Tunbergia: planting and care in the open field, types and varieties
Liana Tunbergia (Latin Thunbergia) belongs to the genus of flowering plants of the Acanthus family, natives of the tropics of Africa, Madagascar and southern Asia. There are about two hundred species in the genus. The Tunbergia flower got its scientific name in honor of the Swedish naturalist, researcher of the flora and fauna of Japan and South Africa Karl Peter Thunberg. Thunbergia, or black-eyed Suzanne, as the inhabitants of Europe call her because of the dark purple, almost black eye in the middle of the flower, is grown in culture both as a garden and as a houseplant.
Planting and caring for tunbergia
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in late winter or early spring, transplanting seedlings into the ground - in the second half of May.
- Bloom: copious, mid to late summer.
- Lighting: penumbra.
- The soil: nutritious, well-drained, lime-containing, neutral.
- Watering: moderate, abundant during flowering. In drought, evening spraying is also recommended as necessary.
- Top dressing: once a month with a solution of mineral fertilizer.
- Garter: it is advisable to start the plant along a wire or lattice.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: aphids, whiteflies, spider mites and scale insects.
- Diseases: fungal, due to excessive soil moisture and poor air circulation.
Read more about the cultivation of tunbergia below.
The tunbergia plant can be a liana or shrub with whole heart-shaped or ovate, as well as lobed, opposite leaves with soft pubescence from 2.5 to 10 cm in length, in some species, the edges of the leaves are serrated. Funnel-shaped beautiful flowers of tunbergia up to 4 cm in diameter on long stalks, single or collected in inflorescences, have different colors - white, blue, blue, violet, lilac, purple, yellow, orange or brown. There is even a red tunbergia. In some species and varieties, flowers exude a strong aroma. Tunbergia blooms from July to late September.
In nature, Tunbergia is a perennial plant, but in our climate, cultivation of Tunbergia outdoors as a perennial plant is impossible due to our cold winters, therefore, Tunbergia climbing is cultivated as an annual plant and is often used for vertical gardening, since with support it grows up to two meters in height. But ampelny tunbergia is successfully grown as a perennial in home or greenhouse conditions.
Growing tunbergia from seeds
How to sow seeds
Seed reproduction of tunbergia is carried out in late winter or early spring. The seeds are treated with epin or fumar and sown in a container with moist soil consisting of turf, peat and sand (or leafy earth, sand and humus) in equal proportions, sprinkled with a thin layer of earth, which is carefully moistened. To create a greenhouse effect, the crops are covered with glass or foil and placed on a warm, well-lit windowsill, where direct sunlight does not reach. It is very important to keep the soil slightly damp at all times.
Temperature for successful germination of seeds is 22-24 ºC. If all the conditions are met, the seeds will begin to germinate within a week, and then the coating can be removed.
If the seedlings sprout up densely, then when two true leaves appear, they need to be cut or thinned out, leaving the strongest specimens in the container. When the seedlings reach a height of 12-15 cm, in order to enhance branching, the tops of the seedlings are pinched. If you need a strong and dense green mass, feed the seedlings from the moment of picking once a week with a nitrogen-containing fertilizer, but if you are hoping for lush and long flowering, do not fertilize the seedlings at all. For those who do not want to bother with picking tunbergia, it is better to sow it not in containers or boxes, but in peat cups, three seeds each.
When to plant
When the last spring frosts have passed, it is time to plant seedlings in open ground. Find a shaded and sheltered spot for your tunbergia on the south, east, or west side. Tunbergia soil prefers neutral, nutritious, well-drained, calcareous, therefore, if necessary, add lime to the site for digging in advance.
How to plant
The planting of the tunbergia is carried out in such a way that a distance of 30 to 45 cm is observed between the specimens. Before planting the tunbergia, it is necessary to install supports for it - wires or lattices along which the liana will crawl up or to the sides. After planting, the site is watered. Tunbergia blooms from seeds usually one hundred days after pinching.
Caring for tunbergia is simple. Watering the plant should be moderate, and from the beginning of flowering, watering should become abundant, otherwise the tunbergia will begin to shed not only the buds, but also the leaves. In dry summers, the plant will respond gratefully to spraying with water in the evening. Mandatory feeding is carried out during the budding period, and throughout the spring-summer season, tunbergia is fertilized monthly with liquid mineral fertilizers, observing the golden rule: everything is good in moderation. Remove weak shoots and wilted flowers, direct the tunbergia in the right direction in time.
As you can see, planting and caring for Tunbergia can be done even by a beginner.
Pests and diseases
Most often, tunbergia is oppressed by spider mites, scale insects and whiteflies, sometimes it suffers from aphids. All these pests are destroyed by spraying the plant with drugs such as actellik and fitoverm, and the break between treatment sessions, which can be no more than four, is a week and a half. Sometimes tunbergia suffers from fungal diseases, which are treated with fungicides, the affected leaves and flowers should be removed.
It may happen that mold appears on the stems, shoots and leaves of the tunbergia, this indicates that you have overdone the watering. And rarely growing foliage suggests that you have chosen a too shady place for the tunbergia - it does not have enough light.
Thunbergia after flowering
How and when to collect seeds
When the flowering of tunbergia is complete, instead of flowers, fruit-boxes with seeds are formed on it, and they need to be collected until they open and the contents do not wake up on the ground. Indoors, the boxes are opened, the seeds are poured onto paper and dried, and then stored in paper bags or cardboard boxes. Tunbergia seeds do not lose their germination for two years.
Thunbergia in winter
The liana that you grew in the open field will be disposed of in the fall, since it will not survive our winter, even the warmest one. But if you grew tunbergia in a large pot or in a tub, then cut off all the shoots for the winter, leaving 4-5 buds on each, treat the sections with a potassium permanganate solution, bring the plant into the house, put it in a cool place where the temperature is not higher than 15 ºC, and let it wait there for spring, and from time to time you will only have to slightly moisten the top layer of soil in the pot.
Types and varieties
The cultivated tunbergia species are divided into shrubs and vines. Thunbergia vines are represented by the following types:
Winged thunbergia (Thunbergia alata)
The same black-eyed Suzanne, which was described above. The cultivation of winged tunbergia was the basis for the chapter on caring for tunbergia. Winged tunbergia blooms in August-September. In culture - since 1823. Varieties:
- Susie's Tunbergia - variety series with flowers of different colors: Susi Weib mit Auge - white tunbergia, Susi Orange mit Auge - with bright orange flowers, Susi Gelb mit Auge - with yellow flowers;
- African Sunset - terracotta tunbergia, blooming throughout the summer;
- Tunbergia Gregor - a group consisting of 15 varieties of all shades of orange, which do not have an eye in the middle of the flower, but this does not make them look less attractive;
Thunbergia grandiflora, Thunbergia grandiflora, Blue Thunbergia
A powerful herbaceous plant native to India with climbing shoots, broad-oval bright green leaves, reaching a length of 15-20 cm, with large teeth at the edges and pubescence on the underside of the leaf plate. Blue or purple flowers up to eight centimeters in diameter with a white spot in the throat are collected in racemose few-flowered inflorescences;
Evergreen vine from Australia and Southeast Asia, reaching a length of six meters. Its leaves are opposite, ovate, with a pointed tip, dark green on the upper side of the plate and light green with a white median vein below. White large single flowers, wide open, up to 5 cm in diameter, with two bracts, have a pleasant aroma;
With wide leaves, blue flowers with a clearly visible mesh along the petals.
In addition to those listed in the culture, such tunbergia-lianas are also grown: laurel, related, Mizoren.
Of the shrub species, erect tunbergia, Natal, Vogel are cultivated.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Acanthus
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Shrub Information
- Information about Vines
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Flowering Shrubs Acanthus Lianas Plants on T
Crocosmia: planting and care in the open field
Crocosmia is a genus of herbaceous bulbous perennials of the Iris family, growing in southern Africa. The name of the plant has 2 Greek roots - crocos (crocus, saffron) and osme (aroma), since dried crocosmia flowers really smell of a famous oriental spice. Many gardeners know the bright beauty under the name "montbrecia", received in honor of the French botanist Antoine François Ernest Cockbert de Montbret. And not everyone knows that for the spreading shape of paniculate inflorescences crocosmia in Europe is sometimes called tritonia (from the Greek "triton" - weather vane).
Crocosmia is the closest relative of such beloved decorative cultures as irises and gladioli, but it differs from its majestic brothers in elegance and refinement of lines. Tubular African flowers, collected in panicles, are unusually beautiful - painted in warm colors, they flash like bright stars against the background of dense green of xiphoid leaves. It is not surprising that once only noble people could admire this spectacle. Today crocosmia is no longer considered an exotic wonder, which means that anyone can grow it on their own.
There are a large number of species and varieties of anemones, while some of them are unpretentious to growing conditions, while others, on the contrary, should be provided with special care. And the thing is that some species are tuberous, while others are rhizome. It is the rhizome species that are distinguished by their unpretentiousness and ease of care, while the tuberous ones can suffer greatly if they are not properly looked after. There are several features of growing such a flower that you need to know:
- In dry and very hot weather, they must be watered.
- In autumn, flowers should be fed with complex mineral fertilizers, and organic matter should be introduced into the soil before planting and in the process of active growth or flowering.
- To prevent the plants from freezing, in winter they should be covered with a layer of fallen leaves.
- The easiest way to propagate this plant is by seeds, while they are sown before winter, or by root suckers in spring.
6 types and varieties of tunbergia with photos and descriptions
There are a huge number of varieties of tunbergia. Consider the characteristics of those that are suitable for breeding in the weather conditions of Russia:
Reaches 2 m.The diameter of the buds can be 3 cm.According to the reviews of flower growers, the best varieties are Black-eyed Suzanne, Gregora, Yuzhanka, July Mosaic, Suzy White, Orange and Yellow, Express, Orange Cascade, King's Mantle, Minstrel. Flowers can be of different colors.
View with large blue or lilac petals. Flowers can be up to 75 mm in length and width. Usually located in drooping hands, but can be solitary. Fragrant with snow-white buds. They open in the morning and close at night. It can be up to 5 cm in circumference, exude a sweet smell.
Mizoren or Mysore
It differs from other species. It has yellow-red variegated petals (bicolor). Reaches a length of 5 m. The flowers are tubular.
Variety with pale lilac, bluish flowers. Its extract has medicinal properties. Read about its properties below.
View with light purple buds (Erekta). It is not a liana, but a branched shrub that grows up to 1.2 m.Shoots need support as they develop.
With deep blue petals. This species is similar to Upright Tunbergia, but differs in shade of buds and larger leaves.
Note! Many varieties of Winged Tunbergia are grown not only in the open field, but also indoors in pots or in hanging pots. This plant will be an excellent option for landscaping a balcony or loggia.
I do sanitary pruning of hydrangeas, regardless of the species, in the spring.
- I remove thin, broken, inward-facing branches that cross and interfere with each other, leaving stronger ones.
- At the same time, I do a rejuvenating pruning, removing very old branches at ground level.
- As in all other bushes, I cover the finger cuts with garden pitch.
I cut the inflorescences in the fall so that the branches do not break under the weight of the snow-covered inflorescences. You can leave pruning until spring, as in winter bushes with inflorescences, covered with snow, create a fairy-tale atmosphere.
Tree hydrangea you can not cut it, just thin out too thick bushes. But then its decorativeness falls, the inflorescences become smaller, long branches break under the weight of flowers. To obtain large inflorescences, formative pruning is needed.
I prune hydrangeas every spring after swelling of the buds, at the beginning of May I make the branches of different lengths.
- I cut off old branches to 10 cm.
- The rest are up to 4-5 buds from the ground.
- Some only shorten to the first strong bud from the top of the bush. It seems to me that this increases the decorative effect of the shrub. Flowering will be early, the bush is lush, although the inflorescences are smaller.
Panicle hydrangea I prune every spring, shortening all the shoots by 15 cm. In addition, I form skeletal branches so that each strong branch has no more than two branches. I shape it like a tree. Many people prune the panicle hydrangea for 1-2 buds. But I want to see a powerful bush, and since we may not have summer, I'm afraid that the hydrangea will not have time to grow and bloom. The only thing that seems to me to be done is, after the buds begin to grow, pluck out the extra young shoots that thicken the bush.
Have garden hydrangea flower buds are located at the top, at the ends of the shoots, so it is not cut off. Do only sanitary pruning, removing broken and frozen shoots.