Cherry care in autumn, including processing and feeding trees
Cherry is a cold-resistant culture, and even severe frosts can endure without any damage, however, cherry care in autumn must be carried out without fail. By taking time for the fruit bushes in the autumn months, you will get a guaranteed yield of excellent fruits for the next year and reliably protect your cherries from pests or the development of various diseases.
Preparing cherry tree trunks for winter
Cherry blossoms begin early enough, with the end of the dormant period, the tree immediately begins to actively consume nutrients from the soil, therefore, preliminary feeding of cherries in autumn is more preferable than in spring. In addition, having collected the entire crop at the end of summer, you can safely treat cherry bushes with chemicals against pests and diseases, without fear for your health.
Cherry blossoms start early enough, with the end of the dormant period
Autumn cherry care includes:
- processing of near-trunk circles under trees;
- water charging irrigation;
- prevention of the appearance of diseases and pests;
- pruning branches;
- whitewashing of trunks.
During the summer, you tirelessly fought the weeds under the cherry trees. With the onset of autumn, this important procedure should not be forgotten either, since the sodding of the near-stem circle will have a bad effect on the future development and fruiting of cherries. To prevent the appearance of weeds, you can mulch the ground under the cherry tree even in the summer, just make sure that the mulch does not cover the trunk, otherwise it will start to rot.
Cherries in the fall need deep digging of the soil. However, do not overdo it - you do not need to dig deeper than 15 cm, because the roots of cherry bushes are located just below this level, and it is very easy to damage them. The diameter of the loosening should correspond to the crown of the tree.
After loosening, spend the final watering of the cherry so that the moisture penetrates deep into the roots. To do this, at least fifteen liters of water will need to be poured under each adult tree, and eight liters will be enough for young seedlings.
Cherries in the fall need deep digging of the soil
To get water directly to the roots of the cherry, dig shallow trenches around the perimeter of the crown, or stick pipes into the soil.
How to feed cherries in autumn?
After digging the trunk circle, you can start feeding the cherries with fertilizers, and the introduction of nutrients can be carried out at the same time as watering. According to horticultural experts, feeding cherries in the fall is extremely important for their proper growth and development, and also contributes to obtaining a wonderful harvest.
It is advisable to have time to make the last fertilizing of the cherry for the season at the beginning of autumn - feeding the tree later, you thereby increase the period of its sap flow, and as a result, the cherry can poorly endure the winter.
After digging the trunk circle, you can start feeding the cherries with fertilizers
How to feed cherries in autumn to provide them with sufficient nutrients until spring:
- Organic matter is considered the best option for autumn feeding: rotted manure, sawdust, compost, bird droppings diluted with water;
- if you do not have the opportunity to get natural organic fertilizers, complex dressings, which are specially designed for fruit trees and shrubs, are also suitable;
- fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium should be added to the soil at the stage of autumn digging so that they are deep in the ground;
- it is better to leave nitrogen fertilizers and ash for spring feeding, because they are necessary to accelerate flowering and fruiting, and now you need to preserve and strengthen the roots of the cherry.
Autumn processing of cherries against pests and diseases
The fragrant and beautiful cherry is a real find for a large number of garden parasites, which deprive it of its blooming appearance, eating with appetite the trunk, leaves, flowers and even set fruits. Of course, cherries require proper processing all year round, especially at the time of flowering and ovary, when it is important for you to keep it healthy by all means. However, it is the processing of cherries in the fall that is the most important prevention against most annoying pests, as well as widespread diseases.
Cherries require proper processing all year round, especially at the time of flowering and ovary
The main stages of the autumn processing of cherries from pests:
- when the foliage from the cherry falls off, they carry out sanitary pruning of branches, removing diseased and damaged branches, covering the cut site with garden pitch;
- clean up and cover up cracks and wounds in the tree, from which gum flows;
- all plant residues, including fallen leaves, cut branches and diseased fruits, are removed from the trunk circle and destroyed;
- after the first frost, the cherry bush and its near-stem circle must be sprayed with a 5% urea solution - this high-concentration nitrogen fertilizer destroys a large number of pests, fungal and infectious pathogens and prevents their reproduction.
If you are concerned about the question of how to treat cherries in the fall against certain pests or pathogens, in the corresponding article you will find the names of the drugs and more detailed methods of dealing with the most common misfortunes.
Prepare your tree for winter
Despite the high resistance of many cherry varieties to severe frosts, in winters with little snow, trees can still suffer from severe cold. Therefore, in late autumn, try to form a good protection of the roots and trunk of the cherry from possible freezing. The usual shelter of the cherry tree trunk circle with a thick layer of snow will help to cope with this task. Sprinkle the formed snowdrift with light mulch (sawdust or small straw) on top for reliability.
Cherry pruning video
For additional protection of the cherry trunk from the active influence of the spring sun, and at the same time from pests and rodents, the stem is whitewashed with a simple solution of lime, or iron vitriol, mullein, and clay are additionally added.
If you were not too lazy and took proper care of cherries in the fall, this beautiful tree will surely reward you for your efforts next season: in the spring it will fill your garden with snow-white radiance and a wonderful aroma, and in the middle of summer it will bring a good harvest of juicy fruits.
Preparation for winter for cherries begins at the end of summer, after the harvest has been harvested. A fruit tree that has given up berries gradually begins to move into a dormant state. During this period, the gardener is required to carry out all measures to prepare for the winter, namely:
- watering before the onset of cold weather to store moisture
- top dressing to strengthen the vitality of the tree
- sanitary and formative pruning
- loosening the soil before winter
- warming the plant before the cold weather.
Autumn care of the fruit tree begins in August
Caring for felt cherries after harvest
Preparing felt cherries for winter is generally almost the same as standard autumn care. After harvesting, you must:
- how to clean the ground in the near-trunk circle - remove from the ground all rotten fruits and crumbling leaves, small branches
- remove garbage from the site and burn it, pests and fungal spores can winter in plant residues, so it is imperative to destroy garbage
- thin out the crown of the plant, remove shoots and lower branches, as well as shoots that make the crown too thick
- how to loosen and mulch the soil near the trunk.
Caring for cherries after harvesting also requires watering abundantly, feeding with minerals and insulating the fruit plant for the winter.
Features of cherry care in autumn, depending on the age of the trees
The general rules for caring for cherries in autumn and preparing for winter are the same for all plants, regardless of age. However, old and young trees have their own characteristics that must be taken into account in autumn care:
- Young plants under the age of 3 years do not need to be fed with minerals before the onset of winter. Since a plant planted recently does not yet bear fruit, it consumes less nutrients, up to 3 years it has enough minerals embedded in the ground during planting.
- Old cherries are fed annually. An adult plant takes a lot of energy to bear fruit, therefore, during the warm season, it manages to exhaust its supply of nutrients.
- Autumn pruning for young trees must be done with great care. Since they are still quite small in size, too strong a haircut can lead to their death.
Older trees are more resistant to cold weather
Caring for young cherries in the fall includes a more thorough covering, young trees are more susceptible to freezing. Usually they are not only mulched abundantly, but branches are also tied up, and also covered with insulating material. Old trees tolerate cold better, and for them, in preparation for winter, it is most important to warm the roots and cover the trunk with spruce branches.
How to plant cherries correctly: diagram and video
Cherry - early flowering culture. Therefore, low-lying places are not suitable for planting it, where cold air masses can accumulate in spring. The occurrence of groundwater should not be higher than 2–2.5 m. It is also necessary to beware of places where spring waters can stagnate. In the middle lane, when choosing cherry varieties, special attention should be paid to the winter hardiness of the variety and only highly winter-resistant varieties should be planted.
Cherry grows well on light sandy loam soils with a reaction close to neutral. On acidic and even slightly acidic soils, it is suppressed by the acidity of the soil, which further negatively affects its yield. On such soils, when planting in the soil of the planting pit, lime must be added and mixed well. However, the presence of fresh lime can reduce the survival rate of the seedling, so planting holes are dug in advance, 15–20 days before planting, and the soil is immediately mixed with lime. In this case, lime will mix well with the soil, react with the acidity of the soil and slightly reduce it before planting.
Shrub cherry forms are planted with row spacing of 2–2.5 m, in a row - after 2 meters. Treelike forms are planted less often, according to the scheme 3.5x2.5-3 m. Before planting cherries, you need to properly prepare the pit. For planting seedlings, planting holes are dug 40–45 cm deep and 50–60 cm in diameter. In any case, the size of the hole should be such that the root system of the seedling can be freely placed in a straightened form. The soil removed from the pit is mixed in half with humus with the addition of 30–40 g of superphosphate, 20–25 g of potassium chloride and a liter can of ash. If the soil is heavy clay, then add 1-1.5 buckets of sand and mix with the soil. Cherries are more sensitive to transplanting than other berry crops, such as, for example, currants and gooseberries, and grows very slowly in the first year (which even frightens young gardeners). It slowly and painfully restores the root system damaged during transplantation. Therefore, after planting, a cherry seedling needs careful care. It is especially necessary to ensure that when caring for cherries, the soil around the root system is well moistened and covered with mulch with a layer of 7–8 cm.
If during planting humus and mineral fertilizers were introduced into the planting pit, then in the first 2-3 years, before the beginning of fruiting, fertilizers may not be applied. From the time of entry into fruiting, cherries respond very well to fertilizers and need sufficient and balanced nutrition.
Watch the video on how to plant cherries to better understand how this agrotechnical technique is performed:
Types of autumn dressings for cherries
For cherries, standard types and feeding schemes are used. They differ in the application technique and the means used:
- Root. The mixture is applied strictly at the root, combined with watering. This type includes mineral fertilizers and any organic matter (humus, bird droppings, compost).
- Foliar dressing or spraying. Usually carried out during flowering and after the flowers have fallen off. In autumn, this type of dressing is recommended to compensate for iron deficiency. Iron vitriol is used (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). The procedure is carried out after the first frost.
Tree care - agricultural techniques
Cherry care consists in the annual and correct application of fertilizers, preventive spraying against diseases and pests, timely watering.
It is also important to select a variety and plant cherries of different varieties in the same area with a simultaneous flowering period for mutual pollination.
Before laying a garden, you need to decide on the varieties. Cherry varieties are divided into three large groups:
- Moreli (griots) - are distinguished by dark pulp and sour taste of berries, which ripen well after picking, but are prone to cracking when overripe on the branches.
- Amoreli - have a light skin, have a sweet taste and, after being harvested unripe, do not reach ripe condition.
- Duke - a hybrid of cherry and cherry.
Proper care of cherries in spring and autumn
Competent cherry care is impossible without spring pruning and summer breaking out of green thickening shoots. The vast majority of cherry varieties bear fruit on last year's gains... Since sprouting loses its intensity over the years, it is necessary to carry out annual rejuvenating pruning in early spring.
How to keep a cherry ovary
To delay flowering for a week or two will help the shelter of the trunk circle thick layer of snow, and on top of it - straw or sawdust. Thus, the ground will remain frozen, nutrients will not be supplied to the roots, respectively, the vegetative phase will begin later.
If, nevertheless, the flowers on the cherry blossomed, and forecasters promise return frosts, you can try to save the harvest smoke... To do this, in several places you need to spread straw or dry manure and set fire to the piles early in the morning. It is important that they do not burn intensely, but smoke. The reasons for the fall of the cherry ovary are described in detail in this material.
Cherry variety selection
Cherries most often need cross-pollination, therefore, several varieties must be planted in the garden, at least 3-4. If the spring is cold and very rainy, generous spraying of the crown will help attract natural pollinators. honey solution (tablespoon per liter of water).
How to increase the yield
The yield directly depends on the planting site, the quality of the seedling, the composition of the soil and the amount of fertilizer, moisture. The right choice of a place for planting makes it much easier to care for cherries. The cherry tree will grow well and bear fruit generously on sandy loam or loamy soils in a sunny, elevated place, away from high solid fences.
It is important that the acidity of the soil is neutral. Increase the amount of ovary cherries will help spraying the crown with boric acid (two grams per 10 liters of water).
How to feed cherries in spring
Cherry care in spring involves mandatory feeding. First feeding cherries - before flowering. To do this, you need to prepare a nutrient solution, which consists of:
- 10 liters of water,
- 10 grams of urea
- 25 grams of superphosphate
- 15 grams of potassium chloride.
During flowering you need to feed the cherries again with the same solution.
Third time cherries are fed after 2 weeks with an infusion of mullein and ash prepared according to the following recipe: 10 liters of mullein, 50 liters of water, mix 1 kg of ash and leave to infuse for 5 days. Consumption per tree - half a bucket of nutrient mixture. Important: after feeding, immediately pour 2 buckets of water into the trunk circle!
Effective summer cherry dressing solution of complex mineral fertilizer once a month. A positive result is given by foliar feeding of cherries with succinic acid or potassium humate.
Fertilizing cherries in autumn
Feed the cherries in the fall best of all with potassium and phosphorus with the simultaneous introduction of organic matter.
Annual autumn feeding of cherries contributes to an increase in winter hardiness, ensures stable and rich yields.
The end of September is the time for moisture charging pre-winter glaze... Under one tree, depending on the intensity of precipitation, you need to pour 5-10 buckets of water.
How to spray cherries from diseases and pests
In the spring process the cherries with 3% Bordeaux liquid before budding. After 2-3 days, it is useful to spray with iron vitriol. It is not only an effective fungicide, but also a foliar feeding. You also need to spray the trunk circle.
After flowering process cherries with Topsin-M, Decis.
In autumn after the leaves fall off with a urea solution (500 grams per 10 liters of water).
Landing in open ground
Cherry tolerates planting well in soils of various composition and withstands even extremely severe frosts, because the tree has a good regenerative ability.
But still it is worth considering that it will be ideal to plant cherries in soils such as:
Soil preparation and site
But even if the composition of the soil on the garden plot does not correspond to the required one, then the situation can be corrected correctly by choosing a place and preparing the soil.
- Cherry takes root best if the tree is planted on the west, south or southwest side. Light partial shade covering the trunk and near-trunk circle is welcome, but the crown should be in the sun. This result can be achieved by planting a short shrub in the direction of the sun's movement, which will cover the lower part of the cherry.
- The size of the planting pit should be at least 50 cm wide and about 60 cm deep. It is important to remember that a cherry tree will feel good if, in the place of its planting, the occurrence of groundwater occurs two meters from the surface of the earth. Otherwise, root decay may occur. It is best to dig the planting hole a few days before planting, and if it is heavily filled with water, then you need to transfer the cherry to another place. Or, alternatively, plant nearby shrubs that consume a lot of moisture, such as hydrangea.
- The soil mixture is prepared as follows. Half of the excavated land is mixed with 1 part of coarse sand, ½ part of fine sand, ½ part of wood ash, 1 part of rotted manure, 1 part of sod land. This mixture is thoroughly mixed and placed in a large container for about a week. After that, it should be spilled with biofungicides or potassium permanganate. During the maturation of the soil, it is worth stirring it once a day.
It is important to know that you cannot add fallen leaves to the nutrient soil mixture because it is there that pathogenic flora can live, which will immediately settle in the roots of a young tree.
How and when to plant
It is best to carry out planting work in May after the frost has receded, because the autumn planting threatens that the plant will not have time to gain strength and will die.
Works in spring, summer and autumn
Young cherries need to be looked after from the moment of planting; it is necessary to mulch the trunk space with compost, rotted sawdust. Mulch helps to retain moisture, prevents the formation of an earth crust, improves oxygen access to the roots.
In the first two years, fertilization is not applied if the cherries were fertilized at the time of planting in a permanent place. With poor growth (less than 0.3 meters) in the fall, feed the cherry with superphosphate. Young planted trees need periodic loosening (in the absence of mulch), removal of weeds, watering.
With the onset of the cherry's ability to bear fruit, tree care changes. During the active period of branch growth, flowering, fruiting, it is necessary to water the cherry, watering is carried out at the rate of 3-4 buckets per plant. In the last days of September, water-charging irrigation is carried out (5-6 buckets of water per tree). In a rainy summer, cherries are not irrigated, in the fall they give only the necessary fertilizing (phosphorus-potassium).
Many gardeners are worried about the question of how to feed cherries in spring, if the plant is adult? The first feeding is carried out in early spring before flowering, using calcium nitrate (2 tablespoons) or urea (50-70 grams), scattered around the trunk circle and loosened. Fertilization promotes active tree growth and good flowering.
During the flowering period, cherries are fed with mineral compounds containing nitrogen. At this point, organic fertilizers (cow dung, bird droppings) can be applied. Caring for cherries after flowering (after 7-10 days) involves spraying with urea (40 grams per 10 liters of water), after 14 days the procedure is repeated. Foliar spraying improves plant nutrition, has a positive effect on the preservation of the ovaries until the berries are completely ripe.
After harvesting, in the summer they carry out treatment against pests and the spread of diseases. In summer, coccomycosis poses a particular danger, you can resist the disease by treating cherry trees with Bordeaux liquid (1% solution), with strong development, spraying is repeated after 21 days. The final spraying is carried out in early September. The summer task of gardeners is to preserve the foliage on the trees for further good wintering.
Preparation of cherries for winter begins in autumn, it is necessary to prune, feed, and take preventive measures. It is necessary to prune cherry trees at rest, but before the arrival of frost. Depending on the regional affiliation, the time interval starts from the second half of September and ends at the end of November. Sick, damaged, dry branches are removed, the cuts are carefully covered with garden varnish. Keep in mind that felt cherry has its own characteristics for pruning branches.
In the fall, all wounds, cracks are cleaned and processed. The trunk circle is cleared of fallen debris, loosened. Cherries need to be fed for the winter, fertilizers based on phosphorus and potassium are applied, nitrogen fertilizing is not used in the autumn. Whitewashing the trunks will serve as a good additional protection against rodents in the winter (you can add clay or mullein to the lime).
If you know how to care for cherries, a wonderful tree will surely delight its owners in the next season: in spring, a beautiful snow-white garden will be filled with a wonderful aroma, in summer - with a delicious harvest of beautiful berries.