A detailed description of the Moskvichka pear variety
Pear is the most revered and unique fruit in its healing and taste properties. Loaded with a lot of fiber, it promotes health and mood. The sweet "gift of the gods", which came to us from the prehistoric era, still drives everyone crazy with its mouth-watering aroma.
In this article we will talk about the Moskvichka pear variety, find out its description and taste characteristics.
Description of the variety
The Muscovite was bred in the last century, in the 80s, at the Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazev, famous breeders: S.T. Chizhov and S.P. Potapov. The name Moskvichka comes from the purpose of the variety for cultivation in the gardens of the Moscow region. The yield of the variety reaches 15-20 tons per hectare. By the time of fruit ripening, it belongs to the early autumn variety. The collection of Moskvichka varieties is carried out from the beginning of September to the end of October. Earlier varieties include the August dew pear.
The variety grows in regions of the temperate continental climatic zone of Russia. In a harsh continental and monsoon climate, the variety is not grown. It is widespread in the Moscow region. Zoning: Central, Middle Volga and Volgo-Vyatka regions.
Non-pubescent shoots are of medium size. Their curved shape is light brown. On the shoots, convex and small lentils grow in sufficient numbers. The variety has sufficient winter hardiness. Transfers temperatures up to - 20 ° С, being an average indicator of the frost resistance of the variety
The pear requires pollinating varieties due to its inability to bear fruit without cross-pollination.
The best pollinators are varieties:
- Yakovlev's favorite;
- Elegant Efimova;
Pear Moskvichka belongs to the dessert variety.
Characteristics of trees and fruits
The trees are of the standard type, medium-sized. Saplings have a columnar crown shape, and adults have a conical shape. The crown is of a fairly medium degree of foliage. Skeletal branches are slightly lighter in color than the tree trunk. Small oval green leaves. The flowers contain a white corolla.
ShIrokoper-shaped yellow fruits with a greenish tinge, without blush. Fruit weight reaches 110-130 grams. The pulp is white, with granulation in the middle. Aromatic consistency of the pulp - sweet and sour taste.
Assessment of the fruit of the variety - 4.7 points, sugar content - 9.6%, acid - 0.45%.
Breeding history and breeding region
The origin of the Moskvichka pear is from the seedlings of the Kieffer pear variety bred in Philadelphia. In experimental trials in 1986, carried out at the variety testing site in the cities of Moscow and Orel, the variety generally did not form fruit.
However, a year later, there was a global change in the study. In unfavorable weather with a low air temperature during flowering, high fruit set was noted. Revealed more than 50% of the control indicators. All this happened with artificial and natural self-pollination.
Muscovite belongs to the pear variety, which is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation, as a selection variety for cultivation in the northern latitudes of our country.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the variety:
- early autumn variety;
- dessert type of variety;
- has early maturity;
- stable fruiting;
- high productivity;
- lack of fruit drop;
- has a high-quality presentation;
- excellent aromatic taste;
- excellent portability of transportation;
- long-term storage;
- resists fruit rot, brown spot, scab;
- resistant to aggressive environmental conditions.
- self-infertile variety;
- average degree of frost resistance;
- low drought resistance.
It enjoys mass popularity of commercial quality.
Planting rules for seedlings
Planting of Moskvichka seedlings is carried out in two seasonal variants:
- fall: all October; the best period is from 10 to 20 October.
- Spring: April May; the best period is April 20-30.
When planting in spring, seedlings take root faster over the summer and easily endure winter. In autumn, they will have good winter hardiness.
Seedlings for planting should be one or two years old. Usually, seedlings are planted with two years of age. It is this age of trees that have a formed root system suitable for planting.
Choosing a seedling for planting:
- the height of the seedling should be 70 - 80 cm;
- powerful and rotten roots are cut from 10 to 20 cm;
- the top is cut off;
- leaves break off;
- broken branches are cut.
One hour before planting, the seedlings are placed in water or mullein solution.
Tearing off leaves before planting prevents them from drawing in moisture, which is necessary for nutrition and root engraftment.
Pears grow on loamy and sandy-sandy black earth. A sunny and dry place is required. The soil should be loose, fertilized, and allow air to circulate. Should contain small amounts of clay and sand. A pit is prepared in advance, half a month before planting.
The occurrence of groundwater at the landing site should be located up to 3 meters.
Preparing the soil for planting:
- the upper soil layer is deposited up to 40 cm;
- a hole is dug - with a diameter of 80 cm to 1 meter, up to 1 m in depth;
- it is necessary to fill the hole with soil prepared in the proportions:
humus - 2.5 buckets,
sand - 2.5 buckets,
superphosphate - 1.5 glass,
potassium sulfate - 2.5 tablespoons
any organic matter - 2 kg;
- fill the hole with earth;
- pour in dolomite flour: 300 grams per 1 bucket of water;
- fill the hole with water - 2 buckets.
Sequence of planting seedlings:
- A pit is dug with sheer walls in size: width - up to 80 cm, depth - up to 70 cm.
- Fertilizers are poured:
at choice: phosphate rock, horse humus, superphosphate, humus - 1 kg;
potassium sulfate - 150 grams;
wood ash - 800 g;
ammonium nitrate - 2/3 of the pit filling.
- A peg is driven in in the center of the pit, with an exit to the surface, to a height of half a meter.
- Pour some earth in the form of a mound along the bottom of the pit.
- Put a tree on a mound, and evenly distribute the root system.
- The root collar of the seedling should be 5 cm above the ground.
- Cover the hole with earth, constantly shaking the seedling, to distribute the root system, and to avoid voids.
- Tamp the hole thoroughly.
- Water, about 3 buckets per seedling.
- Mulch the hole with a near-stem circle using dry humus.
- Tie the seedling to the peg.
To maintain moisture, the trunk circle must be constantly kept clean, mulched with any organic matter.
After planting, the pear is watered: for one seedling - 1 time in 7 days, with 1 bucket of water - in the morning and in the evening. With summer fruiting, watering increases, with the same approach, up to twice every 7 days. In winter, the lower part of the tree is covered with snow.
Fruiting trees are watered:
- before budding;
- after flowering - after 2 weeks;
- 2 - 3 weeks before the appearance of fruits;
- after removing the fruit.
The termination of watering in September, prevents the protracted growth of the shoot, and has a good effect on winter hardiness.
The variety should be fed the next year after planting.
Methods for feeding trees on the trunk circle:
- fertilizers are used annually in spring: 1 sq. m: ammonium nitrate - 30 g;
- in the fall, apply fertilizers once every 2 years:
for 1 sq. m, to choose from:
superphosphate - 50 g,
compost - half a bucket,
humus - half a bucket,
potassium sulfate - 30 g.
During the growing season, trees need pruning. This procedure should be carried out in early spring, before bud break. So the crown of trees is formed faster. Shoots tend to flatten out as they grow.
The important position of the central shoot must be maintained during pruning.
Pruning trees is done as follows:
- branches that grow inside the tree are removed;
- weak shoots are cut off;
- broken branches are cut off;
- removed one of the branches in contact with the other.
During pruning, no more than ¼ of the branches must be removed to prevent a stress hit to the trees.
The beginning of fruiting of the Moskvichka pear, under good care conditions, begins at 3-4 years of tree growth, and continues annually. The fruiting period can reach over 30 years.
Factors affecting poor fruiting:
- Improper feeding.
- Deepening when planting a seedling of the root collar.
- Small garden area.
- Shady area.
- "Attack" of the site by the apple flower beetle.
- Density of the crown.
- Waterlogged soil.
With the elimination of important factors of poor fruiting, the result comes in the next year.
It is necessary to plant trees at a distance of up to 4 meters from each other, due to the spreading crown.
Productivity and storage
A consistently large yield is obtained even in unfavorable growing climates. Up to 60 kg of harvest can be harvested from a tree. For long-term preservation of pears, they should be removed until they are ripe., with light green skin. Ripening takes place up to 7 days indoors.
Shelf life of fruits:
- refrigerator - 0 ° C - 3 months;
- basement - up to 1 month.
Features of the Moskvichka pear variety
Pears are saturated with a lot of nutrients. When exposed to the body, a general strengthening effect occurs. Thanks to the variety, the human immune system is strengthened.
Pear helps in the fight against colds, having antitussive and antipyretic effects. It is beneficial to the digestion process, producing a strengthening effect. Helps to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, calming the heartbeat.
Diseases and pests
The resistance of the variety manifests itself against brown leaf blight, fruit rot and scab.
In the spring, prevention of spraying against fungal diseases is carried out:
- urea solution - 700 g - 1 bucket of water;
- solution of copper or iron sulfate - 150 g - 1 bucket of water.
Prevention of pear pests is carried out as follows:
- from green aphids, pear podzhorka, pear honeydew:
in the middle of spring - the drug "Kinmix",
before flowering - "Agravertin",
with ovary - "Iskra",
folk methods: decoction of chamomile, green soap;
- from a tick: a solution of colloidal sulfur;
- from leaf rollers: before flowering - "Cymbush".
In the spring, damaged and wounded trees must be healed. This helps to limit the spread of disease.
Muscovite is a truly valuable variety for all gardeners. Hardy, with maximum fruiting, grown in many garden areas.
Kristina: They were rightly praised. Good winter hardiness. Dense juicy pulp. It has been growing beautifully in the garden for over 10 years. I treat the variety as "consumer goods". If you want to speed up fruiting, plant branches towards the horizon.
Ivan: From Moskvichka in full delight! One of the most valuable pears. Suitable for gardens of the Moscow region, grows very well. I do not use nitrogen fertilizers in any way. I get a gorgeous harvest!
Yana: The Muscovite bears fruit for the third year in the garden. She suffered least of all from cold and disease. The fruits are large and juicy.
The excellent characteristic properties of the Moskvichka variety deserve to become the most beloved one for everyone who loves pears. Proper care of the fruit tree will yield a bountiful harvest of delicious fruits in the future. A treasure of useful vitamins will always be on your table!
A couple of scientists who are the authors of the Moskvichka variety, ST Chizhov and SP Potapov, created this type of pear at the Timiryazev Moscow Experimental Station. The cultivar Kieffer was used for pollination.
Pear Moskvichka is an autumn variety with medium height, dense crown and beautiful white flowers. Non-uniform fruits of pleasant taste are also noteworthy.
Characteristics of the tree
The Moskvichka pear tree grows up to 4 meters tall. The crown is round-conical in shape, dense, rather leafy and will require constant care. The buds are distinguished by high awakening, the harvest is formed on ringlets. Flowering later, abundant, flowers are collected in inflorescences of 5-7 pieces.
Description of fruits
Fruits are irregular, medium in size, green-yellow with little or no blush. Skin with a lot of rustiness and noticeable subcutaneous punctures. The pulp is semi-oily, juicy, the taste is sweet and sour.
They are ready to be harvested and eaten in September. The purpose of the harvest is dessert, they are left for storage or consumed fresh.
Each pear variety differs not only in characteristics related to the fruit, but they have different characteristics of trees and requirements for growing conditions. The Muscovite has a number of its characteristics, these include:
- high tree, about 4 m, conical crown, well leafy
- the stem and skeletal branches have a gray bark, young shoots are brown
- leaves are oval, small in size, curved in the center, the surface of the leaf is smooth, and the edges are jagged
- pears are wide, the average weight of one fruit is from 100 to 120 g, the skin of the fruit is rough, at the stage of ripeness, yellow-green color without blush, not prone to crumbling
- the flesh of pears is dense, white in color, has a good aroma and taste, semi-oily
- Muscovite belongs to dessert varieties
- pears have a good presentation, transportability and keeping quality
- the plant is early-growing, the first harvest can be harvested already 3-4 years after planting
- the variety is high-yielding and gives a stable harvest every year
- the tree blooms late, which allows you to save flowers and ovaries from frost
- the plant is resistant to scab and fruit rot
- this variety is self-fertile and needs other pollinator varieties to produce a crop. They are planted 5-7 meters from Moskvichka, such varieties as Marble, Otradnenskaya, Lada, Lyubimitsa Yakovleva, Bergamot Moskovsky, Nadyadnaya Efimova are suitable for pollination
- trees have insufficient winter hardiness and require preparation for winter, suitable for growing in regions with a temperate continental climate
- a variety of early autumn ripening, the first fruits can be harvested from the beginning of September.
Moskvichka trees are not too demanding to care for. However, to get good yields, you need to follow some simple rules of agricultural technology.
Pear trees are very sensitive to soil moisture. Both excessive and insufficient moisture can be detrimental to the tree. Due to excessive dampness, the saturation of the soil with air decreases, as a result of which the respiration regime of the roots is disrupted, their weakening and subsequent death begins. The consequence of this is the drying of the central conductor, and then the main branches.
Lack of moisture also causes a number of disturbances in the life of the tree:
- in early spring, a lack of moisture interferes with the opening of leaf buds, the development of young leaves and the growth of shoots
- in the spring and summer, especially in hot weather, the general condition of the tree may worsen
- during summer drought, suction roots may die off
- autumn dryness of the soil causes drying out of wood and a decrease in the winter hardiness of pears.
Particular attention should be paid to the organization of watering before and during flowering and during the period of leaf appearance, as well as after the harvest, when the process of laying fruit buds is in progress.
In general, an adult pear tree should be watered 4–6 times per season, with a watering rate of 30–50 liters of water per tree. You can divide this amount of water into two doses - morning and evening.Young trees need to be watered more often, in the first year - once a week, the next 3-4 years - once every 2 weeks, with a watering rate of 10-15 liters of water per tree. It is advisable to irrigate by sprinkling or supply water to small temporary furrows cut along the periphery of the trunk circle.
Sprinkling pears with sprinkling gives good results.
In September, watering is usually stopped (unless hot weather is observed). In the first half of November, it is recommended to carry out water-charging irrigation, designed to saturate the soil with moisture and improve the wintering conditions of the tree. In addition, moisture charging allows you to start watering later the next year. The rate of water is 80–90 l / m 2.
Keeping the soil of the trunk circle and row spacings loose is an important part of pear care. It is advisable to loosen the soil after each watering to avoid crusting. The depth should be 10–20 cm. It is better to use a pitchfork rather than a shovel. The soil loosened after watering should be mulched with peat or humus. Weeds must be removed from the trunk circle, since they not only take water and nutrients from the tree, but also are intermediate hosts of various pests.
In the space between trees, you can grow honey plants (mustard, buckwheat) or vegetable crops (except for late varieties of cabbage, which delays autumn tillage). You should not plant corn - it dries the soil too much. If you decide to occupy the aisles with some crops, you will need to increase the amount of fertilizer applied accordingly.
With a good pre-planting filling of the pit with fertilizers, top dressing may not be carried out in the next 2-3 years. However, if you notice a strong weakening of the growth, nitrogen preparations should be introduced in the spring.
From 3-4 years after planting, fertilization should be regular. The rates differ depending on the nutrient content of the soil and the age of the trees. For example, for the conditions of the Non-Black Earth Region per 1 m 2, it is required:
- 9 g nitrogen
- 8 g potassium
- 6 g phosphorus
- 6 kg of manure.
Organic fertilizers are applied every year, mineral fertilizers - every two to three years. After fertilizing, the soil must be dug up.
Organic matter and mineral fertilizers can be applied simultaneously for digging
A good effect can be obtained by applying fertilizer into trenches 45–50 cm deep and 50 cm wide, laid on both sides of the tree along the periphery of the crown. For each cubic meter of furrow, 4 to 8 buckets of humus or 7–10 buckets of compost, 0.9–1 kg of superphosphate and 0.2 kg of potassium salts are applied. After a year, feeding is repeated on the other two sides of the tree. After that, you should take a break for 3-4 years and repeat all over again.
As the crown of the tree grows with age, each time the trenches are made farther from the trunk. On sandy soils, clay-peat layers are laid in trenches.
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied annually at the rate of 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m 2 of the trunk circle. The annual dose of nitrogen fertilizing can be applied once, in the spring, or divided into 2-3 doses.
Regular pruning is essential to regulate the growth and fruiting of the pear tree. The first pruning is carried out at planting - the branches of the seedling are cut to 1/3 of the length.
The formation of a crown for a pear is optional, since these trees are capable of self-formation. But sanitary pruning is required to remove dry and diseased branches, as well as thinning to improve ventilation and illumination of the crown. The procedure should be carried out while the tree is dormant - in early spring or autumn after leaf fall.
Do not leave stumps when pruning - they dry out and interfere with wound healing. And don't try to cut too many branches - this weakens the tree and causes it to thicken.
One of the special types of pruning is pruning the root system of the tree. Pears are dug in in the fall, after harvest, and the roots are cut off by one third of the length, the wounds are closed with garden pitch. This operation is performed to weaken the growth of the tree.
Young pear pruning - video
Preparing for winter
For normal overwintering of the tree, autumn application of organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, followed by deep digging of the soil. In this case, the soil layers should not be loosened, since they accumulate moisture better. To reduce the number of wintering pests, it is necessary to clean the boles, trunks and main branches from the old bark with a metal brush.
All existing large damage to the bark (hollows, cancerous wounds, cracks) should be cleaned and disinfected with iron sulfate (5%) or nitrafen (3%). The hollows then need to be sealed with a mixture of 1 part of cement with 3 parts of sand.
It is advisable to whiten young trees for the winter to protect them from sunburn (2–2.5 kg of slaked lime and 100 g of flour paste per 8 liters of water).
The winter hardiness of the Moskvichka pear is not too high, so the tree needs insulation for the winter. It is better not to use hilling, as it causes rotting of the bark. To protect the root system and the stem, it is best to use mulching with a thick (25–30 cm) layer of sawdust or peat.
At the beginning of frost, you can freeze the ice in the trunk circle by watering the earth with a hose. The trunk and main branches need to be tied with spruce branches, sunflower stalks, roofing material - this method will simultaneously protect the tree from rodents.
To protect trees from freezing, smoke is organized
In severe frosts, a simple and effective way to protect the tree is to smoke, which allows you to increase the air temperature by 2-3 degrees. It can be performed in calm and clear weather and for a sufficiently long time, otherwise the effect will not be achieved.
Planting, growing care
Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology will allow you to get maximum yields of high quality.
The size of the planting hole depends on the nutrient composition of the soil - if black soil is used, the width and depth of the hole should be about 60 cm. On clay and loamy poor soils, the pits are made less deep, about one and a half meters wide (this will enable the root system to develop normally in breadth).
Moskvichka pears are planted in autumn or spring. The main conditions - in the first case, the foliage should fall, and in the second, the frost should end. The best months are October and April-May.
When planting in autumn, seedlings acquire high winter hardiness, and when planting in spring they take root much better.
Technology and agricultural technology
For planting the variety, it is recommended to choose well-lit, dry and warm areas. It is desirable that moisture does not stagnate on them, and the acidity of the soil does not exceed 5.6-6 pH. The soil is loam, sandy loam, black soil. If the area is very humid, plant on hills or equip good drainage.
Basic requirements for agricultural technology:
- regular irrigation, aimed at maintaining the humidity level at specified levels
- organic feeding, the use of a solution of poultry manure, mullein to increase yields, nitrogenous fertilizers to accelerate the growth of shoots
- timely trimming and the correct formation of crowns.
It is not necessary to deepen the roots of the seedlings too much during planting; if the roots are bare, cut off the foliage of the plant. Typically, the depth of the planting pit is made up to 120 cm with a recess diameter of about 80 cm. In the areas prepared for planting, the pits can be made less deep. After planting is complete, abundant watering, soil mulching is required. For better survival, it is recommended to process the roots in a batter before planting. Read why the bark on the pear is cracking in this article.
What is better to grow from
The seedlings are used for annuals - they tolerate planting well, which cannot be said about adult seedlings, which, when transferred, can begin to hurt. During transportation of planting material, do not allow its roots to dry out, do not let the soil in the planting hole dry out. Watering should be abundant immediately after planting.
Distance between trees
Keep 4 meters between trees and 6 meters between rows. The root system of pears is quite extensive, so it needs a lot of space. Thickening of plantings leads to a decrease in yield, the appearance of diseases.
Pear varieties prefers dry, light areas, so it is planted in soil where there is no groundwater or which simply has an average moisture content. Plants are not whimsical to the composition of soils, although experienced gardeners recommend choosing loams and chernozems. Read about caring for the Krasulia pear at this link.
The harvest is harvested starting in September. The fruits ripen unevenly, so they are plucked in several approaches. Apples on their own can also fall, but it is better not to let this happen. Overripe fruits are much worse stored and lose their original taste characteristics.
Fertilizer features Moskvichka are the same as other pears:
- nitrogen fertilizers apply during active growth of shoots, at the first loosening of the soil
- do not be zealous with organics - it should be used no more than once every two years
- phosphorus and potassium are urgently needed for pears in autumn, the fertilizer is applied into the annular grooves about 50 cm deep.
Pears stick well to the branches and do not crumble, but the sooner you harvest, the more it will lie. If you plan to put pears in equipped storage facilities, they can generally be harvested in green. At low temperatures, the fruits lie up to 100 days.
Rejuvenation is done only for old trees. First, shoots located at an acute angle to the trunk are removed, then those that are parallel to the trunk. You can't do everything right away so as not to damage the culture. Also, excessive pruning leads to a drop in yield. Do not leave strong depressions and hemp when pruning, as they are the main cause of painful long-term healing. It is advisable to trim under the ring. With a branch thickness of 3 cm, the cut is made from the bottom and top, after which the branch breaks off. The cut is always processed. Immediately after rejuvenation, feeding is suspended. The annual growth of pears is shortened by a quarter.
Timely proper care of the pear crown is the key to excellent yields. The pruning will prevent the fruit from chopping. In the first year of tree growth in the open field, usually no pruning is done, then they begin to shorten the trunk by about 25 cm to stimulate growth in the vertical direction. Lateral shoots are shortened in the fall after the end of the harvest, affecting only the longest ones. One-year-olds are cut off to half a meter in the fall, the cut should be in the area opposite to the kidney graft zone. Dry and weak branches must be removed.
Selection of seedlings
It will not be difficult to grow a Muscovite pear variety, the main thing is to choose the right planting material. For this, it is better to give preference to two-year-old trees. In addition, do not forget that it is worth purchasing seedlings in specialized nurseries, where they offer zoned varieties.
Before buying a seedling, you should carefully examine it, namely:
- the root system must not be dry or damaged
- the bark on the trunk and branches should be green
- the leaves on the seedling should not be dry, and the sprout itself should not be damaged.
But also pay attention to the kidneys, they should not be dry or damaged.
Diseases and pests
The variety is considered scab resistant... The trunks of young trees must be protected from rodents.
Protection measures for pear trees should be carried out from early spring to late autumn.:
- physical and mechanical.
The first includes application of organic fertilizerssuch as manure. Also fight against diseases using herbal infusions.
For example, to treat a plant that is diseased powdery mildew, tincture of hay dust is used.
Agrotechnical measures promote plant growth. This is a correctly chosen place for planting, on time and correctly pruning of excess and diseased branches, preparation of planting material in time.
Pest and disease control is based on spraying trees with appropriate chemicals. These chemical measures can be carried out both for the purpose of prevention and for the improvement of the tree.
Resistance to various kinds of diseases is shown by Gera, Dekabrinka, Carmen, Larinskaya and Rogneda.
Physical and mechanical measures mean the processing of planting material and soil by heat treatment. Burning infected branches and mummified fruits.
Ideal varieties of pears, like apples, do not exist. Each has its own advantages.
These are positive factors affecting the choice of this variety for planting in your area, because there are not so many varieties with such qualities.
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