How to deal with weeds in the garden and vegetable garden
Weeds in the garden and vegetable garden. Part 1
One of the main reasons leading to a sharp decrease in soil fertility, and hence a significant decrease in the yield of cultivated vegetables and other crops, is weed field vegetation. The regulation of the living conditions of agricultural plants by man should be aimed at preserving the cleanliness of the fields, for it is impossible to give a single example when high yields of fruits would be obtained on weedy fields.
Usually weeds are called representatives of the wild flora developing among the crops of cultivated plants. Weeds are not afraid of drought and cold temperatures in winter. They thrive on the poorest and most saline soils. Adapting to the living conditions of cultivated plants, weeds develop properties similar to them: winter, springiness, stem height, the ability to behave like annual and biennial forms. These qualities characterize the exceptional resistance and adaptability of harmful plants to living conditions.
On the weed removal it takes 70% of the gardener's time spent caring for garden pets. It is especially distressing if the fight against unwanted vegetation turns into an end in itself - all measures are carried out without taking into account the species composition and biological characteristics of the most common weeds. Practically, such methods of limiting their development as green manure fallow, liming and drainage, special methods of mechanical soil cultivation, herbicides are not used. Poorly resolved issues of prevention and destruction of foci of the spread of weeds.
To help you plan your weed control measures in your backyard and garden plots, we will divide our recommendations into three parts. In the first, we will consider the sources of contamination of the beds, in the second - a description of the most common weeds, their biological characteristics, and in the third we will devote to the study of various methods of their removal.
Sources of blockage in the beds
Sources of contamination of crops cultivated plants are diverse.
- The seeds of many weeds are difficult to separate from the seeds of garden crops, which contributes to their introduction into the soil during sowing.
- They ripen quickly and, before harvesting, have time to crumble to the soil surface, clogging up the fields.
- The seeds of some weeds, passing through the gastrointestinal tract of animals with fodder, are not digested, and without losing germination, they enter the field with fresh manure and are embedded in the soil.
- Many of them are carried by the wind, irrigation water, are equipped with hooks, flyers and the smallest fluff, with the help of which they attach to animals, human clothing, containers, transport, overcoming a huge path in this way.
Protective features of weeds: the unfriendliness of their seedlings is diametrically opposite to the requirement of friendly seedlings for cultivated plants; the presence in many of them of the so-called rest period. So, for example, the autumn seedlings of such weeds as wild radish, shirina, bindweed buckwheat, wild oats, would have died in winter from frost. However, a long dormant period, due to the presence of a hard shell of the seeds of these plants, which prevents air and water permeability, delays their germination from autumn to spring.
The seeds of many weeds are not demanding on the light-temperature conditions of germination. Best of all, they germinate with shallow embedding - 0.5-2 and no more than 5 cm. Deeper embedding up to 15 and 20 cm usually leads to a sharp decrease in seedling emergence. At the same time, soil moisture contributes to better germination of weed seeds with their shallow embedding; an increase in moisture during deep embedding inhibits the germination process. Seeds buried deep in the soil and not germinated can be stored there for a long time.
Exists four types of contamination of sites:
- seed (predominance of juvenile weeds),
- root sprout (thistle field, field thistle, etc. - small pieces of roots> 5 cm long can give a new plant from a depth of up to 10 cm),
- rhizome (creeping wheatgrass, field horsetail, etc. are propagated by seeds and thanks to a powerful rhizome)
- mixed (seed, root sprout and rhizome).
Read the second part of the article: Types of weeds
candidate of biological sciences
candidate of biological sciences
Weeds in the garden are classified based on several criteria - how they are fed and how long they live. We propose to deal with this issue in more detail.
By the method of nutrition
By the way weeds feed, they are divided into:
- Parasitic. They are distinguished by the absence of a root system, they live on ready-made organic substances from the host culture. With the help of suckers, they cling to the aboveground organs of other plants.
- Non-parasitic. Green representatives, who independently create organic matter, assimilate mineral components from the soil.
- Combined. They are something between non-parasites and parasites. They draw useful substances from the host culture, but have the ability to perform photosynthesis.
By the duration of life
Based on the duration of life and the multiplicity of fruiting, weeds are divided into perennials and one- biennials.
Annuals, biennials can reproduce exclusively by the seed method. Life cycle duration is from 2-3 weeks to 2 years. When the seeds are formed and ripe, the crops die off.
Perennial specimens can form seed material 2-3 times, live for several years. The type of reproduction is both by seeds and vegetatively. Perennials are divided into 5 more groups, depending on the type of rhizomes:
- creeping weeds
- with stem rhizome
- root suckers.
The most harmful are representatives from the rhizome and root-sucker group.
How to get rid of weeds under currant and raspberry bushes?
I like planting phacelia under bushes and trees. The next year, she grows up self-seeding.
In the spring, I thoroughly clean the weeds under the bushes, and generously cover them with wood chips. Homemade woodchips, there are plenty of overgrowths in the area and the chopper helps us to process them. Therefore, I do not regret it, I pour it from the heart. When we mow the grass between the bushes with a trimmer, the small grass of course flies onto the chips, but dries quickly and does not interfere at all.
Yes, Sveta, it turned out to be very easy in practice. But the idea is not mine, to be honest, I spied it here on the site. To my shame, I copied the photo to ask my husband for such, and forgot the author
I took this photo as a sample, but my husband modified it a little. Many thanks to the author of the idea!
How to deal with weeds in the garden and vegetable garden - garden and vegetable garden
Views: 113035 Posted: 9-02-2015, 18:33 Comments: 1 Posted by natanikola
A dangerous neighborhood with ants, especially with red ones, should be suppressed at the stage of detecting them on the site, because all the inhabitants of the garden and vegetable garden will suffer from the presence of ants. These pests can easily settle in a house or under other buildings if you fight them incorrectly.
Ant control requires an integrated approach. With improper processing carried out to destroy pests, it can happen that the number will quickly recover and, moreover, become addictive to the group of substances with which the colony was treated.
The damage that ants can do to trees and plants is nesting in roots deep in the ground. A tree chosen by a pest will not live even two years, and when the colony expands, the area around the affected tree will be devastated, since not every weed can grow above the anthill.
As you know, trouble does not come alone. Together with the ants, aphids will multiply on the site, which the ants themselves groom and stretch it over all nearby plants and trees. Therefore, fighting ants without fighting aphids will not bring the desired effect.
For their nests, ants choose little-cultivated areas of the site, therefore, the less often the land on the site is processed and dug, the more likely it is that numerous small pests will choose it. Lime is an effective means of fighting ants on trees. Tree trunks and even trunks are treated with a strong solution of lime.
If an ant nest is found on the site, then you need to start decisive action. First you need to deeply dig up the anthill, then, you need to add ash or ash, lime, mustard powder to the soil and dig it up again. With such actions, the ants will look for another habitat and, possibly, no longer in your area.
When aphids appear on plants and trees, it is also worth worrying - there must be ants' habitat nearby. An anthill can be found along the ant paths leading to the nest, along which tireless harmful workers scurry in different directions. These numerous individuals are working ants, on which the existence of the whole family does not depend. When digging, it is important to find individuals with wings or the largest ones that lay the larvae and leave the nest for further reproduction.
You can lay out poisonous preparations, pour them into the soil to lime ants, but it is worth remembering that all living things take their place, and the disappearance of one of the links can provoke an imbalance in something else. The most popular drugs for ants are diazinon drugs, such as Anteater, for example, which paralyzes individuals upon contact - within a couple of days, all ants of the treated family die. 10 ml of the preparation is enough for processing 50 sq.m. soil infested with ants.
The use of insecticidal preparations contributes to the destruction of ants, but their use may turn out to be dangerous for birds, beneficial insects, which may also be in the area of influence of the drug. For this reason, it is best to use one of the ant deterrent methods.
You can scare off and partially destroy ants by treating the dug up anthill with boiling water, ash solution, decoction of tomato tops, baking soda solution, saline solution, boric acid solution with added sugar. Small pests do not tolerate strong odors, so mint, valerian, garlic, thyme are successfully used - they make protective belts, plant them around berries and trees, lay out leaves or pieces on ant paths.
When digging nests of ants, sulfur mixed with oregano is added to the soil. The paths for the movement of ants are watered with vegetable oil. Pest control is usually done when “everyone is home” - late in the evening or early in the morning.
An effective recipe for bait for killing ants: dilute a tablespoon of yeast to the consistency of thick sour cream with cold water, add a spoonful of jam or honey, stir. This mixture is applied to pieces of cardboard and polyethylene and laid out over the area. The ants die after eating the mixture.
You can prepare a bait with borax: 5 g of borax, 40 g of sugar, 10 g of honey, 45 g of water. The bait is liquid, it is placed in small containers around the anthill.
The main thing in the fight against such a "small" enemy is to be aware of the possible harm emanating from him. So, individuals running separately around the site do not pose a danger, because they cannot reproduce and establish a colony, the fight should be directed at migrating females or at a colony that has already settled on the site.
Weeds are not enemies, but helpers
Taking it for granted that wild plants are better adapted to local conditions than cultivated ones, you can go further and stop fighting weeds. Reconsider your attitude towards these plants, study the pros and cons of weeds and take them as your helpers.
1. The weeds on the plot grow very quickly and produce a significant amount of biomass. Allowing them to grow on the lawn and all areas not occupied by cultivated plants, as well as timely mowing, we get a constant flow of mulch. That is, we ourselves grow the covering material we need so much.
2. At the same time, we are gradually getting rid of the bare land on the site. This has several advantages:
- the soil does not sour after rains - you can walk everywhere without getting your shoes dirty
- under the sod the land does not dry out and does not erode during the dry season
- uniform cover of the soil allows you to restore balance in the subsoil microflora and among all kinds of underground inhabitants.
3. Some plants (nettle, quinoa, dandelion, etc.) contain a large amount of nutrients. By mowing and steaming them, you can get a free and safe liquid fertilizer and at the same time a growth stimulator for cultural plantings.
4. Most of the wild plants (creeping and meadow clover, willow bush, dandelion, chamomile, common bruise, rape, chicory) are excellent melliferous plants. They should also be used in the garden, lawn and vegetable garden. So, for example, watermelons and melons in the middle lane do not have natural pollinators. Any local honey plant, planted along the melons, will attract insects, which at the same time pollinate watermelons. Just remember to prune your honey plants after flowering to avoid unnecessary self-seeding. 5. The very controversial use of weeds in the garden can be demonstrated with the example of wood lice. Most summer residents do not even think about how to deal with woodlice weed: they mercilessly pull it out from the beds, and they do the right thing. Small shoots of carrots, beets and parsley woodlice will smother without a trace. But where we plant seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, wood lice will become an irreplaceable assistant. Its superficial root system will not harm large plants, and there will be no competition for moisture and nutrition. At the same time, the weed covers the soil with an even carpet and does not allow moisture to evaporate from the surface of the earth, and also protects the roots of vegetable crops from overheating.
Control methods - how to destroy and remove weeds
Due to the huge variety of wild herbs and flowers, there is no single method for dealing with them. But if you know the peculiarities of the growth and distribution of weeds, it is easier to get rid of them.
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All methods of struggle are divided into 2 main groups:
- mechanical method - this includes all methods for removing plants and hindering growth and reproduction. First of all, this is the well-known weeding: mechanical disturbance of the soil layer in order to prevent seeds and sprouts from taking root. Digging beds falls into the same category. Removing especially harmful plants manually, alas, is also familiar to most summer residents. If we are talking about lawns and flower beds, then this also includes cutting and shaping.
- chemical - treatment of the site with chemically aggressive substances that allow the destruction of unwanted seeds and sprouts. This method is used less often, as it is dangerous for garden crops, but usually gives a more stable result.
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The most effective procedures of this kind include herbicide treatment. However, it is possible to destroy weeds with less dangerous, folk remedies.
Mechanical methods for controlling weeds in the garden
No matter how effective modern chemistry is, weeding and removing plants by hand have been and remain the most popular and used methods of control. Any summer resident, gardener and even the owner of indoor plants, if the latter live on an open balcony, encounters this folk remedy.
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The main tool for the destruction of weeds is the hoe in all its modifications. Also, an ordinary kitchen knife, a narrow scoop with sharp edges, a flat cutter, a rake and slightly more advanced devices like cultivators are used.
Mechanical processing of the site involves the following actions.
- Weeding - the hoe allows you to cut the ground part of the plant and remove the roots. As a rule, weeding is combined with manual labor: it is unrealistic to grab the roots with a hoe, you must do it manually.
Regardless of what folk remedies the summer resident uses to fight weeds, weeding has been and remains a constant procedure in the garden and in the garden. You need to weed the beds at least once every 2-3 weeks from spring to late autumn.
- Digging - held in spring and autumn. In the spring, the root system is dried in this way: digging to a sufficient depth moves the roots of wheatgrass, bindweed, annual grasses to the surface, where they quickly die. In the fall, digging does not allow the seeds to overwinter peacefully in the ground.
- Mulching - the land between cultivated plants - seedlings, is covered with dried bared grass, sawdust, straw or covered with a film, geotextile. The covering blocks access to light and rain, and creates a greenhouse effect on the ground. In this case, the seeds and shoots of weed grass perish. Later, when the cultivated seedlings grow up, the film is removed, and the beds are dug up to remove the remnants of weeds and roots.
Folk remedies for removing weeds on the site - chemical methods: vinegar, salt, alcohol and soda
The use of herbicides is not always justified, not always useful, and in some cases even impossible. Folk remedies may be less effective, but definitely less dangerous.
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Spraying of plants and soil treatment is carried out in dry, calm weather in order to prevent the ingress of solutions on the leaves and stems of cultivated plants. In addition, dampness, especially rain, significantly weakens the effect of the substance, since it reduces its concentration.
- Alcohol - this method has American roots and is considered very effective. Medical alcohol is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 and the resulting solution is treated with the ground between seedlings. 11 liters is enough for processing about 2–2.5 acres. According to the assurances of summer residents, the method eliminates weeds this year.
- Soda - a strong soda solution is used to treat the land around the plants. The liquid has a high alkaline reaction and successfully destroys biological material. The addition of liquid or grated laundry soap enhances the effect of soda.
- Salt - the substance is sprinkled around the plant at some distance from it. Having absorbed into the top layer of the soil, the salt not only destroys the already appeared thistle or wheatgrass, but also does not allow new shoots to appear.
- Vinegar - the tool is most effective until the weeds have entered the stage of seed formation. The weed stems and leaves are treated with the liquid, carefully so that the vinegar does not get on the leaves of the cultivated plant. Use a pump or spray can for this purpose. Several different recipes are used:
- 5 glasses of vinegar (6% solution) are diluted in 2 liters of water. This volume is enough to process 2 acres
- 3 parts vinegar (9% solution) mixed with 1 part lemon juice
- 5 tablespoons of vinegar and 2 tablespoons of salt are dissolved in 1 liter of water. This mixture is used hot, from folk remedies it is considered almost the most effective.
Herbicidal soap - it is prepared as follows: 1 liter of white vinegar and 150 g of kitchen salt are mixed with 1 syringe of liquid soap or with the same volume of grated laundry soap. The solution is shaken until the components are completely dissolved and the land under the weeds is cultivated with it. The maximum effect is achieved when using strong vinegar - 15–20%.
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A one-time treatment allows you to destroy already appeared weeds and slow down the growth of new ones. However, in order to achieve a stable effect, the chemical treatment must be repeated several times at intervals of a week. It is especially important to treat weeds before flowering.
How to get rid of weeds in the garden will help you understand this information.