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Grafting

Grafting


Question: I graft

I have a Cercis Silliquastrum "ALBA", which I don't like at all, is it possible to graft it with other varieties of colored Cercis? and if so, which type of graft is the most suitable?

Thank you


Answer: Graft

Dear user, welcome to the section of our website dedicated to questions from our readers. Cercis siliquastrum, also known more commonly as the Judas tree, is a small shrub that sheds its leaves before winter and forms very numerous purple flowers before the leaves appear on old branches. Cercis siliquastrum is recognizable, as well as for the beautiful flowering in the months of April-May, for its round kidney-shaped and heart-shaped leaves and for the seed pods (the plant is a legume) rich in legumes, flattened and hanging that remain on the plant all year round.

As far as grafting is concerned, it is certainly possible to make one on another Cercis plant of a different variety and we recommend that you make a split graft or a bud or scudetto graft during the month of August. To obtain a good result, the split graft must be performed in February-March, before the vegetative restart of the plant and the emission of flowers and leaves.




Grafting, a practice to be performed with care and good dexterity

L'grafting it represents a customary and extremely important practice used in crops to improve the characteristics of a certain variety of plants, to improve their resistance to climatic adversities or to fungal and parasitic attacks.

Practicing a graft is quite simple, it only requires a little knowledge in selecting the plant that will host the graft, a little manual skills and some simple tools such as the grafting knife.

But let's see how and when a graft is performed and what are the advantages.


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All types of grafting

There are various types of grafting and it is important to make the right one for the plant. Let's see what the types of grafting are

A gem

The bud grafts are practiced using the buds of the branches of the plant.
In practice, the buds are grafted onto the branches of the rootstock plant: they are usually placed in the center of the branch or at the foot.
This technique is used in particular for fruit trees, and is among the simplest and most effective types of grafting.

It varies according to the period in which it is carried out.

  • Grafting with vegetative bud if done in early spring. Buds are used that have been taken from cut branches during vegetative rest and mostly stored in the refrigerator. How is it practiced? The courting is incised with the grafting knife - a transverse and a longitudinal cut in order to form a T - the buds are detached from the preserved branches to be grafted one by one with a portion of adherent bark and are inserted into the first remaining clearly visible.
  • Dormant bud grafting is carried out at the end of summer, keeping the leaf petiole attached to the bud in order to control rooting: if the petiole detaches by itself, it means that the graft is successful.
  • Zufolo grafting can be performed in spring or late summer, depending on the plant on which you are working. It is carried out with a special grafting tool with which the bud to be grafted is obtained by making two parallel transverse cuts above and below the bud three or four centimeters from each other, joined later by a vertical cut. The same operation is carried out on the rootstock, thus obtaining a bark cylinder of the same width as the bud to be grafted. At this point the bark cylinder with the bud is inserted on the rootstock, it is tied with raffia and, after two or three weeks, it is cut to avoid bottlenecks.
  • Patch graft. Three incisions are made on the rootstock, one upper transverse and two longitudinal ones, in order to create a rectangular surface. Starting from the transverse incision, the bark is pulled downwards for a stretch equal to the extension of the longitudinal cuts, then the piece is inserted so that it fits perfectly with the incisions made on the rootstock and the raffia is tied.

A scion

Scion grafts differ from bud grafts because the part to be grafted is composed of a branch containing two or three buds. They can be split grafts up to crown grafts.

  • English split graft: it is an effective and safe technique. It is important to have two seedlings. In simple English split grafts, the diameter of the scion and the surface of the rootstock must coincide perfectly.
  • Crown graft. It is a type of graft that has a high chance of taking root, especially for citrus plants. It consists in making cuts at the edges of the rootstock surface. In these spaces will be inserted at least three slips with two buds, which will form a kind of crown that surrounds the circular surface of the mother plant.

Approximation graft

Grafting by standard approximation is essentially the method by which reinvigoration grafts are performed. It is considered a false graft: the two branches are chosen, two identical incisions are made and approached by joining them together. The 2 wounds must match perfectly and the operation ends with a tight ligature.


Main types: split and crown graft

The types of grafting are many and different. However, two types of grafting are mainly used for fruit trees:

- Split graft The common split graft consists of cutting the base of a tree one meter from the ground horizontally, then making a cut perpendicular to the first on the diameter line of the crown. To prevent the rootstock trunk from splitting, a tight rope is tied around the circumference while cutting. By defining the tip of the scions with a knife (from one or two sides) that is inserted into the cleft, they will fit perfectly into the trunk. The exact insertion points are the most extreme of the diameter, making sure that the bark of the scion matches that of the rootstock.

- Crown graft This other technique, which requires less precision than the previous one, is performed by making a vertical cut at the level of the bark, making it possible to open a space between it and the bill area. The scions are inserted in this space, after having pointed and sharpened them on one side. The debarked part of the scion must coincide with the change of the rootstock.

To ensure these types of grafting, an insulating tape or a rubber wire should be tightened around the trunk, at the level of the gap. The surface of the living wood and the graft should instead be covered with plenty of specific mastic for grafting.


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How to graft correctly: times and methods

The grafts should preferably be performed in falling moon. The best thing would be to take the scions, that is the branches of the plant to be reproduced, on the same day in which the technique is performed, otherwise alternatively they must be stored in a dark, cool and with sufficient humidity. The slips, to one day produce fruit, they must be taken from healthy and already productive plants, be developed for at least a year and have two or three buds on them. If the split or crown grafting has been successful and the plants are similar to each other, in a few weeks the scions will be full of buds ready to bloom. Proper pruning will do the rest, ensuring regular, quality fruit production.

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Crown graft: what it is, how to do it, when

Crown grafting is widely used for the vegetative multiplication of plants. In this article, we will try to explain, step by step, how to do it best.

With the crown graft, fruit plants can be propagated in an agamic way. In practice, two portions of two different plants are combined to create a single individual. This type of graft it is very useful, in particular, to multiply woody plants.

It is more rarely used on herbaceous plants. In general, grafting is a technique that allows plants to be multiplied: two vegetative parts, coming from different individuals, are joined. The resulting individual is called bimember. Every where, called bionte, will have its role: a part will bring the root system (rootstock-subject), the other part will provide the epigeal part (object).

The graft usually takes place with two blondes. Sometimes, however, it is also possible to obtain a graft consisting of three different parts, in this case, grafting-re-grafting. The latter is used only in some cases.

For example, to ensure vascular continuity, overcoming the difference between the parts. As for the re-grafting it can be used in order to give new life to a plant to create new varieties. It is mainly used for fruit trees such as: apricot, cherry, almond, plum.

Crown grafting is part of what are called scion grafts. The scion is that portion of the branch that makes the buds. It is a simple technique to perform, even for those who are less experienced. Are you a floriculturist, a gardener or a simple enthusiast? This article will help you put the crown graft into practice and get to know him better.


What is grafting

The graft is one technique used for agamic multiplication of plants which occurs thanks to the anatomical and physiological union of two different subjects, which are respectively:

  • the rootstock that is the base of the plant
  • the nesto called scion, which represents the aerial part.

In a traditional graft, the two elements must be prepared and taken root, so that they weld together to give life to an independent tree, which will be the result of their union.

The plants that are born from a graft we can call them bimembri plants, each element is a bionte. The fusion takes place thanks to the callus that forms between the two engraved surfaces.

Meaning of the word

The word Graft means to weld: it is a question of attaching a portion of the graft represented by a branch part to the rootstock. The method is used in particular in floriculture, gardening and fruit growing.

How it happens

The success of the graft will depend on the precision with which the technique is performed, creating perfectly identical cuts of the graft and rootstock at the right time of the year. The union generally takes place between two parties or bionts:

  • the lower bionte called rootstock which is the base and represents the root system responsible for the main vital functions from rooting to the ability to find nutrients and water from the soil. It can be frank if it is obtained by seed or clonal if it is obtained by cutting.
  • the scion is the upper bionte, from the stem to the crown, and therefore determines the type of fruit that will be produced by the tree. Being the scion bearer of the fruit variety, it means that the appearance and organoleptic qualities of the crop depend on its choice. The graft largely determines many other important factors in the orchard, such as resistance to parasites, periods of fruiting and pollination.
Grafting requires special tools

The choice of rootstock

The choice of the rootstock is crucial to characterize in the future plant:

  • the tree's ability to adapt to certain soils and to withstand drought or humid conditions
  • disease resistance
  • the flowering period.

  • 1 Description and use
  • 2 Functions
  • 3 Influences between bionts and conditions of engraftment
  • 4 Types of grafting
    • 4.1 Grafts by approximation
    • 4.2 Bud grafts
    • 4.3 Graft grafts
    • 4.4 Other grafts
    • 4.5 Special grafts
  • 5 Special cases
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 Bibliography
  • 8 Related items
  • 9 Other projects
  • 10 External links

The grafting consists in welding on the rootstock a part of the plant of the graft, represented by a portion of a branch or a bud, in the latter case called "eye" or "shield". In this way, a single plant formed by two different portions is obtained. The histological fusion takes place thanks to the callus that forms between the two cut surfaces, precisely where the meristems of bills meet.

In floriculture, gardening and fruit growing, grafting is widely adopted for the multiplication of woody plants, rarely for herbaceous ones. The success of the graft depends on a perfect technique, which consists in creating cuts of the graft and the rootstock as much as possible the same or sometimes perfectly coinciding (as in the case of the English double cleft graft) in the right period (usually in spring or at the end of the summer, when the plants are "sucking"). The cuts are usually made using a special tool, the grafting knife.

The functions of the graft are manifold. In addition to being a widely used agamic propagation system, grafting is used, especially in fruit growing, for these reasons:

  • re-graft an arboretum to replace one cultivar outdated or to introduce one, old or new, preferable to the present one. In this case the graft is proposed as an alternative to the removal and replanting of the arboretum
  • regulate development, longevity, earliness: the rootstock is able to transmit specific physiological and phenological characteristics to the graft. The choice of rootstock affects the vigor, limiting the development of the aerial part (dwarf rootstocks) or strengthening it, the longevity of the cultivar and, finally, the earliness of production, anticipating or delaying the flowering period
  • adapt one cultivar to particular soil and climatic conditions: plant species and varieties have different sensitivities to certain physical and chemical properties of the soil (texture, limestone content, drought, etc.) the grafting of a sensitive cultivar on a species or variety less sensitive allows to adapt it to specific conditions. Similar considerations can be made for climate adaptation
  • resistance to parasites, diseases and pests: the use of rootstocks resistant to particular adversities allows to avoid attacks on the root systems or to contain their effects. The most striking example is the fight against the phylloxera of the vine by grafting European vines on American rootstocks more resistant to the phytophagus.
  • detect virosis and heal infected material: grafting on indicator plants is one of the means adopted to diagnose the presence of a virus. In micropropagation, the micrograft technique is also used to heal virosis, as the meristematic and embryonic tissues are not yet infected by the virus.
  • introduction of pollinators: in arboretums where pollination is noted, a certain number of plants can be re-grafted with cultivar which have a pollinating function
  • correct the skeletal structure of the plant: the graft can be used to correct defects in the development of the branches in the parts that are deficient for various causes.
  • some clones of many species (arboreal and not) present difficulties in rooting, so that grafting is the only method of propagation.

The rootstock and the scion mutually influence each other in functional characteristics, although the influence of the scion on the rootstock is less evident as it has an effect on the root system. The engraftment of the graft varies according to multiple factors.

  • Polarity. As in the cuttings and in the offshoot, the natural polarity must also be respected in the grafting. The scion must not be overturned from its natural position.
  • Environmental conditions. A graft, to take root, requires temperatures of 25-30 ° C, to stimulate the formation of the callus, and high humidity to avoid dehydration of the same. For this reason, conditioning techniques are adopted that fall within the practice of "forcing".
  • Manual skills and choice of suitable material. To practice the graft, suitable tools and materials are used. The cuts must be clean, made with sharp tools, and there must be perfect contact between the bills of the blonde.
  • Affinity. The grafted plants must be physiologically similar or must not show reciprocal incompatibility. The graft affinity is often configured with the phylogenetic relationship, or with the degree of kinship under the botanical aspect, however this "rule" has various exceptions. The most effective grafts are those between plants of different varieties belonging to the same species. Grafts between different species can also be performed (for example the pear tree on quince), while the possible grafts between plants belonging to increasingly distant systematic categories are much rarer. In general, grafts between plants belonging to different families are not possible. The "graft disaffinity" manifests itself with various symptoms, such as difficult engraftment, slow healing, the formation of hyperplasia, the fragility of the graft point, the accumulation of starch above the graft point, the formation of tille in the vessels, cell necrosis, cork formation, deviation of lymphatic and phloemic vessels, leaf redness and phylloptosis, stunted development and reduced longevity.

We can distinguish four types of graft disaffinities:

  • total disaffinity: it manifests itself immediately during the welding process, where the formation of the cambiform does not occur
  • delayed disaffinity with discontinuity of the tissues: the change is discontinuous due to the production of parenchyma instead of the xylem, a process that hinders the passage of nutrients this disaffinity can be overcome through the interposition of an intermediary
  • delayed disaffinity without discontinuity of the tissues: it does not manifest itself with anomalies in the tissues in the vicinity of the graft area, but over time has a degeneration of the phloem, which causes a decrease in the passage of nutrients that cannot be overcome by the use of intermediaries. It occurs when, after grafting, the cambium is discontinuous due to the production of parenchyma instead of the xylem or if it has a degeneration of the phloem over time, which causes a decrease in the passage of nutrients. It leads to the deterioration of the plant, which can be progressive or can occur with sudden collapses, or to the rupture of the graft point
  • disaffinity induced by pathogens: this too cannot be overcome, due to the presence of viruses and mycoplasmas ("tristeza" of citrus fruits, cherry leaf curling virus).

There are several theories about the cause of disaffinity:

  • according to the Yeoman model, an exchange of recognition proteins takes place at the level of the plasma membranes of the two bionts, which stimulate or not the transcription for the formation of new tissues.
  • according to Moore's model this process is instead determined by the auxin flow and by the pressure present inside the scar tissue
  • there are also numerous substances that interfere with the union between the two bionts: for example, the "prunasin" present in the quince and the "amygdalin" present in the almond tree, if transferred to the graft (pear and peach tree), undergo processes of hydrolyzation leading to the formation of toxic compounds

Grafts by approximation Edit

Grafts by approximation are rarely used, even if they favor the rooting of some cultivars, which are difficult to graft. Today it is used in orchards to "tie" the plants together and give them greater stability. They can be of two types:

  • Simple approximation: a 2–5 cm portion of bark is removed from a branch of the rootstock and from the branch of the scion, the bionts unite and then bind. After taking root, the crown of the subject is removed above the graft and the base of the scion under the graft.
  • Approximation to inlay: Similarly to the previous one, the bark is removed, plus a part of wood.

Bud Grafts Edit

Bud grafts are very popular in fruit growing because they have a high probability of taking root. The graft consists of a gem with bark and a wooden shield behind it. Bud grafts can be:

  • "eye" or "scudetto": it is very popular in the nursery. The graft consists of a bud taken from vigorous and well lignified branches. The rootstock, especially if made up of plants from cuttings or seeds, must have a minimum diameter. The bark is engraved with two cuts, one vertical, one horizontal to form a T. The two formed edges are lifted and the shield is inserted, finally it is tied with raffia or other and covered with mastic.
  • "double shield", like the previous one, except that a third bionte in the shape of a shield is interposed between the graft and the rootstock. This grafting is fundamental in fruit growing, in fact it serves to eliminate the problems of disaffinity between the two main bionts by inserting this shield similar to both, thus constituting a "bridge" between the graft and the graft holder. A case of use of this graft is between the pear cv kaiser and the quince, which are disagree, but by inserting a cv similar to both, this problem is eliminated.
  • "by piece or piece": Graft used mainly on olive, walnut and khaki, it is performed when the plant is in suck, both with dormant bud and with vegetating bud. It differs from the shield because the gem is surrounded by a portion of quadrangular bark of the same size as the removed bark in which the gem will have to be inserted.
  • "zufolo": variant of the previous one with the graft formed by the entire ring of bark bearing the gem, making the longitudinal cut on the opposite side of the gem.

There are also the "Mallorcan" graft and the chip budding or "splinter".

Shear Grafts Modification

They are common grafts in fruit growing. They are characterized by the use of one or more slips consisting of portions of one-year branches bearing 2-3 buds. They can be of various types:

  • "joint splitting": grafting is done at the end of winter, with the gearbox not yet in operation. The subject is topped off and a diametrical slit of a few centimeters is opened. The scion, about ten centimeters long, will have the lower part cut into a wedge, which will be inserted into the cleft of the rootstock. If the diameter of the rootstock is much greater than that of the scion, 2 or 3 scions can also be inserted in the same cleft, with the precaution, however, that the two external ones must have an irregular wedge, with the exposed part towards the center, shorter than the external one. There are multiple types of split grafting depending on local traditions: English double split grafting used in nurseries, mainly used for the grafting of vines subjected to forcing, but also used on other fruit trees with good results. It is generally practiced on one-year branches. A clean cut at 45 ° is made on the internode of the rootstock. On this cut, starting from the upper 2/3, a second cut is made to descend almost parallel to the previous one, stopping just beyond the half of the branch (A sort of tongue will have formed). The scion formed by a branch of about the same size carrying one or two buds is cut in the same way so as to let the tongue of the scion enter under the tongue of the rootstock. The joint that forms is very stable. If all physiological conditions are met, engraftment is very high. Other grafts are: full cleft and empty cleft graft, pen graft, horse graft, saddle graft.
  • "crown or sub-bark": preferable to split ones for stone fruit, citrus fruits and for the re-grafting of adult plants. It is performed in spring with the plant in vegetation and in sucking so that the bark easily detaches from the cambium. The scion must have firm buds, to do this the scion must be taken in autumn and stored in the refrigerator until


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Video: grafting plum drill. Graft drill