobacco, plants, droppings, etc. And you can also fertilize the soil in another way, for example, by sowing green manure. These are plants that improve the quality of the soil, enrich it with nitrogen, and inhibit the growth of weeds. Mustard or synapis belongs to siderates. Two varieties of mustard can be sown for fertilization: white (English) and Sarepta (gray, Russian).

Differences between the two varieties

These two types have some differences between themselves:

White mustard dislikes dry soils, especially during germination and bud formation. When the soil is wet, much more seeds ripen. She does not like wetlands, as well as those with pH. Her first shoots will appear as soon as the temperature rises to + 1 + 2 degrees. This variety does not die with light frosts, when the thermometer drops to -6 degrees. The growing season of the plant lasts approximately 60-70 days.

Before flowering, it grows 50-70 cm, if it is not cut at this time, it can grow up to a meter. Grows much lower on sandy and poor soils.

Russian mustard tolerates drought well, but it will not grow on swampy soil. For its germination, it is necessary that the temperature rises to + 2 + 4 degrees. It tolerates cold worse and can die already at a temperature of - 3 degrees. This variety is slightly taller and has a longer growing season, almost 100 days. In the northern regions, the growing season will be shorter.

The seeds of this species are oval, gray-black or yellow.

Advantages and disadvantages of synapsis

In addition to the fact that synapis fertilizes the soil well, it also performs a number of other functions:

How to improve yields?

We are constantly receiving letters in which amateur gardeners are worried that due to the cold summer this year there is a poor harvest of potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, and other vegetables. Last year we published TIPS on this matter. But unfortunately, many did not listen, but some still applied. Here is a report from our reader, we want to advise plant growth biostimulants that will help increase the yield up to 50-70%.

We advise you to prepare in advance for the summer season, pay attention to this biological product. There are a lot of positive responses.
  1. It relieves the site of weeds, as it grows quickly, especially if the land is cultivated.
  2. Possesses good phytosanitary qualities, fights slugs, pea leafworm and larvae of click beetles, disorients the Colorado potato beetle, which is why it is good to sow green manure next to potatoes and strawberries.
  3. It enters into a reaction of interaction with iron in the soil and heals it, thus preventing the development of late blight and potato scab. That is why the crop is a good predecessor for nightshades (tomatoes, potatoes).
  4. It has a large biomass, and, therefore, it enriches the soil with useful organic compounds, which are then processed into humus.
  5. Fertilizing the soil with green manure makes the soil looser and structures it thanks to the root system, which grows up to three meters. As a result, the aeration of the soil is improved and it absorbs more moisture.
  6. The culture contributes to the retention of nitrogen in the soil, prevents its leaching.

Of the shortcomings, it can be noted that:

The seeds of the plant are popular with some birds. But this problem is completely solvable, they can be covered after sowing mulch.

Features of sowing mustard as fertilizer

In order to properly fertilize the soil with synapis, you need to know where it can be sown, and where not:

  1. The culture should not be sown in front of the representatives of the cruciferous family (cabbage, rutabagas) or next to them, as they have common diseases.
  2. Sowing is also not carried out on the beds on which they are going to sow seeds, since the seeds need a denser soil than that obtained after the green manure.
  3. Do not grow annuals between the rows of beets, carrots, etc. Since the root system of synapis can deform root crops.

The soil for planting green manure should be fertilized, sod-podzolic or sandy loam mixed with peat. But loam, and those soils with a pH of less than 7, are not suitable for sowing synapis.

Planting of white and Russian mustard is carried out in the spring in April, and in the fall - after the harvest, having allocated any empty area for sowing. After collecting the main crop, it is necessary to sow green manure immediately, until the soil is dry.

"Green top dressing" for the soil - the key to an excellent harvest

You can sow green fertilizer in the summer, but then you need to take care of regular watering, only in this case the plant will form a powerful root system, which is necessary to loosen the deep layers of the earth.

Sowing can be carried out in two ways: to plant seeds to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, at a distance of 15 cm from each other, or to scatter the seeds on the beds, and then harrow them with a rake and sprinkle them with earth. In the second method, much more seeds are consumed.

After 3-4 days, the first shoots will hatch. After 5-6 weeks, the plant will reach 20 cm and must be mowed, crushed and buried in the ground. Before that, for better fermentation, after processing with such biological products as "Shine". Then the ground is covered with black film or roofing material.

How to collect synapis

Whether or not to mow the synapis depends on when it was planted.

If the sowing of green manure was in the fall, then it can be left for the winter, this will save the gardener from deep tillage for the next year.

It is even better to sow synapis together with other crops such as oil radish. Sowing the mixture can be carried out both in spring and autumn.

Synapis is a moisture-loving culture, so it must be watered often. This is especially important when the drought has lasted for a long time. Only if this condition is met, the soil in the personal plot will be loose and healthy.

If you wish, you can collect your own seeds. For this, the plants are sown in spring and not too densely. If you sow a crop in the summer, then there will be no seeds. White mustard pods do not crack, so they can be harvested at any time of the day, unlike Sarepta mustard, the seeds of which can be harvested either early in the morning or late in the evening.

It is useful to sow green manure when laying a new garden plot, especially if the soil on it is infertile. It activates the life of microorganisms, earthworms and other useful creatures that prepare the land for planting garden crops, and this in turn guarantees a rich harvest.

Top dressing: "green miracle"

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Pros of growing green manure

The cultivation of green manure for fertilization and aeration of the soil is popular. This process has several advantages:

  • green manure protect the site from weeds
  • soil enrichment with minerals
  • loosening and reducing the acidity of the earth
  • preparation for planting horticultural and ornamental crops
  • protection of soil from weathering, drying in the sun
  • simplicity of the process: you only need to sow the seeds, mow them in time before the formation of seeds, plant them in the ground

Phacelia and others, or why do I sow green manure

Siderata are various crops that are sown to improve the composition and structure of the soil, enrich it with nutrients. Many plants can be used as green manure. These are the usual peas and beans, lupine and vetch clover, mustard, oats, rye and others. My favorite is phacelia:

Phacelia in bloom. Photo by the author

Like mustard greens, phacelia grows very quickly, but outwardly (for my taste) it is noticeably more attractive. Rapid growth is an undoubted advantage of the weeds simply do not have time to sprout and develop where phacelia is sown. This is one of the reasons for sowing green manure: when the land is vacated, wild grasses quickly conquer it. The nature of empty spaces does not like it, especially if the territory is cultivated and well-groomed. Smooth rug of mustard or phacelia leaves protects the garden from weed infestation... And the phacelia, moreover, has very elegant foliage.

Phacelia bed. Photo by the author

You can sow green manures not only in the vacated beds, but also in the garden under the trees, and at the foot of tall crops. For example, last year phacelia coexisted with dahlias. Only one caveat: sowing is necessary after the main plant grows up a little, otherwise rivalry will arise.

Siderata - good fertilizer... They are dug up when the green mass grows, but usually before flowering. Cereals sown in the fall are often mowed before frost and left until the spring digging. When embedding green manure in the soil, it saturated with organic matter and loosened... And legumes, as you know, also have the ability to accumulate nitrogen, increasing soil fertility.

Peas are a good green manure. Photo by the author

Can be used as green manure in small spaces and flower crops, for example, calendula, which not only enriches the soil, but also heals it: it is known that phytoncides secreted by calendula are destructive for pathogens of plant diseases. Calendula and marigold bushes can be placed in compost, or they can be embedded in the soil. Flowering plants, among other things, very beautiful... When the phacelia blooms, the meadows sown with it turn lilac-blue, and bees constantly buzz above them.

Yes, phacelia is excellent honey plant... Last year, my neighbors complained that there were few bees, and the plants were poorly pollinated. I did not face such a problem - bees and phacelia willingly visited, and did not offend other cultures.

In our catalog, which combines the offers of various online stores of seeds and planting material, green manures are presented in a wide range - you can find here suitable crops for your site. Select green manure seeds.

Description of green manure crops

Legumes are considered the most useful, as they enrich the soil with nitrogenous substances and humus. But cruciferous plants, along with cereals, also contribute to the enrichment of the soil. Let's consider their features.

Vika (mouse peas)

This culture is distinguished by an accelerated growing season and unpretentiousness to growing conditions. Mouse peas belong to the legume family, which means they accumulate a large amount of nitrogen between the root nodules. During the decomposition of roots in the ground, an active release of nitrogen occurs, without which potatoes cannot develop. The decomposition of the green mass of mouse peas enriches the soil with humus, significantly increasing its fertility.

This culture is also distinguished by the rapid development of green mass, endurance and undemanding to growing conditions. Sweet clover forms a powerful branched root system, extending to a depth of more than a meter. Thanks to the developed root system of the sweet clover, the soil becomes loose, so it does not need to be digged. In the spring, the green mass is cut off and placed in the aisles or embedded in another area as an aftermath fertilization method. Melilot belongs to the legume family.

It is difficult to overestimate the importance of white mustard for feeding potatoes. Planting potatoes after siderates (mustard) gives a bountiful harvest. Long-rooted culture attracts earthworms and creates favorable conditions for humus formation. Mustard has a phytosanitary effect on the soil, repelling pests and keeping potatoes from rot and other diseases. If a wireworm is wound up on the site, you can drive it away with white mustard.

Experienced gardeners mix mustard with mouse peas for excellent results. To accelerate the decomposition of the green mass of the plant, biostimulants of the "Baikal" type can be used. If you grow mustard together with potatoes, it will prevent weeds from developing.

This green manure culture also belongs to the cruciferous family, like mustard. Oil radish grows quickly, forming an abundant green mass.Weeds, including the ubiquitous wheatgrass, do not grow near this crop. Rarely has a phytosanitary effect on the soil, destroying rot and soil pests. Before sowing seeds, the soil should be dug well, since the radish does not like dense soil. After a month, the tops can be cut off and the greens can be embedded in the ground. Sowing rate of seeds - 300 g per hundred square meters.

This cereal crop is an excellent winter green manure and soil orderly. Rye completely destroys helminths and phytophthora, insects and other soil pests. The juicy green mass of rye quickly decomposes in the soil, giving off large amounts of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. The developed root system loosens the soil, making the fertile layer breathable and permeable. Rye perfectly prepares the site for potatoes, creating the most favorable conditions for its development.

When is the best time to sow rye? Sowing is carried out immediately after harvest, that is, at the end of August. In the spring, when the sprouts stretch to a height of 25-30 cm, the green manure is buried in the ground. After half a month, tubers can be planted.

This crop enriches the land with nitrogen and potassium. The powerful root system loosens the soil, creating conditions for optimal water and air balance. It is recommended to sow oats on heavy soils, unfavorable for the growth of root crops. To increase the fertility of the soil, oats are mixed with mouse peas and fodder peas. Sometimes ammonium nitrate is also used for sowing. The green mass is embedded in the soil until the buds are formed.

Rye, like siderat, or why do you need to sow rye on your site?

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Siderate crops (also called green manure) are crops grown to improve the structure of the soil and increase the level of nutrients in it. Such plants enrich the soil with organic matter and nutrition and protect it from erosion and deflation. Plus, they manage to loosen the soil well in a short time by creating root tubules.

Digging green manures into the soil, or even better, cutting them to a depth of 2-3 centimeters with a hoe or flat cutter, before the culture matures and allowing it to decompose, you add a lot of organic material and nutrients to the soil.
The most commonly used green manure crops are buckwheat, rye, vetch and red clover.

Winter rye sown in late summer or fall will handle the cold winter well and will continue to grow next spring.
So, in early spring, right out of the snow, winter rye begins to grow, accumulating up to 200-300 kilograms of green mass per one hundred square meters for planting the main crops.

A competent farmer should make friends with green manure, since for economic reasons there are always more soil-depleting crops in the crop rotation than soil-restoring ones, and there is always not enough manure to compensate for the lack of organic matter in developed crop production. Siderata are powerful restorers of soil fertility, true green medicines for the soil.

A large amount of organic matter is introduced into the soil with green manure. On average, their plowing is equivalent to the introduction of 30-50 t / ha of manure. Manure is a classic organic fertilizer, sometimes called the pearl of agriculture. And yet, the siderates are superior in many ways. First, they are cheaper. They do not need to be transported to the field. Secondly, they do not contain weed seeds in such an amount as is characteristic of manure. In just one season, the soil additionally receives from siderates from 100 to 400 kg / ha of biologically pure nitrogen.
After green manure, the quality of crop production is always higher: the protein content of the grain increases, and nitrates do not accumulate. In potatoes, siderates increase starchiness, in sugar beets - sugar content.

Compared to other methods of combating soil dehumification, green manure has another important advantage. Due to deeper root systems, most green manure crops are able to activate geochemical exchange between the subsoil and its arable horizon. This process is especially important for elements such as phosphorus, calcium, trace elements. Only in terms of phosphorus, a one-year green manure culture will replace the introduction of it in an amount of 25 kg.

You need to sow siderates thickly. In the spring - to be a wall, for the winter - less often (but not less, for example, 2.5 kilograms of rye per hundred square meters).
Loosen the ground first. Scatter the seeds by hand or with a seeder and lightly mix with the soil with a rake, otherwise the birds will collect all the seeds.

Why do you need to sow rye in your area?

Firstly, rye belongs to the family of cereals, and of this family, corn is cultivated only in some areas. Therefore, in theory, there should be no specific pests and diseases of crops of this family on your beds. Sown rye will not give shelter to pathogens and pests of vegetable crops preserved in the soil and plant residues, thereby to some extent reducing their number.
Secondly, rye is a very aggressive culture: no one is allowed into the area it occupies, except for blue-eyed cornflowers. It is able to suppress the development of not only annual weeds (which will sprout in autumn or spring), but also perennial weeds that have long occupied this area (wheatgrass, sow thistle, buttercup).
Thirdly, in early spring your rye will grow back and quickly accumulate green mass, which in May can be embedded in the soil as a green fertilizer.
Fourthly, potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkins and zucchini grow very well in a garden bed with green mass of rye.

If you are convinced that rye is the best orderly and a wonderful green fertilizer, and that your plot cannot do without it, then in late August - early September it will need to be sown.

It is advisable to sow the seeds of last year's harvest, regardless of the conditions of the current year, since fresh seeds have not yet had time to go through the post-harvest ripening period and may not emerge.
When sown in the early stages, rye will have time to open up well before winter, and in early spring, only the soil will thaw a little, continue to accumulate green mass and grow roots.
In the spring, the grown green mass is crushed (cut with a flat cutter) and buried in the soil two weeks before planting the main crop.

What is the advantage of crops grown for green manure?

• Green manure (green manure) will cost you less than manure, since you only have to spend on seeds.
• Your buried green manure beds will not (as is the case with manure) get millions of weed seeds.
• The yield of crops grown for green fertilization is up to 300 kg (or more) of green mass, which is equivalent to the same amount of manure.
• In addition to the above-ground part, many roots invisible to us develop in the soil, and they penetrate to a depth of 1.5 meters or more. At the same time, they extract nutrients from hard-to-reach compounds and carry them up from deep soil layers. That is, they facilitate the growth conditions for the plants planted after them.
• Plowing of green fertilizers increases the number of beneficial microorganisms in the soil by 1.5-2 times, and this improves the biological activity of the soil.
• All crops that we sow on green fertilizer suppress the growth of weeds and clear the soil of them.
• Due to substances secreted by the roots of rye, the number of nematodes in the soil decreases and pathogens of many diseases are suppressed.
• Potatoes grown after green fertilization are less affected by scab and other diseases.
• In the soil, after the introduction of green manure, the humus (the most fertile) layer increases and the soil becomes looser (fluffy), similar to black soil.